History of the Council of Europe

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The Council of Europe, the oldest European organisation, was founded in 1949 with the aim of unifying the continent as a whole. The decision to establish its headquarters in Strasbourg was, moreover, symbolic of the desire for reconciliation between peoples. From the outset the Council of Europe adopted an institutional structure comprising a committee of ministers and a parliamentary assembly - the first in Europe. This book retraces the history of the Organisation.



Consisting initially of Western European states, the Council of Europe was destined to embrace all the continent's countries, but the Cold War delayed its enlargement. It is only since 1989 that the Council of Europe has become a truly pan-European organisation, now comprising 47 member states.



Its mission is based on three major goals: protecting human rights, promoting democratic values and guaranteeing the rule of law. The Council of Europe is also very active in fostering co-operation in all areas of life: education, sport, culture, etc. Starting in 1959, the European Court of Human Rights grew to become the Organisation's flagship institution: its judgments are binding on the member states.



As an intergovernmental organisation, the Council of Europe has had to contend with the growth of the European Union and has sought constantly to redefine its role in international relations. In these early years of the 21st century, will it succeed in securing a key position in the European institutional architecture?

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Date de parution 01 avril 2013
Nombre de visites sur la page 5
EAN13 9789287178459
Langue English

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Historyof theCouncil of Europe
Birte Wassenberg Foreword by MarieThérèse Bitsch
History of the Council of Europe
Bîrte Wassenberg Foreword by Marîe-Thérèse Bîtsch
Councî of Europe Pubîshîng
French edîtîon:
Hîstoîre du Conseî de ’Europe
ISBN 978-92-871-7604-2
The opînîons expressed în thîs work are the responsîbîîty of the author and do not neces-sarîy relect the oficîa poîcy of the Councî of Europe.
A rîghts reserved. No part of thîs pubîcatîon may be transated, reproduced or transmîtted, în any form or by any means, eectronîc (CD-Rom, Internet, etc.) or mechanîca, încudîng photocopyîng, recordîng or any înformatîon storage or retrîeva system, wîthout prîor permîssîon în wrîtîng from the Dîrectorate of Communîcatîon (F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex or pubîshîng@coe.înt).
Cover desîgn and ayout: Documents and Pubîcatîons Productîon Department (SPDP), Councî of Europe
Councî of Europe Pubîshîng F-67075 Strasbourg Cedex http://book.coe.înt
ISBN 978-92-871-7633-2 ©Councî of Europe, Juy 2013 Prînted at the Councî of Europe
Contents
List of acronyms and abbreviations............................................................ 7 Foreword......................................................................................................... 9 General introduction................................................................................... 13 Part OneFrom inception to the Greek crisis (19491969)................. 17 Introductîon to Part One....................................................................... 19 1. The settîng up of the Councî of Europe.......................................... 20 The Hague Congress, May 1948 ...................................................... 20 The Treaty of London, 5 May 1949................................................. 22 Federaîst begînnîngs: the Assemby starts work ............................ 26 Fîrst new members: Greece, Turkey, Iceand and the FRG............ 31 2. Co-operatîon gets under way în key areas ...................................... 33 Human rîghts: Conventîon and Court ............................................. 33 Cutura co-operatîon ........................................................................ 37 A lag for Europe............................................................................... 40 The European Conference of Loca Authorîtîes ............................. 40 Towards a European Socîa Charter ................................................ 43 The European Pharmacopoeîa ......................................................... 46 3. The Sîx consoîdate: the Councî of Europe’s response .................. 48 From Schuman to Eden: pans for the Councî ............................... 48 Estabîshment of the EEC and EFTA: the Assemby foows deveopments..................................................................................... 51 Efforts to ratîonaîse the European înstîtutîons ............................. 53 Unîfyîng Europe: the Councî of Europe’s bîd to orchestrate the process ......................................................................................... 54 The response to the UK’s appîcatîons for EEC membershîp ........ 56 4. The Councî of Europe: a payer on the înternatîona stage? ......... 57 The admîssîon of two neutra states: Austrîa and Swîtzerand ..... 58 New Medîterranean members: Cyprus and Mata .......................... 59 Reatîons wîth înternatîona and non-governmenta organîsatîons ..................................................................................... 60 Reatîons wîth non-member countrîes ............................................ 61 The Councî of Europe’s response to înternatîona crîses.............. 63 The Greek crîsîs ................................................................................ 65 Concusîon to Part One ......................................................................... 67
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History of the Council of Europe
Part Two – Seeking a distinct identity (19691989).............................. 69 Introductîon to Part Two ...................................................................... 71 1. Competîtîon wîth the Communîty ................................................... 72 The Councî of Europe and enargement of the EEC ..................... 72 Efforts to become a forum for European poîcy debate .................. 75 Seekîng amodus vîvendîwîth the EEC ............................................ 78 2. Launchîng co-operatîon în new areas .............................................. 82 The European Youth Centre and European Youth Foundatîon ..... 83 Promotîng educatîon, cuture and sport for a ............................... 84 A European anthem.......................................................................... 86 Eurîmages .......................................................................................... 88 Lega co-operatîon ............................................................................. 89 Envîronmenta and herîtage conservatîon ...................................... 91 3. Defendîng fundamenta vaues......................................................... 95 The Court steps up îts actîvîty ......................................................... 95 Advances în socîa rîghts .................................................................. 99 Combatîng torture, the death penaty and terrorîsm .................... 101 Co-operatîon between oca and regîona authorîtîes ................... 104 Conferences on parîamentary democracy .................................... 107 4. Crîsîs management and enargement ............................................. 109 The re-admîssîon of Greece and southward enargement (Portuga and Spaîn) ....................................................................... 109 Crîses în the Medîterranean: Cyprus, Mata and Turkey............. 112 EUR-OPA and the settîng up of the North-South Centre în Lîsbon.......................................................................................... 116 The accessîon of two mîcro-states and Fînand ............................ 118 5. The Councî of Europe ooks eastwards ........................................ 121 Gradua openîng up to communîst countrîes ................................ 121 Introductîon of specîa-guest status ............................................... 123 Gorbachev addresses the Assemby: the common European home ................................................................................................ 124 Concusîon to Part Two ...................................................................... 125
Part ThreeThe renaissance of the Council of Europe as a panEuropean organisation (19892009)....................................... 129 Introductîon to Part Three.................................................................. 131 1. Waves of accessîons after the fa of the Wa ................................ 132 Condîtîons of membershîp ............................................................. 133 Admîssîon of the countrîes of Centra and Eastern Europe ........ 135 The accessîon of Sovenîa and the Batîc states ............................ 138 The conundrum of Russîa’s accessîon .......................................... 140 Admîssîon of the other former Sovîet repubîcs ........................... 142
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Contents
Admîssîon of the former Yugosav repubîcs and Abanîa ........... 145 Admîssîon of the remaînîng mîcro-states: Andorra and Monaco..................................................................................... 149 2. New toos for co-operatîon ............................................................. 151 The Venîce Commîssîon ................................................................ 151 The Youth Centre în Budapest and the Centre for Modern Languages în Graz........................................................................... 152 A profusîon of decentraîsed bodîes .............................................. 154 The advent of monîtorîng .............................................................. 156 Estabîshment of the Congress of Loca and Regîona Authorîtîes ...................................................................................... 157 3. The Councî of Europe Summîts .................................................... 161 The Vîenna Summît, 1993 ............................................................. 161 The Strasbourg Summît, 1997........................................................ 163 The Warsaw Summît, 2005 ............................................................ 165 4. Pîot co-operatîon projects .............................................................. 167 Protectîon of natîona mînorîtîes .................................................. 168 The European Commîssîon agaînst Racîsm and Intoerance....... 169 Innovatîve cutura co-operatîon projects ...................................... 170 New toos of ega co-operatîon ...................................................... 172 Protectîon of human rîghts în bîomedîcîne................................... 173 New threats of the 21st century: the Councî of Europe’s response .......................................................................................... 174 5. Reform of the human rîghts protectîon machînery....................... 178 Revîsîon of the Socîa Charter........................................................ 178 Fîrst reform: estabîshment of the sînge Court ............................ 179 The Commîssîoner for Human Rîghts .......................................... 183 Broadenîng the scope of the European Conventîon on Human Rîghts .............................................................................................. 185 Second reform: Protoco No. 14 .................................................... 187 Towards a thîrd reform of the Court ............................................ 189 6. The Councî of Europe’s pace în the European archîtecture ...... 190 Introductîon of observer status and NGO partîcîpatory status.... 190 The Councî of Europe’s contrîbutîon to peace-keepîng .............. 193 Reatîons wîth the CSCE/OSCE: between rîvary and co-operatîon ............................................................................. 196 Contractuaîsîng reatîons wîth the EU ......................................... 199 Concusîon to Part Three .................................................................... 202 General conclusion.................................................................................... 205 Chronology of events................................................................................. 209 List of agreements, charters and conventions....................................... 219
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History of the Council of Europe
Lists of prominent personalities.............................................................. 237 Lîst of secretarîes genera of the Councî of Europe.......................... 237 Lîst of presîdents of the Assemby ..................................................... 237 Lîst of presîdents of the Congress of Loca and Regîona Authorîtîes........................................................................................... 238 Lîst of presîdents of the European Court of Human Rîghts ............. 238 Lîst of commîssîoners for human rîghts ............................................ 238 Bibliography............................................................................................... 239
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List of acronyms and abbreviations
 CAP Common Agrîcutura Poîcy  CCC/CDCC Councî for Cutura Co-operatîon/Steerîng Commîttee for Cutura Co-operatîon  CDDS Steerîng Commîttee for the Deveopment of Sport  CEM Councî of European Munîcîpaîtîes  CEPEJ European Commîssîon for the Eficîency of Justîce  CETS Councî of Europe Treaty Serîes  CICMUE Internatîona Co-ordînatîng Commîttee of Movements for European Unîty  CLRAE Standîng Conference of Loca and Regîona Authorîtîes of Europe Conventîon/ECHR Conventîon for the Protectîon of Human Rîghts and Fundamenta Freedoms or European Conventîon on Human Rîghts  Court European Court of Human Rîghts  CPT European Commîttee for the Preventîon of Torture and Inhuman or Degradîng Treatment or Punîshment  CSCE Conference on Securîty and Co-operatîon în Europe  ECRI European Commîssîon agaînst Racîsm and Intoerance  ECSC European Coa and Stee Communîty  EDC European Defence Communîty  EEC European Economîc Communîty  EFTA European Free Trade Assocîatîon  ENP European Neîghbourhood Poîcy  EPA European Poîtîca Authorîty  EPAS Enarged Partîa Agreement on Sport  EPC European Poîtîca Cooperatîon  ETS European Treaty Serîes  EU European Unîon  Euratom European Atomîc Energy Communîty  EUR-OPA European and Medîterranean Major Hazards Agreement  EYC European Youth Centre  EYCB European Youth Centre Budapest  EYF European Youth Foundatîon  FRG Federa Repubîc of Germany  GDR German Democratîc Repubîc  GMT Mutîdîscîpînary Group on Internatîona Actîon agaînst Terrorîsm  GRECO Group of States agaînst Corruptîon
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History of the Council of Europe
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ILO Internatîona Labour Organîzatîon INGO Internatîona non-governmenta organîsatîon IRA Irîsh Repubîcan Army LDA Loca Democracy Agency NALAS Network of Assocîatîons of Loca Authorîtîes of South-East Europe NATO North Atantîc Treaty Organîzatîon NGO Non-governmenta organîsatîon NSC North-South Centre OECD Organîsatîon for Economîc Co-operatîon and Deveopment OEEC Organîsatîon for European Economîc Co-operatîon OSCE Organîzatîon for Securîty and Co-operatîon în Europe UEF Unîon of European Federaîsts WEU Western European Unîon WHO Word Heath Organîzatîon
Foreword
More than 60 years after îts foundatîon, the Councî of Europe has inay found îts hîstorîan, a young ecturer at the Unîversîty of Strasbourg. Sînce the 1980s, ît has been a recurrent wîsh of thîs organîsatîon to have îts hîstory wrîtten. Severa tîmes abandoned, the project has become a reaîty wîth thîs book, an abrîdged versîon of a post-doctora thesîs submîtted în 2011, the fu text of whîch was recenty pubîshed by a specîaîst pubîsher of books 1 on European îssues. More concîse than the orîgîna academîc work, thîs pubîcatîon provîdes an exceent overvîew for readers anxîous to get to the heart of the matter.
The story of the Councî of Europe îs an unusua one. Founded în the after-math of the Second Word War to achîeve greater unîty among Europeans through “common actîon în economîc, socîa, cutura, scîentîic, ega and admînîstratîve matters and în the maîntenance and further reaîsatîon of 2 human rîghts and fundamenta freedoms”, the Councî of Europe was rap-îdy suppanted by the European Economîc Communîty, whîch evoved înto the current European Unîon (EU). Based în Strasbourg, whîch îs the seat of a îts înstîtutîons (for exampe the Commîttee of Mînîsters, Parîamentary Assemby, Secretarîat Genera, Congress of Loca and Regîona Authorîtîes, European Court of Human Rîghts and the Commîssîoner for Human Rîghts), ît îs often confused în the pubîc mînd wîth the European Parîament, an EU body whîch for a ong tîme hed îts sessîons în the Councî of Europe’s assemby chamber. The înstîtutîonaîsatîon of summîts of the heads of state or government of the EU member states în the form of the European Councî 3 adds to the confusîon, not to mentîon the frequent mîstransatîons.
Whîe the Councî of Europe’s îmage may seem a îtte vague, ît îs aso para-doxîca. Estabîshed as a tradîtîona întergovernmenta organîsatîon în whîch the Commîttee of Mînîsters takes the împortant decîsîons on a unanîmous basîs whîe the Parîamentary Assemby îs purey consutatîve, the Councî of Europe îs most famous for îts human rîghts protectîon system, the keystone of whîch, the European Court of Human Rîghts, îs în practîce a supranatîona body based on acceptance by the member states of îts jurîsdîctîon and the rîght of îndîvîdua petîtîon. Perceîved înîtîay as an embodîment of the Cod War, îke a the organîsatîons founded în Europe before the détente of the 1970s,
1. Wassenberg 2012a. 2. Artîce 1 of the Statute of the Councî of Europe (European Treaty Serîes No. 1), the found-îng treaty sîgned în London on 5 May 1949. 3. The Councî of Europe îs caedConseî de ’Europeîn French andEuroparatîn German; European Councî îs transated asConseî européenandEuropäîscher Rat.
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