The Law of Pre-Trial Criminal Procedure in Namibia

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The Namibian Constitution entrenches fundamental rights and freedoms, and provides for their vertical and horizontal application in any criminal process. However, since Independence in 1990, Namibia has developed its own criminal jurisprudence. Criminal procedure and law are taking new shape. Namibian courts have pronounced on criminal issues, and legislation has been passed to keep up with the demands, aspirations, spirit, and vision of the Namibian Constitution and its people. CLEVER MAPAURE, NDJODI NDEUNYEMA, PILISANO MASAKE, FESTUS WEYULU and LOIDE SHAPARARA have written an invaluable book that deals with these developments. It explains the rights of individuals, the duties of law enforcement officers, and the procedures of the courts in criminal cases. The Law of Pre-Trial Criminal Procedure in Namibia introduces readers to the fundamental principles and values underlying Namibian criminal law, through a systematic examination of the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Act, 1977 (Act No. 51 of 1977) as amended, which was originally passed by the legislature of South Africa, and still regulates criminal procedure in Namibia, the amendments to it since 1990, and relevant Namibian Case Law. The book captures and discusses the law relating to the pre-trial criminal process in Namibia in detail, from the roles of the prosecutor and the police, search, seizure and forfeiture, interrogation, notices and summons, arrest, court appearance, bail, criminal charges, disclosure, diminished capacity, right to assistance, to pleas and plea-bargaining.

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THE LAW OF PRE-TRIAL CRIMINAL PROCEDURE IN NAMIBIA
Clever Mapaure, Ndjodi M. L. Ndeunyema, Pilisano H. Masake, Festus Weyulu, Loide A. Shaparara
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The Law of Pre-Trial Criminal Procedure in Namibia
University of Namibia Press
Private Bag 13301 Windhoek Namibia www.unam.na unampress@unam.na
© Clever Mapaure, Ndjodi M. L. Ndeunyema, Pilisano H. Masake, Festus Weyulu, Loide A. Shaparara, 2014
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval system or transmitted in any form, or by any means, e.g. electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the author.
First Published: 2014 Cover design: Design and layout: Printed by:
Turipamwe Design
John Meinert Printers, Windhoek
John Meinert Printers, Windhoek
ISBN: 978-99916-42-23-9
Distribution:
In Namibia by Demasius Publications: www.demasius-publications.com
Internationally by the African Books Collective: www.africanbookscollective.com
CONTENTS
Contents
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PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xv 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE NAMIBIAN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM . . . . . . . . .1 1.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1.2 Foundations of the Namibian Criminal Justice System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 1.3 The Constitutional Structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 1.3.1 The Executive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1.1 The President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.3.1.2 Cabinet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.2 The Legislature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.2.1 National Assembly. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3.2.2 National Council . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.2.3 Overview of the law-making process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.3 The Judiciary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.3.3.1 Namibian courts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.3.3.1.1 Supreme Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1.3.3.1.2 High Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1.3.3.1.3 Magistrates’ courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1.3.3.1.4 Community courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2 THE PROSECUTORIAL AUTHORITY AND CONCOMITANT MATTERS . . . . . .33 2.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 2.2 The Prosecutor-General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 2.2.1 History and General Reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.2.2 Cases Concerning the Appointment and Role of the Prosecutor-General in Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.2.2.1Ex parte Attorney-General In re: the Constitutional Relationship between the Attorney-General and the Prosecutor-General. . . . . . 36 2.2.2.2Ekandjo-Imalwa v The Law Society of Namibia and Another; The Law Society of Namibia and Another v The Attorney-General of the Republic of Namibia and Others. . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.2.3 The Prosecution asDominus Litis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 2.2.4 Discretion to Prosecute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.2.5 Delegation of Prosecutorial Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2.2.6 The Appointment of an Acting Prosecutor-General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.3 The Role of a Public Prosecutor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 2.3.1 General Reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.3.2 The Prosecution and the Police. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 2.3.3 The Prosecution and the Accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.3.4 Guidelines on the Role of Prosecutors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.4 Withdrawal and Stopping of Prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 2.5 Trial within Reasonable Time and Release from the Trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 2.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.5.2 Length of Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
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2.5.3 Reasons Given by the State to Justify the Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2.5.4 Responsibility of the Accused for Asserting his Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.5.5 Prejudice to the Accused. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.6 Trial “Within A Reasonable Time” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60 2.6.1 Meaning and Elucidation of Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 2.6.2 Interpretation of “Reasonable Time” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 2.7 Permanent Stay of Criminal Proceedings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 2.7.1 The Constitutional Basis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 2.8 Private Prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 2.8.1 General Reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8.2 Private Prosecution on Certiîcate ofNolle Prosequi(Refusal to Prosecute) 71 2.9 Prescription of the Right to Prosecute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 INTRODUCTION TO THE CRIMINAL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 3.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 3.2 The Relationship between Criminal Law and Criminal Procedure. . . . . . . . . .73 3.3 Relationship Between Criminal And Civil Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 3.4 Sources of Criminal Procedure in Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 3.4.1 The Namibian Constitution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.4.2 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.4.3 International Treaties and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.4.4 Case Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.4.5 Common Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.4.6 Scholarly Authorities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.5 Adversarial and Inquisitorial Criminal Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 3.5.1 Distinguishing Adversarial and Inquisitorial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.5.1.1 The adversarial system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.5.1.2 The inquisitorial system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.5.1.3 General assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.5.2 Commonality and Convergence between Adversarial and Inquisitorial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.5.3 Decoding the Merits and Demerits of the Adversarial and Inquisitorial Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.5.3.1 The contrast between the adversarial and inquisitorial systems 85 3.5.3.2 The contrasting positions of scholars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.5.3.3 Merits and demerits of the adversarial system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.5.3.4 Merits and demerits of the inquisitorial system. . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 3.6 Stages in a Criminal Prosecution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 3.7 Human Rights in the Criminal Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 3.8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92 SEARCH, SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 4.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 4.2 The Right to Privacy in Interrogations, Search and Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 4.2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.2.2 Searches and Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.2.3 The Right to be Left Alone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.2.4 International and Comparative Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4.2.5 Limitation to the Right to Privacy in the Namibian Context . . . . . . . . . . 102 4.2.5.1 Article 21(2): speciîc limitation clause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
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4.2.5.2 Article 22: general limitation clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 4.2.6 Difference from South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 4.3 Search Warrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 4.3.1 Nature of a Search Warrant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.3.2 Brief History on Search and Seizure Warrants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.3.3 The Intelligibility Principle in Regards to Warrant of Search and Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 4.3.4 Issuance and Execution of a Search Warrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 4.3.5 Validity of a Search Warrant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 4.3.6 Reasonable Grounds as a Jurisdictional Fact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 4.3.7 Search without a Warrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.3.7.1 General exposé. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 4.3.7.2 Reasonable belief in searches without a warrant . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4.3.8 Powers of Occupiers of Premises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4.3.9 Search for Purposes of Effecting Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4.3.10 Search of Arrested Persons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 4.3.11 Powers of Routine Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 4.3.12 Powers of Routine Administrative Inspections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 4.3.13 Use of Force in Conducting a Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 4.4 Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 4.4.1 Articles Inclined to Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 4.4.2 Disposal of Articles after Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.2.1 Disposal by a police ofîcer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.2.2 Disposal of article not needed or where no criminal proceedings are instituted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 4.4.2.3 Disposal of article where criminal proceedings are instituted and admission of guilt îne is paid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 4.4.2.4Disposal of article after commencement of criminal proceedings138 4.4.3Onus of Proof under Section 34 of the Criminal Procedure Act. . . . . . . . . . 140 4.4.4 Perishables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 4.5 Forfeiture upon Conviction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 4.6 Search Seizure and Forfeiture under Selected Statutes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146 4.6.1 Abuse of Dependence-Producing Substances and Rehabilitation Centres Act 41 of 1971 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 4.6.2 Animal Diseases and Parasites Act 13 of 1956 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.6.3 Defence Act 1 of 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 4.6.4 Liquor Act 6 of 1998. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 4.6.5 Namibia Central Intelligence Service Act 10 of 1997 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4.6.6 The Inspections of Financial Institutions Act 38 of 1984 . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 4.6.7 Police Act 19 of 1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.6.8 Prevention of Organised Crime Act 29 of 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 4.6.9 Prisons Act 17 of 1998 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 4.6.10 Road Trafîc and Transport Act 22 of 1999. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 WRITTEN NOTICE TO APPEAR AND SUMMONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 5.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 5.2 Written Notice to Appear in Magistrates Courts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 5.2.1 Concept and Rationale of Written Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 5.2.2 Jurisdictional Facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
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5.2.3 What the Notice should Contain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 5.2.4 Who is Qualiîed as a Peace Ofîcer?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 5.2.5 Municipal City Police as Peace Ofîcers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 5.2.6 Failure of Accused to Attend the Hearing after Receiving Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 5.2.7 Where a Minor has been Issued with a Written Notice to Appear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 5.2.8 Failure to Appear on Written Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 5.3 Summons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 5.3.1 Concept of Summons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 5.3.2 Procedure for Issuing Summons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 5.3.3 Contents of Summons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 5.3.4 Issuance of Summons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 5.3.5 Service of Summons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 5.3.6 Consequences for Failure to Appear on Summons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 ARREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 6.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 6.2 Meaning, Purposes and Consequences of Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196 6.3 Requirements for a Lawful Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 6.3.1 Authority to Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 6.3.2 Physical Contact with Arrestee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 6.3.3 Informing the Accused of the Cause and or Reason. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 6.3.4 Correlation between Authority to Arrest and Authority to Detain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 6.4 Arrest with a Warrant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 6.4.1 The Nature and Form of the Warrant of Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 6.4.2 Requirement for “Reasonable Suspicion” in the Issuance of a Warrant of Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 6.4.3 Execution of a Warrant of Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 6.4.4 Right to Silence and Legal Aid on Validity of Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 6.5 Arrest without a Warrant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .212 6.5.1Circumstances under which a Peace Ofîcer may Arrest without a Warrant 213 6.5.2 Elucidation of Principles in Various Factual Perspectives . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 6.6 Authority to Obtain Names and Address of Certain Persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . .216 6.7 Resisting Unlawful Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 6.7.1 Onus of Proof where Unlawfulness of Arrest is Contested . . . . . . . . . . . 218 6.7.2 Discretion and its Impact on Lawfulness or Otherwise of an Arrest . . . . 220 6.7.3 Non-liability for Wrongful Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 6.8 Private Persons to Assist in Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 6.8.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 6.8.2 Powers of Private Person in Case of Arrest Without a Warrant . . . . . . . . 224 6.9 Breaking Open Premises for Purpose of Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 6.10 Use of Force in Effecting Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226 6.10.1 Interpretation of Section 49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 6.10.2 Jurisdictional Facts and Onus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 6.10.3 The Constitutional and International Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 6.10.3.1 Background reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 6.10.3.2 Use of force and limitation of rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
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6.10.3.3Section 49 in the context of Article 21(2) – specific limitation clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 6.10.3.4 Section 49 in the context of Article 22 – general limitation clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 PROCEDURE AFTER ARREST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 7.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 7.2 Modus Operandi Post Arrest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247 7.2.1 Arrestee must be Informed of His or Her Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 7.2.2 Arrestee to be Brought to a Police Station and Detained . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 7.2.3 Detainee to be Brought to Court. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 7.2.4 Handling of Arrested Person. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 7.2.4.1 Recording of facts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 7.2.4.2 Medical treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 7.2.4.3 Search of arrestee and use of restraining measures . . . . . . . . . 252 7.2.4.4 Informing an employer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 7.3 Detention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253 7.3.1 Rights of Detainee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 7.3.1.1 Right not to be subjected to arbitrary detention. . . . . . . . . . . . 254 7.3.1.2 Right to be informed promptly of the reason for detention . . . 254 7.3.1.3 Right to legal representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 7.3.1.4 Right to challenge the lawfulness of detention . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 7.3.1.5 Right to be detained in a habitable environment . . . . . . . . . . . 258 7.3.1.6 Right to communicate with relatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 7.4 The 48-Hour Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 7.4.1 Meaning and Constituent Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 7.4.2 Exceptions to the 48-Hour Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 7.4.3 The Value of 36-Hour Standing Order Rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 7.5 Summation of the Principles Regarding Article 11(3) of the Constitution and Section 50 of the Act . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 7.6 Release During the 48-Hour Time Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 7.7 Accused Escaping Lawful Custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 BAIL AND OTHER FORMS OF PRE-TRIAL RELEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 8.2 Bail Jurisprudence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268 8.2.1 Models of the Bail System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 8.3 Historical Background of Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 8.4 Nature and Purpose of Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272 8.5 Urgency of Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 8.5.1 Onus of Proof in Bail Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 8.6 Types of Bail Applications and their Procedural Rules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 8.6.1 The Bail Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 8.6.2 General Manner of Hearing Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 8.6.3 Bail before First Appearance in a Lower Court (Police Bail) . . . . . . . . . 282 8.6.4 Bail Hearing in Court . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 8.6.4.1 Background reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 8.6.5 Issues to be Considered in Bail Hearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 8.6.5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287
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8.6.5.2Was it more likely that the accused would stand his trial or was it more likely that he would abscond and forfeit his bail? 288 8.6.5.3 How prejudicial might it be for the accused in all the circumstances to be kept in custody by being denied bail?. . 289 8.6.5.4 Likelihood that the accused, if he or she were released on bail, will attempt to evade his or her trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 8.6.5.5 Likelihood that the accused, if he or she were released on bail, would endanger the safety of the public . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 8.6.5.6 Likelihood that the accused, if he or she were released on bail, would attempt to inuence or intimidate or jeopardisethe proper functioning of the criminal justice system . . . . . . . 293 8.6.6 Bail Application Outside Normal Court Hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 8.6.7 Absence of Prosecutor for the Bail Hearing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 8.6.8 Determination of the Amount of Bail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 8.6.9 Legal Representation for Purposes of Bail Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 8.6.10 Bail Conditions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 8.6.11 Rights of Complainant in Bail Application where Accused is Charged with Rape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 8.6.12 Evidential Rules during Bail Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 8.6.12.1 General reections. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 8.6.12.2 Hearsay evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 8.6.12.3 Opinion evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 8.6.12.4 Similar fact evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 8.6.12.5 Character evidence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 8.6.13 Cancellation of Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 8.6.14 Forfeiture and Remission of Bail Money . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 8.7 Bail Pending Appeal, Review and Petition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311 8.7.1 Bail Pending Appeal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 8.7.2 Bail Pending Petition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 8.7.3 Bail Pending Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313 8.7.4 Appeals for the Granting or Refusal of Bail. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 8.8 Alternative Forms of Releases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 8.8.1 Juvenile may be Placed in Place of Safety In Lieu of Release on Bail or Detention in Custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 8.8.2 Accused may be Released on Warning In Lieu of Bail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 THE CRIMINAL CHARGE OR INDICTMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 9.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 9.2 Deînition of the Charge, Charge Sheet or Indictment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 9.3 The Requirements and Purpose of a Charge or Indictment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318 9.4 Responsibility for Drafting a Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 9.5 The Essentials of the Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .321 9.6 Improper Splitting of Charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325 9.7 Accused’s Rights after Receipt of the Charge/Indictment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330 9.7.1 Need for Precision and Clarity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 9.7.2 Examination of the Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 9.7.3 Objection to Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
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9.7.4 Amendment of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 9.7.5 Considerations Before Allowing an Amendment of a Charge . . . . . . . . . 336 9.7.6 Request for Further Particulars. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 9.7.7 Applications for and the Quashing of the Charges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 9.8 Proof of any Exception, Exemption, Proviso, Excuse or Qualiîcationin a Charge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345 DISCLOSURE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 10.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .347 10.2 The Meaning of Disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 10.3 Docket Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .349 10.4 Pre-1990: Audition by Ambush in the Name of Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .350 10.4.1 Docket Privilege . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 10.4.2 Privilege not Absolute. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 10.5 Constitutional Criminal Procedural Provisions – Final Nail in the “Blanket Privilege” Cofîn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 10.5.1 General Principles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354 10.5.2 Prosecution Mandatory Pre-Trial Disclosure under the Constitution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 10.6 Exceptions to Disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361 10.7 Consequences of Failure to Disclose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363 10.8 Request for Further Particulars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365 10.9 New Envisaged Position Regarding Disclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366 10.9.1 Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 10.9.2 A New Criminal Code Covering the Gaps: A Step Further in the New Constitutional Dispensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 10.9.3 Defence Disclosure, a New Feature Once Unheard of. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 10.9.4 Constitutionality of Defence Disclosure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 10.9.4.1 Arguments pointing to unconstitutionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 10.9.4.2 Arguments pointing to constitutionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370 ACCUSED’S CAPACITY TO UNDERSTAND PROCEEDINGS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373 11.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373 11.2 Mental Illness in Criminal Proceedings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374 11.3 Fitness to Stand Trial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374 11.4 Mental Illness or Defect and Criminal Responsibility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379 11.5 Diminished Criminal Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382 11.6 Panel for Purposes of Enquiry and the 30-Day Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385 11.7 The Therapeutic State and the Inappropriateness of Criminal Procedure and Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386 ASSISTANCE TO THE ACCUSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 12.1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 12.2 Defensive Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390 12.2.1 Right to be Informed of Right to Legal Representation at Arrest. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 12.2.2 Right to be Informed in Terms of Judges’ Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 391 12.2.2.1 The Judges’ Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 392 12.2.2.2 The current position on the Judges’ Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394