Decentralization in Cameroon

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With ohter works dedicated to the issue, this word is a short introduction to decentralization/regionalization in Cameroon. It helps situating the decentralization process in the Cameroonian way, describing through a brief historical background current sources, community types, competence devolution rules, governance framework and supervision rules, and highlights the various situations existing on the field.

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Publié par
Date de parution 01 mars 2012
Nombre de lectures 27
EAN13 9782296484573
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

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DECENTRALIZATION INCAMEROON
Droits africains et malgacheCollection dirigée par Magloire ONDOA La collection « Droits africains et malgache » accueille les travaux de chercheurs, enseignants et étudiants, ou praticiens, soucieux de contribuer à cette œuvre de réconciliation du droit en vigueur avec le droit étudié, d’une part ; de l’autre, d’élimination de la distance séparant les citoyens africains de leurs droits vivants, c’est-à-dire, ceux qui leur sont effectivement appliqués.Déjà parus Jacques BIAKAN,Droit des marchés publics au Cameroun. Contribution à l’étude des contrats publics, 2011. Jean GATSI,Le droit OHADA des sociétés coopératives, 2011. Gustave NGUEDA NDIEFOUO,La douane camerounaise à l’ère de la facilitation des échanges commerciaux, 2011. Joseph OWONA,Le contentieux administratif de la République du Cameroun, 2011. Joseph OWONA,La décentralisation camerounaise, 2011. Joseph OWONA,Droit de la fonction publique camerounaise, 2011. Anicet ABAN ATANGANA,Administration fiscale et contribuable au Cameroun, 2010.
Joseph Owona
DECENTRALIZATION INCAMEROON
Preface by Marafa Hamidou Yaya
FROM THE AUTHOR Joseph OWONAetNJOH MOUELLE Ebénézer,Encyclopédie de la République Unie du Cameroun(4 tomes), Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, Dakar Abidjan, 1981. Joseph OWONAetSIKHE Camara,sous-direction PF GONIDEC. Encyclopédie Juridique de l’Afrique, Tome II, Droit International et Relations Internationales, Nouvelles Éditions Africaines, Dakar Abidjan, 1982. Joseph OWONA,Droit constitutionnel et Régimes politiques africains, Manuels B.L. 3, Mondes en devenir, Berger Levrault, Paris, Mars 1985. Joseph OWONA,La Nouvelle voie chinoise ou l’air pur du soir, Mondes en devenir XXIX, Points chauds 14, Berger Levrault, Paris, Mars 1986. Joseph OWONA,La République populaire démocratique de Corée, Mondes en devenir LIV, Points chauds 14, Berger Levrault, Paris, Mars 1987. Joseph OWONA,Droit Administratif spécial de la République du Cameroun, EDICEF, Série Manuels et Travaux de l’Université de Yaoundé, 1985. Joseph OWONA,Aperçu sur les principes élémentaires du Droit International contemporain,Travaux de recherches de l’Université de Yaoundé, 1986. Joseph OWONA,Droits constitutionnels et institutions politiques du monde contemporain : étude comparative, L’Harmattan, Paris, Septembre 2010. © L’Harmattan, 2012 5-7, rue de l’Ecole-Polytechnique, 75005 Paris http://www.librairieharmattan.com diffusion.harmattan@wanadoo.fr harmattan1@wanadoo.fr ISBN : 978-2-296-96468-6 EAN : 9782296964686
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I would like to address my special thanks to a generation of shadow workers whose typing, revision and formatting helped shape up the present work in its didactic core. I think most especially ofSylvestre GWET MATIP, an environmentalist, fundamentalist of biology, and Berthine NSEOUGMOE, of the J.O International Consulting firm.
PREFACE
The important constitutional reform of 18 January 1996 makes of our country a decentralized unitary state. Since then and under the enlightened leadership of the President of the Republic, His Excellency Paul Biya, our democratization process has been methodical, rational and progressive.That is why after the first three laws on decentralization of 22 July, 2004, the legal and regulatory arsenal governing this process has constantly been on the rise.Since 2010, the State has, through nine ministries, decided to transfer certain jurisdictions and resources relating to urban councils and councils.Our model of decentralization as implemented is an in-depth reform of our State. It is a major option of the Greater Ambitions Policy of the Head of State. This policy calls on all social actors for its successful implementation.It is in this light that we should mention the contribution of Professor Joseph OWONA. An eminent authority on Public law and a senior State official with proven experience in the management of public assets, the author of: Local and RegionalDecentralization in Cameroon Authoritiesprovides a clearer reading of the stakes of decentralization in our context.The external experiences presented, the history and the updating of Cameroon’sprocess are pertinent facts for which credit decentralization should be given to Professor Joseph OWONA.This is a citizen-oriented initiative which the ministry of Territorial Administration and Decentralization appreciates.Given that our decentralization process is participatory and open to everyone, Professor OWONA’s book will obviously helpthose theoreticians, practitioners and other social actors who desire to have a full and objective grasp of the said process.The Minister of Territorial Administration and Decentralization MARAFA HAMIDOU YAYA.
INTRODUCTION
I- DECENTRALIZATION AND DECONGESTION AS SEPARATE CONCEPTS
I.1- DECONGESTION Decongestion is a method of internal organisation of the centralized power of the State. The State decides to appoint workers submissive to the central government at the peripheries who take decisions in its stead. There is a spatial movement of State employees who are subject to Central government.
I.2- DECENTRALIZATION Decentralization is a method of organisation of the administrative arm of government in which the State creates decentralized public entities and grants them jurisdiction and resources while preserving the supervisory and monitoring power.It is a means of developing democracy and specifically local democracy, closer to the citizens.Decentralization comes with an institutionalization of administrative and financial control.
I.2.1- Instances of decentralization a. FranceLaw n° 82/213 of 23 march 1982 and subsequent laws instituted 1 territorial decentralization in France to the advantage of the region . The region is governed by 3 (three) regional organs : the regional council, a deliberative assembly elected through direct universal suffrage ; the economic and social committee, the consultative organ, and the president of the regional council in replacement of thepréfetthe of region.
1 See the Law of 10 july 1985.law of 10 august 1986, law of 19 january 1999, law of 13 may 1991 and law of 2 march 1982.
Corsica has a peculiar structure with an assembly, an Executive council and an economic, social and cultural council. The State has a representative in Corsica with power over the decongested services of the State. b. Italy and Spain Italy and Spain equally practice an advanced form of decentralization/ regionalization b.1- Italy 1 Italy has 20 (twenty) regions whose provinces and councils comprise subdivisions. Regions are made up of autonomous organs with specific powers and functions. Regions lay down rules in some domains : organisation of regional authorities and administrative organs, local rural and urban police, fairs, markets, museums, mineral water.They execute administrative functions in the above-mentioned areas or when the State delegates power to them. They have financial autonomy and some revenue from the treasury is allocated to them. They can institute import, export and transit charges. The organs of the Italian region are : the regional council, theGiuntaand its president The regional council has legislative and regulatory powers in duties assigned to the regions. The regionalGiuntais the executive arm of the Italian region.The president of theGiuntathe region. He promulgates represents regional laws and regulations and heads regional administrative bodies.In Italy, law n° 81 of 1993 and constitutional law n° 1 of 22 november 1999 enshrine direct election of the president of theGiuntain conformity with that of mayors.This gave political weight to regional institutions.
1  Abruzzo, Aosta, Basilicata, Cagliari, Campania, Emilia Romagna, Fruli Venezia Giulia, Latina Liguria, Lombardy, Marche, Molise, Umbria, Piemonte, Pavia, Sardinia Toscany, Trentino, Alto Adige, Veneto, see Part V of the constitution of 1947 (articles 114 to 139).
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