The King James Bible 1611-2011


262 pages


The King James Bible has been a sacred and cultural icon of the English-speaking world since it was first published in 1611. The Kàroli Bible has played a similarly iconic role for Hungarians as the King James Bible has for the British. The selection of the papers offered here represents a treasure trove for biblical scholars, theologians, linguists, and students of English literature and cultural studies.



Publié par
Ajouté le 15 janvier 2017
EAN13 9782140028069
Langue English
Signaler un abus
The King James BiBle (1611–2011)
l’hàRMàttàN hONGRIE tut C K Collection dirigée par Enikő Sepsi
issn 2062-9850
The K ing Ja mes BiBle (1611–2011) tut
PrehisTory and afTerlife
e  T f  s T
KáROLI gáSpáR UNIvERSItY OF tHE rEFORMED CHuRcH IN huNGàRY L’Harmattan Publishing • Éditions L’Harmattan
Budapest • Paris 2016
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A Preface to te Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
P I. T K J B
H W OSB: he King James Version: a Bible of Unity . . . . . . . 13 T F: he Metaporical World of te Sacred Word in te Prefaces of te Englis Bible: Translations from Tyndale to te King James Bible . . . . 29 A M: Luter and Tyndale on te Pater Noster. . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 M S: If Words Were witout Spirit: te First Epistle of Jon in Tyndale’s hree Versions and in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . 63 D B. B: A Novel Superlative in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . . . 111 P F: Formal and Functional Equivalents of New Testament Greek Discourse Markers in te King James Bible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Á N: Arcaic language – Greater Credibility? . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
P II. I A
W. C M: Hell in Englis Bible Translations since te 1611 King James Bible. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 S M: New and Recurring Symbols and teir Interpretations in te History of te Illustrated King James Bible Editions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179 B M: Terms forExousia Hyperecousa (Higer Powers) in Hungarian Scriptural Translations of Early Modernity195. . . . . . . . . . . N R: he King James Bible and World Missions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 G I: “hus God te eaven created, tus te eart”: he Biblical Creation Story in Milton’sParadise Lost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217 N F: Capman’s Open Ended Allegory in isOdysses237. . . . . . .  .
Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Notes on Contributors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
A P   P
InSeptember2011,teInstituteofEnglisStudies,teCenterforHermeneuti-cal Researc at Károli Gáspár University of te Reformed Curc in Hungary, togeter wit te Hungarian Bible Society, osted te international conference he King James Bible (1611–2011) – Preistory and Afterlife. he four undredt anniversary of te King James Bible (KJB), a major influence in saping te literature and culture of te Englis-speaking world, was indeed an extraor-dinary public event in 2011. Queen Elizabet II praised its language in an address to te nation; Prince William cose its text for is wedding liturgy; rare book collections of te largest libraries proudly exibited teir unique and precious copies; and scolarly conferences were organized trougout te United Kingdom, te United States, and several oter countries. Linguists ave demonstrated ow te proverbial nature of te KJB as filtered into te Englis language. Here are some well-known examples:east of Eden(Gen. 4:16);ow te migty are fallen(2 Sam. 1:19);to everyting tere is a season(Eccl. 3:1);Lay up for yourselves treasure in eaven(Matt. 6:20);turned te world upside down(Acts 17:56);A torn in te fles(2 Cor. 12:7). hese expressions all first appeared in te KJB. here are also several expressions tat ad already been used in te 1 five earlier translations, but it was due to te widespread popularity of te KJB tat tey found teir way into te natural speec of everyday Englis people: apple of is eye(Deut. 32:10);salt of te eart(Matt. 5:13);mote…in tine own 2 eye” (Mat. 7:3);in te twinkling of an eye(1 Cor. 15:52) and so on. Wile it is obvious tat te KJB as been respected bot as te inspired word of God in Englis and asa cultural icon of te Englis speaking world, wy ten, we may ask, is an international conference devoted to tis topic in Hun-gary, linguistically and culturally so remote from te Englis-speaking world? he answer is twofold. First, our university, founded after te collapse of communism in 1992, was named after te Calvinist pastor Gáspár Károli (ca.
1  Wycliffe (1382–4); Tyndale (1526, and 1530–1); 1534 Geneva (1560); Bisops (1568); Douai-Reims (1582 and 1609–10). 2  See David Crystal:Begat. he King James Bible and te Englis Language.Oxford: OUP, 2010, 263–300.
A P   P
1529–1591), wose name is associated wit te publication of te first complete Bible in Hungarian (1590). he Károli Bible (KB) was printed in te small village ofVizsoly inte Eastern part of te country and, is terefore sometimes also called te “Vizsolyi Bible.” Wit some exaggeration, we may say tat te KB as played a similarly iconic role for Hungarians as te KJB asfor te Britis. Altoug te KB was te linguistic medium of a minority culture, it as also played a tremendous role in te making of Hungarian identity troug te language and te literature it inspired. Several of te greatest Hungarian poets t from te 17 century up to te present day (Dániel Berzsenyi, Sándor Petőfi, János Arany, Imre Madác, Endre Ady) were Protestants (mainly Calvinists, but some of tem Luterans) and tus teir poetic language frequently carries te cadences and imagery of te KB, just as te poetry of Jon Milton, Jon Bunyan, William Blake, S. T. Coleridge, Ralp Waldo Emerson, Oscar Wilde, R. S. homas is deeply immersed in te text of te KJB. Anoter parallel between te two Bibles is te movements of emerging and re-emerging conservative support for “te KJB only” , or “Autorised Version”, a movement ironically called “AVolatry”, just as tere are calls for te exclusive use of te KB against any new translations - a penomenon tat may be likewise called “KBolatry” he oter reason for te conference is related to te first. “Englis Studies” ave establised temselves in te curriculum of Hungarian universities for t over a undred years, in te early 20 century. he first Englis Departments began to flouris between te World Wars, but wit te advent of communism, Englis Studies began to be considered as suspicious because of teir allegedly implicit imperialistic ideology. Since te 1960s, tey were smuggled back into te curriculum to te extent of becoming peraps te most popular subject witin te Faculties of Humanities by te time of te radical political canges in 1989. Wile Marxist ideology dominated te official academic discourse in te umanities, including Englis Studies, courageous and cunning pro-fessors and lecturers tacitly callenged te foundations of te old system by introducing te insigts of text-oriented New Criticism, and structuralism; ideology-free approaces to teacing or writing about Englis and American. hese scolars managed to read and interpret even premodern literature in terms of modernity, or, of te absurd. Sakespeare, among oters, was ailed as “our contemporary” after te tougt-provoking book of Jan Kott. Witin tis agenda, one could easily see is or er own mirror in a Sakespeare play, or in a tale of Geoffrey Caucer. However, te idea tat “Sakespeare migt be our contemporary, but we are notiscontemporaries,” a witty remark of a contemporary scolar, as promoted te new recognition tat te alterity, or difference, of premodern
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“K’ (K) J B (C)”
culture – including medieval and Renaissance literature – sould be acknowl-edged. his perception is definitely a recent development tat as emerged st as a new paradigm only wit te advent of te 21 century. True, te move-ment in Hungary ad already begun as early as te mid 1980s wen te works of Nortrop Frye, Barbara Kiefer Lewalski, and oters were discovered and used by scolars of Englis literature at Hungarian universities. he critical and scolarly contribution of tese Nort American intellectuals ad a strong impact upon studying early modern Englis literature troug a rediscovered istory-oriented perspective, sometimes called te “religious turn” in early modern studies. Jon N. King, David Scott Kastan, Brian Cummings, and ot-ers ave explored te vast material concerning te Bible-centered literary cul-ture of te Englis Reformation. In te Hungarian academia, te new interest in religion, or te religious context of literature, is also explained as a counter-effect of te formerly ex-clusive Marxist attempt to erase religion from even cultural memory. As early as 1995, only tree years after teir foundation, te Englis Departments of te two curc-related universities, Pázmány Péter Catolic University and Károli Gáspár University of te Reformed Curc, decided to organize an in-ternational conference on “Teacing te ‘Bible and Literature’ at Universities.” he proceedings of te conference were publised ashe Bible in Literature and Literature in te Bible(Budapest: Pano Verlag Züric and Center for Her-meneutics, 1998). t he idea of organizing te conference on te 400 anniversary of te King James Bible was meant to continue tis initiative tat began in te mid 1990s. It goes witout saying tat in te years between tis above-mentioned pub-lication and te present volume, te Department (now Institute) of Englis of Károli Gáspár University as continued to organize similar conferences. For example, in 2007, our university osted te first conference on Jonatan Edwards in Europe (its papers were publised in 2009 by Oxford University Press asUnderstanding Jonatan Edwards). he proceedings of te conference t on te 400 anniversary of Milton’s birt were publised by our university as Milton hroug te Centuries.he centenary of Nortrop Frye’s birt was also celebrated wit an international conference, its proceedings publised by our university asNortrop Frye 100 – A Danubian Perspective. In 2011, we focused on te King James Bible. Scolars, bot young and old, local and visitors, came togeter to sare and discuss teir insigts or discover-ies. We issued a call for papers on bot te “preistory” and te “afterlife” of te King James Bible. In tis volume, we are offering a selection of alf a dozen of
 9 
A P   P
papers in eac section. Due to various difficulties, mostly financial, te editing of te present volume took longer tan we expected. he relevance of tese papers, owever, remains valid even almost five years after teir original delivery. It was an exciting callenge in 2011 to organize a conference on te KJB at Károli, an institution tat itself is a living example of te KB’s afterlife. In 2016, it is an equally exciting moment to launc tis modest volume for a broader audience. he KJB project as, in te meantime, been inculturated into its receptive Hungarian context: over te past few years, KJB as come to mean “Károli’s (King) James Bible (Conference).” he KJB, tus contextualized, now found a place in Hungarian Englis Studies.
31 January, 2016
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Tibor Fabiny