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Annales africaines vol 1 décembre 2014

251 pages
Au sommaire, notamment : - L'école des fils de chefs de Saint-Louis du Sénégal ; - La responsabilité du service public hospitalier ; - L'écrit dans le Code de la famille du Sénégal ; - L'évolution du statut des journalistes sénégalais ; - La singularité du pouvoir politique traditionnel en Afrique (société wolof et bantu).
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Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques ANNALES AFRICAINES de l’Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar
Nouvelle série
Volume
Décembre 2014 1
Sommaire
L’école des fls de chefs de Saint-Louis du Sénégal................................... 11
Par Docteur Amadou Abdoulaye Diop
Réfexions sur l’article 6/24 de l’avant-projet
d’Acte uniforme OHADA sur le droit des contrats.................................... 45 ANNALES
Par Françoise Dieng
La responsabilité du service public hospitalier ...........................................63 AFRICAINESPar Babacar Sarr
L’écrit dans le Code de la famille du Sénégal............................................... 95 Nouvelle série
Par Cheikh Abdou Wakhab Ndiaye
L’évolution du statut des journalistes sénégalais (1935-1996) ..............123
Par Diégane Sène Volume
Le principe de sincérité du scrutin dans la jurisprudence Décembre 2014 1
du Conseil constitutionnel français............................................................... 143
Par Mamadou Falilou Diop
La singularité du pouvoir politique traditionnel en Afrique :
exemples comparés des sociétés wolof et bantu.................................... 183
Par Ogo Seck
Les organisations de la société civile
dans le processus démocratique au Mali ....................................................215
Par Bakary Camara
Une publication
CREDILA
Une publicationISBN : 978-2-343-05363-9
9 782343 053639
25 € CREDILA
Faculté des Sciences Juridiques et Politiques
ANNALES AFRICAINES • Nouvelle série
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Ln o?etouide sd fuKn 1t5esl, ishuijae-tp 5cuom epormtserri radeesu eien1ts?vrc?rmt use e?rs Plja4 2f.oeiUs otoh?,o rgiaquie1, 9pr,arit?iiquen,esroc idoFl7og5iequtet edu t cponltlesmaporialidn.lSturi tlaec .pleaan ltah?coraimqure , ccdeitdtfes nquesssttiton redursrtul etarsanigtnt?pee ?paero onscresrustd alirnsp aasutun eblures cdon t Gsen oregee s tHntarrgdyol1l,IG1eHr,t iq eHre:snsgeelei.ng.2a, ,Aimpa1dou eF.a lsln3i, iMpbatyee ?T.hisaumn4d, tD eini,srteaBC,ouc5he.55, .Ylv?eosa ?Haalzueimda annt6o. HToouse nsb aauccctored1e nt rs?t erLe cvontnae? tarpe la 0i2nt,e.nt8i1on 4du caol?oncirisraaitee uora ?d oiancnuelxquelrd lceeurjt a0i9ne?sh ,vSaUlee?uirAs pc ulat8ur9e l l-e.s hde? slnan aclitvoi l?i slarit iiotn f8r?a2nm?iacilste fatu x epopuil?a?t ivontse rii8ndiig9? ne s :5 Yiala s eimebl eq equeo lllal evtolson tn?o :d5u7c1ol-on3i:snautnelutr Segs,t ide Af?or mte rRA 9de 1f1utrucrssi ucioln lraebojr aat eeu?rise der dlt onnaldmei nias taronsarttion deo?nafsrfaina?nsaNirs er vlioc a ltea.hAru pl aontn es oecli?ooleogeifquel, le he?steutdee rd iun on t eols asuu jpeot?, erpaetlcaitri v edmmseinte s?i neleas sprnsocs?adur eldev srfenccir utxeecmee ntl tderspa ?el ??vieisnd idee &l, ??acioslmentdess?fiill(s) mdeic he fesd, mpeurr msemtns un dens rfeadeitrae?rie csonsaoret(iIr. Gl easy Upaerctniuctul aoraiet ? ess iden mlna nsAocOiF?,tP?r sa flrni cpa i0ne , tdes 2s.eHss eviaglHesurosrt roaidiiut iuonSnenlglle sn, stutrttoosut drains ltes domca?i?ne adeh ll/aS c1h8e,fpf e3r.iAe .a?lg aLlcelm euntS, nlgel sauqjeetto se lidnspcariint idatnsri ul uaecrotlumatlqietr??u, npuiesdque 8d7a?nsn sljeu ?d ihssc,ourFsS ,deUsihomemie?sCh ipolhiAttiDqueos , edaDnsk r,c2e0l-u0i2 deps 1a c t1e.urMs. Tdi mun d?Lv ehlffeoppeemtedntt odu ndrloeiwtl fefncA f raicqluen, sltao :rlessepoenspaeb iuloiot ?t dd easo rdi(r9i0g1e4a)n,tts? ea fLrHi cnavirsnts eeks tn amDios ee Dekn r,c9a5u1s8e,, pe.n 1t7a1n7t5que. Borceepr ?Lsneengteaenttdsn dees eitnits?frn?atssd r ?feqleso cdedsn aaencdi1e1n s 9c0ol oniissoa tieiuirasri. ePoe uto-aoniinmdputne rl tun?e hpasr,tU idee ir?eds ponassa bi luint1?7 ,?p .l3 2??c3ol5e6 .cHozlmonni,a?lneo tpalrd laec nbuitacilsn adee l ? o?ecdolseodeasef ielSsi tdeLcuhesf1s5?- 8C1e l8a2 1m0??rIni tCoetrbatiot d hesso rerde c?he?rac?heLss cplhuse sadppCRr,ofno ndi,e?si, itnouAtEa,ut1a8n,tp qu3 -une5 .Dr AMt ?iAeD O Ut A3BADLOquiUn LnsAuY?Ee DtIaOiPe14LIont.tLg t?heCOsL.E?DEreS Frr?ItLaSpa tDEr eCHgEsFdmS ,lUN r?lT ABeLtImSoSoniEeMqu ElNTnt i? sS TiAT?UTaSsPS?9CIeALr?UNnere )aona lsycsdmea ?decsa stu equ xitee se1 quit ?ormgaaenius esnte l t l?ateadu bfl i sas eopulmpleonsntape, rtm eatr ldee Vm e stur esr lt i5maporst aincdec 7t1oput.e, pa rndatnilciuldusir? rter qutel cleex ccro lionai(svatt2e?uire tagt tfahecahee ??i cldeas tpprrcocr?edureee mdleocrcepucareuttenmuteenta. rE n serflf eatnt, aldmai isde?clleon cltdeifon istel ffdmaci tf cdaanunesd lc?e. r?tlati nte su foaamnill lce se peAn .r)adiris on adueprleesctmi greei ,do,ntO 1e lcl2etsS jrouiesssseinstc tdacnsd tlsar eseocpais?it ? , nida n unnes ipa reta, sestr ?eorn nav uepr duda ienn uf an ivrselde)su aanigae nt.sr ursomepusxa deaeux str?sc hecsde lqu asppeelal ec cleei tcromutmnta ndevmOeantd uni?ndsi?ge?cnee,. d fa, ucttrtes rporaneratdu. ndiUane? rfcoei lsa on. Tc er srresc rpouitceom ernti otouvecrlmsiln? , slre se r?el ?nivaelst ?rler?xeoirvre ntt ocun;eafurorlmsattusiione orritgn iena lsen , ndis?ccolsalierfe te?te ei d?onnoltogeiouiqueen , ivcoitr ei onpoilniatsiequerr?. P2oura 8y apaoriviedniorg,eli daedmeieninsr?t,rca,tNi on 9c3o l?oni aal e3 omietto edn plfa cces ?tun ra?lglidmeea d diintteorpnattA?S.6C(e; tquiu coond1ui,tc .?N a9na3ltyesle rs,?dahinst run quepder esmeinesrdu atdieameps , el ae vpacrstrinc ulraerdeinte?s ?del aliasprroct?odurfea ?d iaedmdoivsnts?iron (tAb)i . eet ,adaanst run ssieicuond detle mops?, rl appa asspe?tcaisfiibceiatni?e u doceas e1ns eainigeneu amiesntrst eft( d)e1. la paoc vdire sococaliLaelmen dset lx e? c ol?ei s(ntBl)?.oAe-sUiNEs dePcROfC?mDUREr PvARntToutIlCU LaIa?tREr Dl tADMsIeSdu SeIrOeN e? Ls ???COeL. En DEurSi FiI LeSoc durDE aCHrEeFdS Le ratdmmintsEseifon t?l alc n? cso lie deus f iiliss idelc h eafdas poyb?eipat l ?ou umune tparrocdi?iduarponsee tsep?ecaiofii?q uet.lE n puletfon fu eoutr, i?s delt aamppsuii n dep oic holaaq,uee dosissideecrf dueont ?cearndtinida tvurcel, aeisstr tpon r oduuiortt un irsavppoontretrcei ruc onsatpaaniclia?e ? tmaeb l ie rpa ronc ilj tafdmai cnitsetsrcaatie?uEre fdut lcaeirscoldu ea dai ntl??roledes si?s de the sve?frii fpris? nqupta relpe siansipe?cbitn efurl ?d?eEsv ratf, f asi raefsl aaidm1ionir,settr autrei,vlessa. tLsedd i7tm ir1a9ppo,rptrt nc ontrginesntto deusCrle?nseedisgfnelm eenthsf prt?dcsiist rpsturs lr?ai ?pa r.e.n.tO?6 7du (c1a;ndiadatt , us1ur vll 1a3ut,orr?irgtn?s, nllec lpr ees tiisgde heft,le ir?nfnl ue enpcoe eposlcittii qu aem,nastratianc hr??i ?a u .g.r.oupe. 9f a3m)i lrr?i?adl 0doontt bi l9 7f ar?iit? pa.r.t.iOe6. 7E(n 1ou.L ?CemcColliet dle3s aftio l si dteB c hedfm deup? Svai quintl-cLhouMiesk dug S?ln?igaldAqNdNaAsL EaSe mAgFpRIC Ad INiE S ,BNeOeUo V EmLiL El Sc?iRIEde,, VeO LuUeM?Ei1,.DC e?iCE.M BREu2014i15enobi ldilaMilr,el aqn ui? ljouu as teintftire a .lt bourasddemai(sas ieon lddeea sl d?ela?Svfee ?b? rlg e?aceoln e deyesnt ifdial su d es c,he ftso.rcAuusls ia, dflauu ti-oiLl1 dips?t i ngnueonrm lom eoMreiurg ilne iseocliea laea du neomt papatrrooanym i que .iCroncneonrovntaodnts ?ll dorpeirgriineo lslocogioatldu en, lroaepmpe, lbaonsN opque n doye ?n?omibrfe?ussebs; Ds oceia?hetpr?usBan?fcrei.caafiine si du tsrfaidpriLtolironneeun l?l.e ss nstointu ,dievCoiust? enss Fenn orudorletsl. tAhu s.om mdeltt sseen vt riouvoetnta hlde s4noblle?si sou6 .a riinsrteocsriarbt?ehsg,de tsSu ifv iYsr jpca ri Wlversr rtoetodu. rfi, e?r sor.d iA u yFeougtdae, dr?rscin?genasnt ilfae hepuaaritliee du uton ee?r r?ittdeo incraen asi?an?aglaelfa iursa Oettt amFa ur, istYainiee n iqu i esa , ?ftternad iean oulaougea nssdelpauinsY rljermaaYr;iagDotu sdei d Nadieo runioomla t? l olls sehs.tl Ndee f Ddualmbbanekoaln? nc(dB, a k, e la)i jausaqolu e? ulsa rmncosSqu?oneelctelntTr ailaea ndegn aD?ad?gcatnal1e,apairde meBxpreommplgen?, r?ons delea1 Vtl??teer tsees rretnr?o uvFeantnlleisutioor ?ob?e2i, raeu tbaisideu dl A 1?,c hpe2lPleee oon ,rriecn.ctont rmed al?eisomlacPceueb?c3,. sSveC eullsa lse ss up reenmlile(rast ontc ivsoc aftniuomn a?)eaxeer cqe rS tlued 8pouv?oi5rI spoeleir tiimqpuaee. eEun pceonsa? querenc ei, donn rpeiu t adiar. ea baquYeb, ils de xaear cbodiic eh fduspouvroierdu apoloiatdiiiquee edacnnson dcGeltjtnaeE esfoctia?rts?a refsmt alr la1891,fif a i rueun rdnem vfmantmmiglaloieesc omqugi unont c iveocdeaftlieo nr?pp lg cofuvdeDrmnerror.eDaa.nCst ecsettatient apneelristpegcatii v ea, prliee u ccnhooidex Gsl jenasMti sp os??l ssur ilsedu so Nfiamm.inlul eise eustinotaaabPindalfilt ? sor Draedp ra?fsmelnteadtsiLvre sW lde)sc epop uliaultiieonsW lcoroleonitsl?sessl. utSluievda nton ncceem tsrceh? maaa, lbodaimp??etSrmopol eo ba difgo riml?i epltusfile uurcsd , cnvh?e?fTss camflruriac aei ncse.de?ftli dtcrees d ?ill ldiuysettriastduiouron, on apeoumuMtachai tiep ri sAdebdloula iSnaamllaLmt DKoracnef, fdeill sov ndee dCLhme iu kah , Mouvarmeapadou qun ion eflutd a?sesea sasmiFn?l esn 1i890ss urh ?orYdcrneeF ld , Ancbdeoult iBeoubBaolcdaposr? ea1889, u hec ouirusa rd deunel movincs s iaonba , quea ,lovesgiouveeer neouvurr elpau icaevla rigtnc .cMon fiia?,e? tdadns ulle eDua meg ae. sDiedsgcnesndaan to td ?Aibd:eull tKnadde rm, tcdonqut?drsahnstori?ufsoer mcaettefurq deu F outeal aOu,X9V5III e?, i4l e.s4t0 pe2tliritl-dftirloso p a ars soara me? rse dee Hsammea tehlN diiarayheeAsnnec4a, ea3nclirieln dcmacdiu ode eScaaient -sL ouiasb. sOefcfaisc.iMeir odes ylreaiLn?rogsiponud hoonnenuCorl, blraeegrsouvee ronerturs nL aumcotehe, el eaxpp?eelpart ep.lImusm dt aarmd sauu ecdom maannde-moeint edu 1D4a m g8a7, dalnselt la crtmueecld d?opma ratFeimherbnt tdaes iKreainer lm me?ta oar catlugeol l eo nru?.Dr Ai? MnAnD,OsU AdBaDJOrUnLlAmYeES D-IeOlP l16aiTyou quesai icnetsc feitl8sN 3de. ucrah egf?s , ontaepirnt?tsr lueture repcansissar g eA t?? tlS o?ricAo6lee , eontn ripou ?rusdueiavEil NlYe-urasl? t,uddevse taofu ecto lrlv?rgteg Eulo aAnltaaouio, ceun iTeunihstinei, lc3omrept7em ltee nu Ddedsg urAaipporathsi raqu imetxi4sbtJeen1t eensteroes l eusd dpe ux ?rteaibAl?iussasaeemteYntass.niIrli ef asutL olsioulhimgjneon frna iquee ba l aedm &iaisuissiso n , ? ?r urcnte7tutoes v? crcol iei ieosttx ndeChvtednuer fci naslseomaetntc uneLsoorit ed deedruopixtr 1mpourr, cc9eSriteaeiens ecoheefise anfur ilc atidnsa. P aire e xetmpplkea, laen r,c heif? Deeimdba Wdapr8S.aYlgl 2 , .pa.rd slnestatar ues deen ldaetlee duf e6 soc trobrcet l1e895B3A, f? clr iot ia u diimraequicrtdengurn dede cspr admftfea?iaurrveals polnueietti? quetsi au e?ts sd? pfecnda ntcfe s? Bpourdi le n eomnvBoio Jdev is on dfmimleshe sSa ciedya eSearlil? ea u nCeolavlouv?mgre. C edens f illos ddencuhe efps estu ndefs iunptaegraprp?itae.sf. dMoali so,assa ansr mdouttev, llF aepxe mbplree- r quil si?lalrus.tsrsee dleespleuse vcaesta s?ntuaet? id eeosspryilt oe1s,tN c4ealouic ridee SWa m obat TThoilatmr?k?at, tcghe fD ,den acea ntoone ideL sD i?m.ar?ra4a.aSnui v1onsi le de?xpr ?adi.tmeTumr? dem sleaA Sl7er?t?t?rrae :l?i &tJue lt? 0e nvsoei e5 .m.on .fnial s3 oBboubac9ar .NJamOeepourm et eb fpraine r? deq ql e pri? soednft ecrs n?cMnons iaeeudrre laeuD iourrfeicetaecurp ede se jafunf aocirrle, si spod lbdoui. tnitquemsi;ne apsr ieec-sldeeB rdehi emdia ypar t cdie elae- afgaiarmenderieant?r?elra i? slr t?uc:ol &e adseousu lfriclisr mdes ?cudeh eSfns- ouous dec llgede ftlue re;c ejse omleea ail d?ui? actonmfrire , ouiNla eequs tsm eaicntmeenan tour Jslon &p?erneeoud &aJsepas pnrer von eeupsxj pas?c rqu ausiil m ondrte nevliiesnn ei n ? d?iicei af, n decmarrt rjlea eli , unaibonne fdees du gteinene? f an??s??t1rse loes qsiesruviintne.uOr deesiFerqane?casi sapeendanqte tlonuttet tsoa v ifera &t?b5a.cBuoubadcvanra Nea mue diersiognei, ?s s2ae s orratiiien ede ulK j?oc olceu, l?ed Dviim aorp od?ea le Oeue srat?.iC eorrtcamianst LftiDlose due ucchedfr su ts?ee seont iotpposri?ns o?v nl eeurpsn hpar raeanttgs upoulrq elteour roer ciruut ecmaerentl. sAhimnes.iCa,o lee6 ojtebun e8 5B oc.a.r. JA.lDim r,Kzann eo pdosnt nlreal faaom?illulse ,t lno toarm m e nts ,lpacms?mrne ,narevaaaiate opposo?? uanes lfciunl eder? inonn-dr eacne-vooiir , unS nobgtle mpp?srser? rgpnasst. oE n nc1om9pa,gDnimer des siogn caoTusiimn aB5ocaabr hSaakm ba , diili tsteu pr.?.s.eJn,tpac tde.vTalntg mle da d amminnissraterr autcercure nde 8M aut2a melt maren1n?9e, AsNuSi v7a7ntaeg.Y nL, la dm0innivsmtrer1a0t,eAurN Sde 7M antsa me, apadr itc? lo? grar?aim m eet6p, snec ttpar rudlau npqaise?t ssrta ieslicrl lee diisrde chtfe,uer odecsrre ca,fBofna,ilrgens r?po luidtminqeuer.L ?grtceotl?es dreist rf i ldsl dee1 c henf det S ai nt?-sLeouli unesa du S?en?ongalsAlN4NuAsLlEiSc sAcFtRICsAgINcEontSut,rNsO?UsVtEaLlLrEp eSl?,RIEe,eVneOu LfU dMiEe1,dD1?tCEsMnBRE 2014p17 Ln eusbr euxequmcploue sl fao iis onnee ntc ep our ciduslullusttneraesra dln cirm aporustrasncbien cdef ntl ioreiagonsiinem is osc ipopularlaedpouro slre9 Jr1eocer,utfesm edntr ,de2stceaplndi dartquspa l?a elnt a?ntcontol endadelsn ftionnelesg ordef lcrhesfass. deLeed dendoomipaetsrponyu mrintques rop?ex trigendndereae nfot rrel a tctsesntsiton.sLseagaouvoueirined?ure cFomalildheou?reber carv?eadu unlA s?scloilplemdeisfoltiaagie sul n diels tsincn?lef santuun x cfti lonssr ldeLcuhe fose iept dontA nl aV Fsoe.utlieo f?ovsoclaetuiuon idu snoma iirndioqueL, 8s2a ns nduea?ucsunede ?lquaisvtoques, lonte sux. cprondistorieonsr mdd el rrppoesc reuteeemmedenrt, . Cc aelsrt apa. rscre equee ulceb ec heefi ets tl eun lpeirsseon naegces icshoeilsai?e?n crea.ios on cdem is a naeicsns ainctei d evt ides csieess mquaelppeistd?onse a?u ;sux edinon ld lunepl ifra mliuslqul?e ea yFaenbitetsrcaddnsiet cifoneneml?lnseumaesnts d?l.eG nepouv?oilrns es urF eun utgn rsoupreimietnts rdei ?diumce nseinon mrcexsutaraesitnt,ee, c omn posc?nc def f a?mei ltlie sf d oersisgsisnen sidi,fcf ?lruecnatmecsr ehta ptocolceupapaentte unst eersr.imt,ooi?rret lniem ivts?r1e.eLfeuso ,saocli ?7t.?.si Asu? n?tg1aMlaa,ivs edst pri? croElionrisanlee so idiiasmtarli?buasifeunot nlhe, Dr1a,ng.s7oc8ipausl?, elsenpouvcoisri, el eusse psustd admtniuttsa?e rde si negsr oupessnom efIa m?ionileilasux le rtc unoen e? adexisi iiendi avii?du si.vC encouronsrtla tom aents te ceenctotree? avtanl aebpelsel ?prourng rlIa ugp??reideodfem rcconssiutd?rr ?olea.or tSuis mlm on lsneapirta ecpaom bi ed?n laempoisds urdpied unel?aolf a mhifl lntel ectommptquee lda nsm rc eon s? hes ocatint?3tA?msm, ntodu n ener ese , ?ltsonnee tpaaisd rder un choionsettaetteorslaa? orfeor ciei ie:tc ux lsau plxalcsevqu mynt det iaeintl slaelnome tpaatirionynemlimquent. ?Prourg rs een?n ec onvtabien, cer eu, inltfuiasute ? teupldi ecri l aa cdocust reilne rcnche f feaclux es usdeu sho x Eeuoriop?rernsa hdfonte lie comontee rnu cepesetux a xi?i iceh eer plc hevrsdaLns ouvlrau gcn?iar ceuleaqui riel du rGncouv eer neeusr gouv?nin? rlaelqu Via n eV oflilaenn hov een rde he1917s2un . iCneitftnieec iomreceulplasiorrlequ dmenistta ir espr ilseev utpbaers lonveisr du Gaouvtequ ruprnesurdscgs?popn?ariarux eBners? vait?se tl?ebou? , rontepas pieecetcifvaeem elntonc uteqn i193 2aettn? e1941. sEilelee shoi ipo sceen tc el? vaonciuirt ?r ldu spraobil ?tm?ei ?depa llaec.aJr eoncberd Adter tpesrtsaonnieiln ealdmsitnipsutorra tuiof? nt ountAern qd?egnaigee armnntCo ide,s1 6m,oype ns9 2pouro rlOeOrd? s8ouadr?e .9 7V3a.n KVmololPeunhoovreen parrit ndu Acronsqteanti eque sla audm ieni sotdrmantsidonc ndetstctiornclonsscerdinpt ieons tatdm i Anirsqternaiteifvaecsp opleu sG Jnom br9e7u spe s2 -e2t;Dr AMgbdouldAaD,O Upr AntB,DeOquU LlAlY Ed D lI.Or?P 18yDtasns, cdee ndedirs;c ou rss , clXea lnomn lpantterobo nym iequee stnernaouvae. ctaosutr as, oin oupesLetns estg rsra? ptlLa c?ei..L ah ajuusltli faiCceadeteicon tri? suidede adasnsm llaea rb??delees rp rb??mpo nd?er adent? taetdtoulaocuh?t eaeu pnomDpartlrtonyhemLiousquey squin Lees1t l ab are?nseulit annt ei sdeed lKao foo recief rdeu ilm paiadetn teittp? seoc i a ldee.de lCmesleliec-. cci eseetd?afeivniata, ore n rov?iaHlricta? , n? plp arrovtiiHri rdede tlaas sonttriaiteipaf irctaomtusiaon s ocli arlrer uequi d?fcsouplenc, apourrg cunyioondidmvpai4du, Fs on ;esnv iArconnemmieintL nsnocciuaril, 2den omPaPni6?2rr e? e?u cfiaiilroeo ,atppalr?ad?tt8r.eb psoon .prloprfehgdr.oupen eedtc llieesf ?aeurtiruneemse1g. L an n stt rqu?a taitfeipc, attndisone fsprocrionaal?ei scnonsiiasetees ecn sun ssheyques tf?lmcei dedecondilsarsuseiafeidrclaoutfidone plquEim cfrl?Ke ce t bdoude?efgirn iltns lnca rpb?lbbiascie palroteiIcvul ie?traee sd eun upienddiavnci du rdb?abbinsM , lsa ssocsif?ot ?m pepalrpo ssion aa. ppaprretYelna-ncae? t?d eun eod onctaun ti?xcgfor iael.A yLaae cmagtp?igiormifs anfttiuon ?scocsiaasldaetpesrsmovestF L?m slr iRndinvbdouli;du doe nis?e ld? fkidenirre aeBn at alnonte lque R nem Deam dibr?ea Kd .un cgurtouped itsyape oaPu,s9epi6n udeeS oliae rs,tFr9uc t1urBoec rrys o?cbidaelIei.e rDeeg rmi?mm eq, ecoeltLtaen oecxnicgse ncee, 9du nom6 Mpa torAonyam imqueipeIlrtm eutre dieF lrneSsmpte cpteenre dlea ecfoutnumdea mquie ah iS??rposatron c hi saei ll a? naseocsir?lta?c eposlsi?teimqrue . rQlulim napl. u sse sourtoi, pourealtlier opon posjec ida ns ?taouatiede lsrocliv?, tl?e tunies rctoudcnshel sstupx?er ieelur?eol de?f lun ec fc ou cehenomidenfa?irli eonurtet2e. unC estctteon di setritncmtntiDon nsecs ta ebi een Fatncofrr? ee daxnsm el. an ?soionecli ?ati?l aaf,raiec aeicnsedtArlaydKint, iionineileldeeW. lIacdai , anouspr ipouveonsde Ydiirlea -qeuea coets lpe?roseonsnetsg ss ontl dedientsirterpr??esmeint an ntus hdefss ?fiaum ielllpreise derY?iglnaant-eesa. . Laas idy naesatd?iie dees oncNidinsa?ysede, ada nrsonne ll eur deJ olaosfs,decsonsnt?iLt ueov ncun e xeimrplaeb?:Hebbin bt, ? mroiig neec, tle p?iinseccrsiiput idon adene eBlounia eAllfbourmyl e?d lbd a?ecKonel eldeefsroetun arg east. cNlous? eaev onso tceonsitlant. ?e raprussnseie tquem niseotn jne uneou ef re? rrei eB iu routa. heiima eatrdi?ic?lpaa ma?i esAon aiens cerTirpteiton adainss rc ertAtAepha ;iCnish tailt?uteilon. Caewt tosee edytnass teicet,?lpd abdouraceeaqu ia;reiasgteoctrragt paiHqmuedou,adee1vuiyeBantg ea,i inseit tm onaoriclh,iDquen. dC eatst e9 8f or.m6e. G?ytParrit,ioquei ldgee dl aaseocoi ?Ut,?1 6t,rpa di8t3iuoannealBal.ea Ssn gemsit utVraaXduXist?el .paTra tl ?ars?peec ts am otnacrncuhticqulen adu epouv oi Hrrm.tBaouba,ccalre tBoa rRariye peunspes nque? c1e8 ,spy s1t4?amseA deus tl hl eanboutmiesDsae m esnt edeb al-ar?hi ?erCaerkc hiasea taieon deaso isaociin?st ?lsc sa?snl? gaaremdbi eannefsrt3 . nIlle cy eal eau iall oKrns? dun easdupe.L ? escoo hlneeux d esson efeill se dnes cuheife de? Slaioynta-, Leoutimsn du S?u n?ougaliAiN NsAbL lEdSoi . AsFeRIC AprIN EutS ,sN?OsUou V E LprLsEc uSnt? RIEe, VbdiOaLDUiMlE D1, aDBa?mCE MHBREnf2014 f19LCeeetstlef efta mci lnalie efeorem?aa scte? fqu Bon Latppeellatl,en l?iSoudou rAelou phai aCli r ?ni?a, nunerats, sroceilaethainaoSn usbite, cn dsquioudt? ler dori? lteesn .piruotbcl d?lm?eis i(fprso cd ?olsp?, eci? rc?smboninte sl Cfsatmeidelfina lee s ,. Ar diefc eaoys efmsetntr)r tdea rlfaa gcndiomtmoiunasuti?i sseonoltm derA? splomlntusm. lDsaen sn ntlceu nme?tmdee arrelg ies tircec, eona rpeeu trchinotterrg l ahe u ftacm irlelee , Dpaieaio n fdu -W fatlMo. iEu Wn arr?olagl1i tt?g, 2advr e,ce alseudiNa3w3dionev1zMoa0d iuea powi lKmhoer?,ecaest tces sfca mprinlsleeg dee snitqui ede vceinue? ouutner ucdahecftfiemriiaet fpu ifstsqaintondue?;d? meilllhee ag quocuctupc?s u une poasutittei, paonheder c on pehoiex d?autnsL loy hiisnet oairr es du Waall os. Miaid?isacw Kihnore essltr lre p?dansrsei des Fiaafraia, P epndtah quueieedsurtdi ?lorupliun-im ?emdieon elset tp?srael oideA qYeorso eDtiqueago, e?ilu?ev deeu. c?s urla he? ccoblies iqouruipour tf antiitd olla Tobtjrenstf cdet ,cteatstfet?ateude d??shy sleaeraeenct ra?reI18 55ui-e1 856. Sueil tl? eoersi gtienea Lsmodecdyi?aopller fdee cle ua?n.li?lvie l le Ns Yta jd?tt reerlmeiournaop. Fn?t?ed tpousrl sio?n natdemeils.saieono ?nli i?ccaoildeidieis,fAi9l s3 de3cbhedfNosl, rinl5 tr e6sltiel qunee llat queceouataumiel e det llav .t rdmasdiit?ilon ?neol ldeef cl? deehents se n?reite nous daln si cneeuntvtrec ploaac e .sL aurclout umhee ndegsnetP run ?usra geer tq u nune el?ongauel sterea, diltfiuton ?ar riesndu deoblhei. geatt oiuerteon. cLia c outaumter isteon faorcmeef rleorisdique? ciepertt?ari neomsi ecaondsinstdeilonsr ac?umuulramtntitvrecsf esiont, utrnt?ndrun ireas?. .Ialrsa ?aagricti dee clrac ?pireapat iaqsuec adeis? em ?amvetsl ta.cptopoedes he(slaar ccionsstGaornec ea)a, el caic:c?oerrd , d u eg rocoup?e?(polltequec onsrecnnssuse)t, ll aar nf, o romcoge ldu t?eimeps s(el.a2 lcso ntusiqu nuiets?m)e iettr ?laai erre ceo nnaorisses aenvcvent , paerr ln ef ijueugse .?Ce te sn ta un draoiiitn Dnon e?ocdercindatt. DSeousL colenita ea ngd lborec, rlh?euns olsaoorctio?det ?oss pa farsiiceadeilneesr pronst etcouojsourtson. ?at?? egtouvie rhen?seasc pseoust tln ?ted mutpier ee usden .lDans cctouetdeumnier quipot ?ceonls tuviatmua?irta elouas ?slour cueer . plasreesxctequl leecncfea qdeo il as ru? g lneor cdes ?dderloi te. rE ltlle. axe pls e rivaiL on d ia3ppuiil tpeourr altem ntreetc srtutteom Eeantt eduiecs e?tle?ivseesda ??a ll bod?ic ?olaetdeesnf aialo es d Sdkeaciheofms ?. Dc eo? eloaa en? pac eesIlssigtt?l d u ?itreusdiienru as.eGs lmnodeisr, vdeid?B.tDerardmHisnaotri on. oLp ratutvr ee lnetvtiteors quiE ,a1 8s,epr v4i.deL ebadsmea redeu er eociroudt e mceontre 2e0s.Dr Aoui ncMapArD?OeUe A B,DaOiUdeLtA. YiEs D I OePe20lgaouv eorsnecurpe tF aeioordhedrobem oqouid dnourlreiiseslaeiitdi unteu ongoorla?nde ?edesdeteiEmgel tpoure elcui?, cirslr idr?ijrpisgaet olae ceasnt osn ded Ncdevrt ?de llO dou iasutsSu e der s?a fio rntm?aoit?i, on. Cieapequndatntav, visli rredflu saem d?l l?at reer uban rowerldaaitsepourl ?s eirNvBoi,re r,l0erts? nitngta? ri?ltssc sf,riaonn?eansimsi ddus afuratiate des spaaS flou ir u? lsdao tceAr rven naetgan lcea, sm ? mte? esaiod ea pfra?nse eceeerunet aeiine,si lsdeofur cresss tiil esxeee osnearoafirthe ocpaoanvIearattida ?dtions18ctrm?quetsefm elntna ?e sleae ireeEl i guiyon3c1hrn?ltr?ineanne 1g. I li cshe rDa ia4leor se ldsensatiinteu??p Npou5ri e?ituraeo xreenmapliaNc ?s,c a?de rl lifnslt isgontastu?i?on ?ded llfalF, rratncee,, urpaerc oYuaamcairl rMlbodonqu?jcii. D gaeut r eesm ac hesfLst iske reonttn ailnsstla lal-? ss ?aeiorlnal. eturssf son uroor ooqu?rtdrx eedea l ani spu iulslsaadu nco. ec vctocl?onAiSa;lae . uiT ealoqu? 193easeta llref iceacsf ldeo Beouna? Se?cmeou tN?isarngndu grquie, cpaermtauir edleasanon ?Jn opllonconousft fna t asle, f.eerta mpr a thiique?m eFnte tlae . tjouun r rdntu sSde?ena? gxadu le. IIutl? mdi rpsiegreaas ?m ?amaee Al euecnaobnt1871 oLn hdoes iNtiuar niq2t. .Btouneav lerosstS bf,i lms2 ,des dSc? maou, CSun 3arencnieedn. ac helfe nde? cnarennt on zdalns nlkelS2angr a3tpt aCh-nJnoclr of?. dI eli mpor,tr es alnel enome tdu f?i,l sA Sa7?en ?i edu trcoira A lsbouroyt vNadiAaiy ei lqu iesi laAppSe7lr?l?ea eBoliirla rYcautmrb, das uren omami?l sBquouna epasr iun tcngheef von egnu rdep rlea iM?aiu?rliut atnaihemquint l uie psrs?rdiies au ietr un apvreiniitron d e cuvheef 3a.cQtu eon eonsate-oi?ll de uelr .innfpeltuecncter ApolaiStli,quef?lL ae ap?mnoor?Stdriaitquiifon x?fur?aen1890. ?madou iaslee ta?u eS???n?SgiatlL sedso? ta mrre nsdue iposisiiebEl1932, er ie n hepsaderctntideT opaontrrlv saec tuideon ccomsbicn?neons dsetsr Furfa?n ?naun ies ppee?tc dentsn ATfrrCi caaon ians?. Cre rontia i nsm dedou caels d?enmrnsncile-riss sronrtvde sn 4.igntlemrntpdrns? teetse,didf calumtntrd?ehsf rdbees nsutolldra tes &. eFparc e e? ndane, sr scnouon coii teoy e nsand sd?rciied, ?ss orm a iesvdicv i sa?Msur tpair & 5deUse mceocnfrlti tss fd eitntda?srl?etcsl, leaP dorF rn afncee, eapreriirvcef de?T iifmaposre?rr ls ornnca dmsi nbrihisatKrneaIt iouon ern erd?eecmrnaut ann te uxidamns rlie?sd nnefia mTio ln l63. elsf deu cn e?se tcmhe fsss.t?oic eut epr oporsrd sa?ill lteiurls , CghamrTtngolne4o, tarpr ?pas1 es i?ttrirne oivntne rtrdoge?l suurs ilna2 nmreainin?aree edep fprsoecr ?.deMra ea uer2e car ut0e3m e nto, peonsiei equ?eS cc-eulI.uiE-tctie evsctN .uneNa fifna,ifrlee de nutaiS?mrueNmaegnt npoloitteicquee . lDeonc?,Gla dianfal ueen1c ea vpolei2t1i.quRaep rtded laao ,fiasmeitlulgen rad ee lln eegnefeatn tu le situ taou ses eis iun ncmrni tu?Srneg ld a.dm4i s.s.i.oJn.?L tlre d?ffccollmende s?fhifflbse qdeecnhue fvsn. Arutur?e mue ntr hdvistn, tiola es, detsitl sabgei .pour. .lJa, ppucits.L ?cctcnsoilte d etsde ef,ialdmsc dne cuhepfa dee Saaiun nts- Llouuridoise du S?, n?egal A?NvNeA:LcEquSr AeFrRIC Aun INlE Sf, N O UcV EeL L En lSr?sRIEl,eVcO LsUsMoEa1,PD ?raCE,M BREe2014 21deACmeaidou aMeaedrity2.u, tl?eg ecihentft dceesf yDal??ni yuiautnksob?ors?.dePcourm ep aey(edr) tlneudes on sleerntvribulceentst ntqut eitli iasr eundu si e?o Alcam FHreagncpet, llmai efton cpet?ilonded, r?il irmeanecdemTihi-oocfiive mf?uti iri?msappreerrvc?iee qu?? ss, osn f itlu s Bquioubantc a roc sKtatner ntquiol se. sita ??ilnd?tvcel i?i tle da?ec oluleidmessu o tlatgeetsd.i OMdeailghepiuree uestermdosendintpr icsenedetrenfidieer damuneour?uta wj e uneK,i ueat ico yeIls tF af itnarel emmaenntr ?elni1mNa ne3 ,Bqarban eHOatw-ar rquriut nts esrcasceonfpoiurnqu?mde?s ein 1876 ?ceom mceN?oilei m?anes.lCietsc rerxue prmduplaenisa eslon?ta p ds adufifationtsrantmlmole ntl ?evcocract eganeuvres,dnsem decvestmtrel ts toreartl?igaiquiea sdeune lleasFtr alncaebi. tCsegntsteec , polsi tdurirqueor it reouvree csmo?n ?fdonidedmfeenta mdappanst lluedos rfcadai ta rqu?edelc sa dmsiEnifsltsr aaturi oni cgoposlnonrieaalnsex pta lbeIstoi n, ed tuni d peerfston?ne la slroacaaals ?quie rjroubequ sldes are?lneg udeeircetlcand iesde ienntou rpiee nellun ltec meatt tlqeesnd jpopuldabonnetni onsA oaiuetlocihtdonaewso. eCwee csoncoouvrnsu nceon fro?ir.ee,ler?fefraencqtsirov e mpednto, ibe2aduDc?omup sdeeu rcpr i4vvirel0?AgSe7sr? ?m.ardtn?or?imelllse, edet nom,brce,us4e0s? efpoua ceielriete? ssafdmli ni shtfr. a tsi vureoisne, edte mr?onnmlet prqu cuns nouveepa?u ?s. t?anmtnsuctt espooccduri aocla. eSdoouts? rl oreobof?fpae unt a tdeeos?mrut,adtiisonsr tsvoccilaelle.sL, rl?euse mcnolsorniisC?rsi enee t r ac?eneduntv lpaaesqu ?s dons?d?c?o uvomrei?ror d lieoss m?ntv eirttuuse? deili i?atcon olae?, inolteaem mienentpr cadvpasepac ?seotn onamdmii ni s tdrrsaet? i on oueetd nsanton, oua remq?ie . Cdeonsbamcnsiee nt s idee curelssabanvsa3ntcaegteunespr, ?deest ?efnfmalntsse qd naounecli eenrse epe ns i onncaeierfels edhees Clf m?lcsoleea rs?e r uetndetdu svee r sa icteetet eu dearantir? r ea omaiux sfon dianiss on.den fseu, ievdosrier delcendist eptamsnt onnder ll?eeudu rtsa tprt?ed?zcae su soie,uir-se.aIslasp usi. nvloquedoint, n?plus ?arp puii udea rl euucrrsi idoas s itesrprsm ilea. utceoll lmandebod rdmastiiron die?nt ruepa el eiurr si epatraerntss? eutilu eaadm-iouveninesrtlr asteideona dafurr aomn?eaun ilsten . Ca seasct ul e? ecnaesa, piau,rc reixeimapl e?, cd lAamtasdou aD iuealw 1a, iftiouil s de Maatd.iDa1wm dKuhoDra, quis deemfalnde e?M d?at rher, laddmaidsn q?e nlu ?vcnol eu epou rt dsauitvlrnem pltensm qpea s sde seon fp?rerde ai netde rupr ?etteu ei?ndiregl? ne?? teomYb?ro Dau ac.eAracol ei wde dNiiiorto tau ucdh amepld ,honnle1ur ?o2e.bL e9s1 c.on.s.iJd?,rpactti.onsG saocyiUaelcensu tc onosatei t euesnitn mlne npArFe mr?iie?r .c9r5i.Dr A tquM-AauxD OlU1 AeB?DsO U L ABYhEc DmIandOtPd22tm ? m. e , uislt te s2t, ieolxiigq?e onun onctelrntjiux fxcilcfa t sdet abonne lcionduli?t eb ld.?.l iAvore? pasrl loeapt ?diergeecetdaecumrb dede?le s?ecsold ec lo? dlres rciaandsitdaitlaq ucfcatipost n siels ?dt7udens . oInl0 adoidts per?nf?i n orn?ousssfisrL earu ecburonquec?ourdosstd onvedonnttlrou ?ee & ai?? il donc?icuxo?lueer. lC le sitr crea tquiin ree sasnvosrett dee elon ntecxaa4mrecn urde rle aafrvr ?ontb?d ?du de1c0fochet ob rres19t27une1l. ePeaerm eleat xpsntu iCtniel, ntlrr?e0l ir?err?ut3eunaon2t?-rr?g5ouvdetr,neauro,f cs.ur. dpnr?opo4s idtei9o?n rr?de4B e1urgni edr , sclhe &f du usteharrdu vrieceeau dtequi la ieensre iqg neemeernts prti mtasiurte du , daor3dofnneetquee: ?i &I? tti trree aeex?c elpfteisonneoptl &a pourvrsonon, to r?itvrtee uadmaissl i? rlon r?ac. otllee dedss efqui ljse 2, ded cehe fondson,glretsa dc andptiedamtpase fqu ic, iaOymant ealtttneeiisnftnc ux laa sleicmeitttee sdt ?ge &eeft snoin rpourlvlusi sdul cse rrtci f?i?cuaatndad .?staudeesc, jeutsitaiuf ieemreont :f??, dee lfe ure fmialii an.tliioin di-rpoueutcquet1e? a voebc9 un c hie2f? e7n s e2rcvri9c ep;a??ld ?une 8cson naiosbs2anociet ?seufsflieseant e. JdeRa rtl art liangue 4frr?rnan?4aiAs eo(bpar9l ?peaelt? ?8cdr itt3eo)n npour ? eposuvloiere rsonneulisv reem eavxescde cpger ofrictut mlntels ecpourisi d eaurl v?decmolntee & ?a2parC eu ltceixtnted aneppor t ei uaunei nsd?poriogiauet iaonx iauduxs cciontdi?t.iAonfsr tneinarntm nt?pollt que?. gles aeit ,acutcaerrmtntiaf iucrastl vds q? t ude so. mI ln e xiigeede ll ai ifiialiideaftrieon , dicr, eec?tiea ldu scaaxindiidiaet a vdmenict auin mcthopoletfiiendiEgou?rne, eetnx eadc1939 tiipoveiqut ?us. uE1nr apriocr?194daden ti pansisnsaic,i ions ?ae pourvontoul?ur cceorr?tsaeienienmleente mrali nthee nierll oaonuet.on reiatque?que ldu coheonifa epou r amtapar que?r? eleaa rdilftfon? rvecncunehe qun ic ieixi?sCtsedi poeinitsrontepour oljec if ielnespa del mcnee de ran?ieetron eet icsedeux cdefs uiaontutpour e?she.de?sccede pr o pose dr asielnlseMuir s , suuirv onse Ctharr tson :s?bl & Cuomsmjetntde cpr oc??edetrxt .auE erfetcirn ust eamteentr? sJ?ee pelnussone? rqeu ee alseg freetcir urtaeam e natA te sut1une caofref1a2i,rpec te.ntAit? r?e2m8e/ntP dpol i5toitqueb equi1 3gagn,ec m?l tnne apast ??t2r6e ig? nu?1 pacrolre 9app7l irgcnastni on cbrlut ael ei sded thefx,tAeNsS t7r3opp opr ?ecCiaso., pIclt ,sp ag.iArta ?t3ou1j/ouI rus4 ndev mtree1n3i,rccmomlptten de a tc i?r2c5o nsI tuanc2eas? l9oc9alr?ersa ida tapplrc?lc iea tiisonds hpfe.L ?cspceoil ea dsecs? fnitlason d eL caheraf9 de Sn aitntr-rLiourirst dut S?sn? galtA NuNtALLmEcS lAeF RICaAlINoEfSe,eNiOeU V?EeLaLsEi oSs?sRIEc,quVlOdiLsU MnEe1,nDl?rmCERaMtBREa2014 23 Fnrgaanc ea aat acaomWmce ncS? M?de ftdou rsneer tlFet tdoisonn? ?l lcfett1tme ec-oSndiatgieo. n sdes elea 2 fgeirldei2autDinon ? 1ePlar r a?idl lper?urcrdse,ad aaiut r,eDsf dmuodiefoi hcnar,tsimonse tsaontP plidanultle ravfeonnue,s .e ME?n edmfefme t?, l asr rbdoul??tf?l adau i15r ?arv rci le1933 ant praoeraoge?t lsar daatieon pleirmsistcel de r189aqsesoetmSbl, e meeinti, eon lsae fei?xatneto ?adiaxdu-urhuiftla?nse.i?ed?of?a uott fdu coeerut iifrreilcraa tri rnd s?ttsupdees pruiimqaoimrnessp, ll ed rtctaendiidda ta doint ej,usetni1fNi3elr ed unroeuastit6e,sdtsaotHirson Dd8?1l?iivntr ?eel p aire rle , ?acurolAeI fr ?brgbdoulineoniahlden lean apltues. lprcoAcihe nidea ston ?dptomei c?isleeu,hjrusuet iosf?iSalaant. rqu sielque rdnei s pofs ee idenom esun uprf faias aqmembe nt rdef ?c.onnadosirsnssonatnceetsm padeep el aa slta?ngiuecf r aans?iarivsLet epourra tpouv2oiird es uciivderae, bl?eisoui uaceoures, d?dem ld? t? clo liec. sI li rye abl ea us sjip ?l raiuittodraiis attsieonfdu , parrlenonnt? ou ldu rtiuet etudure url ?rgEa9l semn vteardtau udem ulmai .c ouctsum ep. dShi? ecneilnui --ceio pepsotv risl?leestntlre? , reiclndoiitn ospet sfuaninreeo .apscsnins tleirt upa rl edeuux reti? mcoiinsu emiaNjyeeurasd. 0Lvere 0doAsSs7i.ear, eehs tc octom pli? tF?a npla r1un -r0a?prepor tt csirerLc onsvttaencki1?,, ?yttambtlqueie paarr clv biaidm?idniunesctndrdaaurt.eaur xdu mceelrccndiltee d ibdont ?brr,eisssd?I aeAt va?, rnciefcie? u paatrde Kln li nsapepcst?e?urrt nued eeson iahef fngali,rleasi sardmtiurnidesatar,actmievtenu ss, antrcedenste,icg nautntr cdee imqa nie?sroppeepr ?Ac iamsKene 3sCur elua pxpair eentti?m ntdu pcralndi daatt, queslurde nle amu tsor iput ?odu, tldeel prrensetei guies re ti nll siinf?l?uesnrcneapolsiLt isquee aititcafcchi? ss aru nsgir, ourpel fearmsintlntidea ldm nidontt aiil f ansiett urpdasratfiiee. Admunistsaii, ei.n frorimle -etde- irl?s?urdu 7 lae 3 paisposs ?ue lhi?soltdotr isquet gdess? aalsec eanntdaLnstqsr idu rcda ndiordaprtnd serta sslur nomlnaeisde Csle?revdeifcledesh fr etndudsspanre prctessL ?dearinisemrntse ?t tlu oura dlmci nioussltdireatton idon rfcrea n?ea ifsaer. sRpoeigiaer.doncst ecfettl eaxttrcaei?tc qued &ee crla?p poerottcavicrlcapponsobatian n cric?e dseaf aile 1andm1i4ni,sntur aotmesuar odu rncne recll ee xde? eLGoueg ao, daavee ca Frn?eseitde?nucee? o?eJcoaliorefd, pouor lxas seict.uEatteilon du r?jceuune? B iarsanhaiemie? NC editaly en:q?e &tBoi r ahiamuel eNndita yoeu eetstto un eenxuc eelel ean to r s iujseatt, dc lpansres2?p opar miio slaecs? dm e aimlnlserauresr ?ulc?rcveeds odge llt f??clo laed ddtere dYBiangh-mY andg &a ej en dstu ius3 poeerbs u9ad?1 q.u .i.lJ .cKom pitleor a Lau snomcdeess mde ialtlneeur se ?plv?nveeds ...?o2t. N???aanmaoisnsd, l8a0 1r6??unimonm ide se mc?ondriietdiionst ir,eFqSui,sUeise in? di maplai qu9e5 pa.s8s.Dr AMsteAiD2O Ui Ad Bd D Oon UlL AeYeEa DfIiOfPs24dmpolti tciequen?son. omdersr de?tls?avse so ?iinette rfnaeasu &ons?f1i. Lr eaerstfiurctld e 3udu mi?amfe uteecx-tteg cc onf i rimvei iquem delfeicon olal ?egncea je srtn dplquausct?m lsrouuns elunacdon disr e chet iaonv tdue ss danef fmasiir ecs, ?psol iLtliburqiueason sentte ou sdouis1 1lNe 1ctosnStsr ?l eti lmimn?edirattpa odei delr ti nisipescEtpoureonu, rc dreisf ? c olielst liendiage?tnerse rdeas dupaeyts epreourta?ig ?ss . cEmn sspuiitiec, alteet elx tse ede s192r7 quidims posdeec ncqp?uea tlheg gdos?siioierre leesete ranidrredusisdi?de eadeu lticeiutomesnaint -degrou?veeirn neeurd edceclsaa tcdmoeltonrieer ?pamr, ,l ?i5not,eircm ? diAa.i)rie tdeese laondmri niisatrraa.tdoserur?st adess cnselrpecurl eass.ni?acee tomtsea sdarteee,e tillocsonduiutl tlsar clomlmiiisisaison udeune eliaa n cioquer rdeocct iouonde d?deisun p? pvr, eeuviepst ld olernurtcrs?cende ?r il s?quoiceolee nte tg flaamc omemeiislsiin plon dde c sln leixlaommsean sdea msioritrive . rEen 1933, cldeelse sp ouv?oi rnsst dedu fcrhaasrtgs?e edemlm easdm ienissbst reahet,iionr ugn ?fn?sr alleer es-onts d?ttuesndums . ontLi cirnlsspnee cat,edmurt edeesf burapofifeaeiurrleosealdmheieniisttureadrtup?iurv eison ers the 2d?al ?agsui?s palri tlieolaiEesutaennaounmtm-deglouvie?runeiurr urpnoniura rloie? n?ceonutntrv?lurerr?pedr7mia9nepntt deA Sl7 rr??nt4aAb lti3srsaeamlelnte. Iild ehs,tN l e9 pr3?destindeen?ta det lrar clomsmpopuiasissieon cshaarcgv?les detron feac?eiveoiLr spuei se u ds erxansmii nerrl slseis dos snsiceer ss adef iceaandiisdarttuvrse? une?c lm s?icd oldmes iepout on rxemnn. d ncfomept,e diercelcitaeemreint sa n?u ecsheife ddei ulquea accovlloniset on dren? iteousa xleessg nsfprasidtnssu melte a catteasi icn onocaeerenatnrt lc iirnstton, i trutsieotn aean ileuipou fn ouranirs sla nta d teouctlebo aienfsoartmfa t iomon aou mprntotposriitoriao.n Caeltlpouralnrtc utdamnsnt sleeoseed ns rdend osmon lbosn efquioncatrindu oncnesmaernt . aCm seesate leuiom iquis,o de?? eltaon, a pef?i cnm sdei ldm sainn?Le ,om idrseon sdmsniet aunireadepporrctut mqu nti?ll ?coomemsuniiques dacufleitecuposteedenalnti-pgcouev esranefuri equi dmsniitganei el e spr on c??ese-psvlepr?bailnt od,en al aa eleiousd tmec md?ntfunidmnniittaievree cdees ?cian?ndipad aetouvsr ua.dmcilsi ce, n ontcaljansssaetse seupbr?srqueise u rnepest ue t c enlelgem ntdepr mcieeuxl aquiis rdotiuv en nthe ? teru el tequexcll usr. cMea i s celnd s1939,i sicnft etrun vnsiieunte runde maodiefsircea. taicomn. sLi eatr?taigcelaec7 fidu ne efu isnea fdei el ndagrner ?ttd? dedm n1939s2rposteo cquel ille. ndosas i ebre ce s teap?drheees s ?e ui?c , li gi nsn pedmcnitteaure deusa iasfrftaui arjens d sagdm pai lnilsettrnaa-touievnee.sA.t Pua2r ac on8s3? qur?eint?, .on.p.eJu.tAditr e? 2qu5 /iI,l2 as? a9g9i t? rgln?s nd ?uneo esdtsrfalt ?egciees c.o.l.onOi6a7l(e1 .