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Population et défis de développement en Afrique subsaharienne

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158 pages
La population demeure l'élément central des stratégies de développement. Dès lors que l'on veut comprendre les défis auxquels les stratégies de développement doivent faire face en Afrique subsaharienne, il est impérieux d'analyser les contingences et les évolutions qui caractérisent la population. Les auteurs de ce numéro proposent des éclairages analytiques sur la fécondité, l'éducation, la nutrition et les migrations en Afrique subsaharienne. (Articles en français et en anglais).
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Population et défs 7
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Ce numéro a été coordonné
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par Jacques Emina et David Shapiro
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Population and development Dounia est la revue d'analyse et de recherche comnim core aperchit velit laboreiumque natur aut
du Centre d’Intelligence Stratégique et des Relations Internationales (CISRI) challenges in sub-Saharan Africaationse ped qui volorecabo. Atus, conemporrum
Co DE
Prix : XX17 € BArrE CISRIISBN : 978-2-343-02874-3 ISBN : 978-2-296XXX
Code barreCode barre CISRICISRIHH
Maquette de couverture : Serge Lauret / Illustration : Dynamic World © phecsone
Population et défs de développement en Afrique subsaharienne
DouniaDounia
Revue d’intelligence stratégique
et des relations internationales
B
Kinshasa, Bruxelles, Paris
B
Janvier 2014
B
Une publication du Centre d’Intelligence Stratégique
et des Relations Internationales
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 1Directeur général du cisri
et directeur de publication de la revue Dounia
Henri MOVA Sakanyi
r édacteur en chef
Eddie TAMBWE
r édacteurs en chef adjoints
Jean-Claude MWEWA ; Jok OGA UKELO ;
Claude BUSE ; KALOMBO N’SWAN
re sponsable des publications
Patrice KAMANDA
secrétaires de rédaction
Moïse LUMANDE ; Placide TSHIBAKA ; ADAMSWARE
r éalisation et suivi éditorial
Serge LAURET
Marketing et développement international
Jean-Jacques DURé
comité scientifque
BANYAKU LUAPE (Université de Kinshasa)
BONGELI Emile (Université de Kinshasa)
EKAMBO Jean-Chrétien (IFASIC, Kinshasa)
ESTIVALS Robert (Association Internationale de Bibliologie, France)
KABUYA LUMUNA SANDO (Université de Kinshasa)
KASONGO NUMBI (Universités de Lubumbashi et de Kinshasa)
LABANA LASAY’ABAR (Université de Kinshasa)
MABI MULUMBA Evariste (Université de Kinshasa)
MATANGILA MUSADILA Léon (Université de Kinshasa)
MBAYO NGOIE (Université de Lubumbashi)
MOVA Sakanyi Henri (Université de Kinshasa)
MPASI MAKENGA B. (Université Pédagogique Nationale de Kinshasa)
NTUMBA LUABA (Université de Kinshasa)
OKANA N’SIAWI LEBUN (Université de Kinshasa)
SHOMBA KINYAMBA (Université de Kinshasa)
STRUYE de SWIELANDE Tanguy (Université catholique de Louvain)
TAMBWE KITENGE Eddie (Paris VII Denis Diderot et IFASIC)
TSHIBAMBE NGOIE Germain (Université de Lubumbashi)
TSHIMPANGA MATALA (Université de Lubumbashi et Complutense, Madrid)
TSHIYEMBE MWAYILA (Paris 9, Nancy et Institut Panafricain de Géopolitique)
978-2-343-02874-3© L2 ’H a rmattaDno, 2un0ia1, r4. 5ev-u7e d, rue d'intee l lli’géceolence s-Pol tryatteécghniqiquue ee, 7t d5 0es r05e Palartiios.n ISs iBnNt :e 9rn7a8t-i2o-XXXnale-XXXXXs -XPopulation et défis de développemen t
en Afrique subsaharienne
Population and development challenges
in sub-Saharan Africa
Numéro coordonné
par Jacques Emina et David Shapiro
© L’Harmattan, 2014. 5-7, rue de l’école-Polytechnique, 75 005 Paris. ISBN : 978-2-XXX-XXXXX-X Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 3Qualité des auteurs
Biographical notes
Jean-Luc DEMONSANT is currently Postdoc Researcher at the Centre for Population,
Poverty and Public Policy Studies (CEPS/INSTEAD) in Luxembourg. His resear-ch includes mi
croeconomics of migration, complementing Econometrics with interdisciplinary perspectives. He
formerly elaborated and directed two household surveys in Senegal in 2004, studying the impact
of the former caste system, and in Mexico in 2010 on return migration.
Henry V. DOCTOR, an Associate Research Scientist, graduated in 2003 with a doctoral
degree in demography from the University of Pennsylvania. His thesis was entitled “Mortality
in twentieth-century Malawi.” He took up a postdoctoral research fellowship (sponsored by the
Mellon Foundation) based at the Navrongo Health Research Centre in the Upper East Region,
Ghana. He has 13 years of experience as a population scientist and also worked at the Universities
of Malawi and the Western Cape (South Africa), and Statistics South Africa. He is currently a
resident operations research advisor for a program to revitalize routine immunization, maternal,
newborn, and child health in northern Nigeria. His research interests include Mortality; Fertility
Transitions; Religion and Demographic Behavior; Survey Research Design and Implementation;
Demographic Surveillance and Longitudinal Health Research; and Health Systems Operations
Research. He is also the Secretary General of the Union for African Population Studies.
David DE LA CROi x is Professor of Economics and member oIRf bES oath nd CORE at
UCLouvainB ( elgium). He has taught on a visiting basis at UCLA, Copenhagen, Ai-x-Marseille, Nan
terre, Capetown, Sao Paulo and Rostock. He is associate editor for the Journal of Economic Dynamics
and Control, the Journal of Development Economics, and the Journal of Public Economic Teory. His
research interests cover economic demography, overlapping generations, and g -rowth. His choice of to
pics reveals that he is mostly interested in understanding households’ incentives and their efects in the
long-run. Working with c 4o3  -author, he shas published over 70 research articles (including in journals
such as American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Teory and Review of Economic Studies),
and a treatise on Economic Growth co-authored with Philippe Michel. He has also written a number
of policy briefs addressed to a more general audience. And he has supervised 1 . 4 doctoral dissertations
Jacques B.O. EMi NA is Associated Professor at the University of Kinshasa -, Department of Po
pulation and Development Studies (Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC) and Programme Manager
for the Scientifc Research and Co-ordination of the INDEPTH Network. He completed his PhD
in Social Sciences (Demography) from the Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium) in March 2005.
He previously worked as Senior Research Bio-Statistician at the Malawi Liverpool Wellcome Trust
in Malawi (2011), WHO/TDR-PSI regional coordinator for the External Evaluation of the Impact of
4 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationalesPSI’s intervention of Community Case Management of Childhood Illness on all causes Childhood
Mortality in Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Malawi (2010-2011). Prof. Emina
also worked as Associated Research and Head of the Data Unit at Africa- n Population and Health Re
search Center (APHRC) in Nairobi, Kenya. His research interests include ado-lescent health, the De
mography of family and household, childhood health and quantitative research in social sciences. He
is a member of professional associations including the Population Associat-ion of America (PAA), In
ternational Union for the Scientifc Study of Population (IUSSP), Association for the Sociology of
Religion, International Statistical Institute, Union for African Population Studies (UAPS).
Raïmi FASSASSi, démo-économiste, est enseignant-chercheur à l’ENSEA d’A -bidjan. Spé
cialiste des questions de pauvreté humaine, il travaille actuellement sur l’évolution de la fécondité
en Afrique subsaharienne.
Paula GOBBi (PhD 2013) is a Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the Paris School of Economics.
She is also afliated to IRES at UCLouvain (Belgium). She graduated in April 2013 as a PhD in
Economics from UCLouvain. Her research felds are Demographic Economics, Q- uantitative Macroe
conomics, Development and Growth. Her work has appeared in the Journal of Population Economics.
Oluwatoni i DOWU, an Assistant Nutrition Coordinator at Action Against Hunger - USA
(ACF International), graduated in 2006 with a bachelor’s degree in Biochemistry from Babcock
University and currently studying Masters in Public Health (International) at the University of
Leeds, United Kingdom. Before joining ACF International, she was a program assistant for a
program to revitalize routine immunization, maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) in
northern Nigeria where she worked on a number of initiatives to improve MNCH outcomes. At
ACF International, she is part of team that is using the community-based management of acute
malnutrition to reduce acute child malnutrition in Jigawa and Yobe States in Nigeria. Her research
interests include maternal and child health as well as health systems operations research.
Abdulazeez JUMARE graduated in 2008 with a Postgraduate Diploma in Computer Science
from Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria, Nigeria. He is currently the Data Manager for
Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Zamfara State, Nigeria. He
also holds the position of Data Analysis/Operations Manager in the D -epartment of Commu
nity Medicine at ABU. He is currently overseeing all the data management/IT related issues of
Nahuche HDSS and also provide data management support to the operations research unit of the
Program to Revitalize Immunization in Northern Nigeria – Maternal Newborn and Child Health
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 5Biographical notes
(PRRINN-MNCH). He has also provided database development and management support to
Oriade HDSS site in southern Nigeria, UNICEF, Save the Children International, and Nigeria’s
National Health Insurance Scheme. His area of interest is software development and data analysis.
Ngianga-Bakwin KANDALA is currently a Principal Research Fellow in He- alth Techno
logy Assessment and has a joint appointment with the University of Oxford (KEMRI-Oxford
Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme) and the University of Warwick, Warwick Medical
School, Division of Health Sciences, Population and Evidence Group. He also holds an honorary
Associate Professor position at the Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public
Health, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Prior to joining Warwick, he
worked as a Medical Statistician at King’s College London, a Research Fellow at the University of
Southampton, a Mellon Foundation fellow at University of Montreal, Canada, the University of
Munich (LMU), Germany and the University of Lagos, Nigeria as an Associate Lecturer. Principal
Research Fellow in Health Technology Assessment: With a background in Medical Statistics and
Demography, Kandala’s area of research interest is statistical modelling, especially Multivariate
Statistics, Generalized Linear Models, Analysis of Discrete Data and St-ate Space Models for Lon
gitudinal and Spatial Data, focusing mainly on the infuence of environmental factors on health in
diverse population. His current research interests include, statistical me-thods applied to epidemio
logy, survival analysis meta-analysis, Bayesian Analysis and Health Technology Assessment.
Bernard Mumpasi LUTUTALA est Docteur (PH.D) en démographie de l’Universite de
Montréal (1987). Il enseigne à l’Universite de Kinshasa (DSPD/ FASEG) depuis 1-987 et dans plu
sieurs autres universités de la RD Congo et d’Afrique, dont l’Universite Cheikh Anta Diop de
Dakar (UCAD). Il a été progressivement Chef du DSPD, Président de l’UEPA, Vice-Doyen en
charge de la recherche à la FASEG, Recteur de l’Universite Kongo, Recteur de l’Universite de
Kinshasa, puis Secrétaire Exécutif adjoint du CODESRIA à Dakar. Sesrech-erches portent princi
palementsur les migrations congolaisesetafricaines
Jose Mobhé Agbada MANGALU has Ph.D. in Demography of the Université Catholique de
Louvain (Belgium). He is currently Associate Professor in the Department of Population Sciences and
Development, Faculty of Economics and Management at the University of Kinshasa (DR Congo). His
area oi ntf erest include the analysis of international migration, dynamics between international migrants
and their households of origin, Research methods in social sciences, Data collection and data mining.
Olatunji ALABi, a PhD student at ObafemiAwolowo University, Ile-ife, Nigeria, graduated
with a Master of Science degree in demography and social statistics from the same university in
2010. His thesis was titled “Evaluation of the decision to emigrate among nu-rses in teaching hospi
tals in Osun and Oyo States, Nigeria.” While awaiting the senate approval of his MSc results, he
assisted the department of demography in teaching an undergraduate co-urse in research metho
dology. He has three years experience working as the manager of Nahuch-e Health and Demo
graphic Surveillance System in Nigeria. His research interests include migration; reproductive
health; survey research design; demographic surveillance and longitudinal health research. Some
of his published research has appeared in journals such as Tropical Doctor, Online Journal of Public
Health Informatics, and International Journal of Population Research.
6 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationalesQualité des auteurs
Osman SANKOH directs the INDEPTH Network of 42 member health and demographic
surveillance system (HDSS) centers in 20 countries in Africa, Asia, and Oceania. A biostatistician/
epidemiologist, Prof. Sankoh has many years of experience in conducting, fac-ilitating, and coordina
ting research for health in low- and middle-income countries. He is a product of Njala University in
Sierra Leone and the Technical University of Dortmund, Germany, where he studied mathematics
and statistics, respectively. Osman is an academic editor for PLOS ONE, an editor for IJE and an
assistant editor for TMIH. He holds an honorary associate professorship in the School of Public
Health at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa - and a honorary profes
sorship in the Faculty of Public Health at the Hanoi Medical University in Hanoi, Viet Nam.
David SHAPi RO is a Professor of Economics, Demography, and Women’s Studies at the
Pennsylvania State University.  He earned his Ph.D. in Economics from Princeton University
in 1972 and has been at Penn State since 1980, following a stint at the Ohio State University.  He
has spent a total of about six years in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)
since 1978, teaching, doing research, and working as team leader on a development project at the
Ministry of Agriculture.  His primary research focus in recent years has been on fertility transition
in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) generally and in Kinshasa and the DRC more specifcally.  He also
has done research on children’s access to schooling in SSA and on the labor market in Kinshasa.
Steve TOLLMAN is Associate Professor at the School of Public Health, University of the
Witwatersrand where he heads the Health and Population Division and also directs the Agincourt
Health and Population Research Unit, sited in South Africa’s rural north-east (Bushbuckridge re
gion). He is also the Principal Scientist of the INDEPTH Network and the leader of INDEPTH
Network Working Group in adult health and Aging. Prof. Tollman, a Rhodes Scholar, holds a
Master of Medicine from the University of the Witwatersrand, an MA from Oxford University,
UK, and a Master of Public Health from the Harvard School of Public Health, USA.He’s held
some honorary positions as Research Associate at the University of Colorado USA and also as
Guest Professor at the Centre for Global Health, Professor Umeå University, Sweden.
Yazoume YÉ has a Ph.D. in Epidemiology and Public Health and a master-’s degree in Com
munity Health and Health Management from the University of Heidelberg Medical School in
Germany. He also has a Diploma (Certifcat de Maitrise) and a bachelor’s degree in Geography
from the University of Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). YazoumeYé has extens -ive experience in de
mographic surveillance systems as well as in survey design and implement-ation. He has an exten
sive record of publications in renowned peer-reviewed journals and presentations at international
conferences, mostly in malaria and other public health issues. His resea-rch interests include mala
ria epidemiology and impact evaluation of national-scale malaria control interventions and impact
of climate change on health. Dr. YazoumeYé leads the MEASURE Evaluation malaria portfolio
and is involved in the multi-agency impact evaluation of malaria control efort initiated by the U.S.
President’s Malaria Initiative. He is also a deputy director in the Independent Evaluation of the
Afordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm).
Patrice V i MARD, démographe, est directeur de recherche à l’IRD. Il mène actuellement des
recherches sur les changements démographiques et les politiques de développement en Afrique.
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 7Sommaire
Contents
IntroductIon
Jacques B.O. Emina and David Shap ................................................................iro 10
ÉvolutIon de la fÉcondItÉ, croIssance ÉconomIque
et dÉveloppement humaIn en afrIque subsaharIenne
Raïmi Fassassi & Patrice Vi m.........................................................................ard 16
l’expansIon de l’ÉducatIon en afrIque
annonce-t-elle sa transItIon dÉmographIque ?
David de la Croix & Paula Gobb i........................................................................ 33
the status of orphans In a northern nIgerIa settIng: fIndIngs
from the nahuche health and demographIc surveIllance system
Henry V. Doctor, Oluwatoni A. Idowu, Olatunji Alabi, & Abdulazeez Ju........mare51
mother’s educatIon, armed conflIct and chIld nutrItIonal
status: evIdence from the democratIc republIc of congo
Jacques B.O.Emina, Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala & Yazoume Y .............................e 67
8 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationalesold-age securIty In rural senegal: the symbolIc baraka motIve
Jean-luc Demonsan .............................................................................................t 78
mIgrants’ remIttances and lIvIng condItIons
of households at the orIgIn: evIdence from kInshasa
Jose Mangalu Mo bhe 99
les mIgrants congolaIs en belgIque et en grande-bretagne :
entre rêves et frustratIons*
Bernard Mumpasi Lututa .................................................................................la 127
development questIons the Indepth network
of hdss member centres Is unIquely poIsed to answer
Osman Sankoh and Steve Tollman .......................................................................147
af
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 9Introduction
Jacques B. O. Emina & David Shapiro
ountries in sub-Saharan Adferpiecnade nt on the future course o- f fer
(SSA) face three major c- thialitly (United Nations, Department of Clenges: poor reproductivEec onomic and Social Affair-s, Popula
health, rapid population growtht, aionn Ddi vision 2013).
extreme poverty. SSA has the highesAt t the same time, an estimated
fertility in the world. In 2012, SSA-’s T72% oo f populations in SSA live on less
tal Fertility Rate (TFR) was esttihmaan 2 Uted S dollars per day compared
at 5.1 children per woman on avetro 6ag4e% i, n Asia (excluding China), 13%
and only 20% of married women wein Lre atin America and the Caribbean
using modern contraceptive methoandd 4s 8% worldwide. Infant mortality is
in 2011 (PRB 2012). Reflecting thies timated at 80 per 1,000, whereas the
high fertility, two out of three resisdaenmtse in dicator is respective-ly estima
of the region are less than 25 yeaterd as olt 4d, 4 in Asia excluding China, 19 in
and the region experiences the higLheasttin A merica and the Caribbean and
population growth rate of any w44o wrlorld dwide. The maternal mortality
region. According to recent Unirtaedt io in SSA (625 per 100,000) is more
Nations projections, the sub-Sathharn tanw o times higher compared to the
population will grow from 860 millwioonr ld average (260 per 100,000), almost
in 2010 to around 2 billion by 2050, atnhdr ee times higher compared to Asia
to between 2.3 and 4.8 billion by thexec luding China (220 per 100,000), and
year 2100, with this variation lmaorge telyh an 7 times higher compared to
10 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationalesIntroduction
Latin America and the Caribbeaurn (ba85 nization, female labor-f-orce parti
per 100,000) (PRB 2012 & 2013). cipation, and household wealth index
The health and educational son ysfteremtis lity transition through access to
as well as the food situation acroe untnrda ecr eptive methods, access to health
considerable strain. The HIV/AcIaDrS e services, decreasing infant and
epidemic has erased decades of pcroghirld mess ortality, as well as on age at first
in increasing the life expectancy ounf tion ahe nd first childbearing (Birdsall
people of sub-Saharan Africa- . F1u98r0t; Shherapiro and Gebreselassie 2008;
more, SSA confronts environmentShaal piro 2012). Raïmi Fassass-i and Pa
crises (desertification, deforetsrtaice Vtion,im ard re-evaluated th-e assump
floods), brain drain as well a-s ratipoin td urhbaat high fertility is an e- conomi
nization due to the high fertility, a cramleld y rational response to poverty using
conflicts and persistent pover-ty. A ndatua fm rom the World Bank, and found
ber of factors explain these poor smixoecd rio-esults regarding the r -elation
economic and demographic indicashtiop brse, tween socioeconomic indicators
among them are pronatalist c(uGrltousrs ies ncome per capita and the U.N.’s
from traditions and religious dochturmina ens d, evelopment index (HDI)) and
colonial inheritance, globalizatiotn aal fnd ertility. As expected, countries
poor governance and leadership. with low values of the human d- evelop
Against this backgrounCedn, ttrhe e “ ment index such as Niger, Sierra Leone,
d’intelligence stratégique et des relations and Guinea Bissau had high t- otal fer
internationales” (Ci SRi ) has chosen tto ility rates, while sub-Saharan African
publish this special issue of the Jiouslranna d cl ountries, including Cape Verde
Dounia (http://www.dounia-risri.naetn/d M), auritius had high HDI and low
on the subject of Population a-nd D feervteility. However, low fertility and low
lopment Challenges in SSA. The isHsDue I are observed in Zimbabwe-. Fur
contains eight papers organized athreourm nod re, findings showed low changes
the following four subthemes: Fertin filitey rtility, diversity of fertility patterns
and socioeconomic development-, cahinldd trends and raised quest-ions consi
hood well-being, migration and p- odpeuring the evolution of modern c-ontra
lation well-being, and reliable dacetpa ftive por revalence. Despite the diversity
evidence-based policies. and the mixed patterns, the experiences
Raïmi Fassassi and Patrice Vof Gimahardn, a, Cote d’Ivoire, Kenya and
as well as David de la Croix anZd a Pma buia sla tress the importance o- f urbani
Gobbi, revive the old and persist-ent dzaitsion, female education and autonomy
cussion on the relationship betweein fn tehre tility decline.
level of socioeconomic development anT d he second paper shows how female
fertility. The two papers are baesdeud ocan tion influences fertil-ity com
the socioeconomic approach, w- hipcoh anentss and transition in 14 African
sumes that high fertility is a-n ecoounonmtriies. The study relies on census
cally rational response to pov-ertdy (aCta alfdrom IPUMS International. The
well 1982; Ezeh et al. 2009). A numbepr aper shows the U-shaped association
of scholars have pointed to the ibmetpwaecet n infertility and female e- duca
of women’s education, GDP per catpiiotna. T, his assumes high natu-ral inferti
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 11Jacques B.O. Emina and David Shapiro
lity in countries with low proportio(n5s 2%o) af mong children under age five in
females with secondary educatiotn ahe D nRd a C (stunted and/or wasted and/or
high level of voluntary infertility ( ubnidretrh weight); (2) the majority of under-
control) in countries where th-e mnaoujroished children (53%) suffer from
rity of women have at least sec mounldtaiprle y malnutrition problems; and (3)
education. This research underltinhee hs tehae lth promotion role of maternal
importance of increasing the retuedrun ocan tion and the negative ef-fect of ar
investments in education to enhanmcee d cthe onflict. Indeed, the proportion of
effect of education on fertility. A hheaiglh thy children is higher amo-ng child
return on investment in educatiorn ien ws hose mother has at least secondary
obtained by ensuring the qualit-y of eedudcuation and is living in an area ruled
cation and by promoting the adobpty tiohn e Government rather than by rebel
of new technologies as well as eqfuoirtcy i esn . These findings sugges-t that in
access to employment. vestments in education, socioeconomic
Like several demographers, t eqhue ipment (health facilities, schools,
authors emphasize that decrearoases ds,i etn ) ac.nd nutrition knowledge,
infant and child mortality a - re iwommpeonr’s empowerment, and peac-e pro
tant determinants of falling fertm iloitiyo. Ans at re key strategies to address
high levels of child loss, even if femratilintuy trition problems.
is high, the supply of surviving childreUn sing data from the Nahuche health
is often below the demand. Howeavern, d demographic surveillance system
once child survival improves, the s(iun tpply he north of Nigeria), Henry V.
of children can exceed the dem -anDdo, rcteor and colleagues raise the issue of
sulting in motivation to control feorrtpihliatyn. s’ vulnerability in the context of
Hence, low mortality among childrpeon over f ty and the absence of so-cial secu
the most educated women is one of trithye . Results show that by the age of 17,
factors explaining the negati-ve raelamotsiot n21% of children have lost both
ship between women’s education a panrd ents in the Bungudu Local G- overn
fertility. ment Area (LGA), in Zamfara State
With reference to outcomes tohf nat orthwestern Nigeria. Paternal and
reflect children’s well-being, this imassteue rnal orphans account for 9% and
includes two papers. Emina, Ka7n%d, ralea spectively. Orphans, particularly
and Ye assess the association bthoetswe weehn o have lost both parents, go to
mother’s education and the nutriftoiornmal l schooling less often t-han child
status of the child in the Demorcern watihc ose parents are alive. Similarly,
Republic of Congo (DRC), accorditn hg e proportion of orphans who are never
to the conflict status of the pmroavirnrciee d is less than the proportion of
of residence. The study relies on dchailtda ren with one or both parents alive
from the 2001 Democratic Repub– ilinc dicating that marriage may b- e offe
of Congo (DRC)-Multiple Indicatorrins g potential coping mechanisms for
Cluster Survey. The sample incltudhe ses ocioeconomic challenges e- ncoun
9,748 children under five years of atergeed b. y orphaned children. Therefore,
The study presents three key finduindgesr: standing the linkage bet-ween pa
(1) High prevalence of malnutrirteinotn al survival and child outcomes has
12 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationalesIntroduction
implications for further researc hh ooldr fs s opr end the remittances they receive
programs and policies aimed at i fmrporm tov-heir migrants seem weakly linked
ing survival and well-being of adultto ts ahneid r socio-demographic c -haracte
children. ristics. Data indicate that among the
Considering strategies to es -cahpeou psoeholds that received remittances,
verty, three papers analyze interntahtoisoe wnahl ose migrants all live in Africa
migration remittances and the lreicveiinvg ed on average US$357 against
conditions of migrants. BernaUrd MS$949 . for households with at least one
Lututala assesses whether Comnigroalesnt e living outside Africa -. Howe
migrants achieve their dreams ovf eers, acamop-ng households with at least one
ing poverty through their migratmioignr. ant living outside of Afric-a, we ob
He seeks to determine if their presesnecrve e that the households which receive
in the host countries is really a bernemefiit t toar nces are more likely to e- njoy bet
not, if their well-being matches t- htei er er lxiving conditions than those that did
pectations before the decision to mnigort raetce. eive (p<0.10). With regard to the
Based on data from the migration snumubrevr oey f migrants, for the households
“MAFE” conducted in the Dem-ocrwahose migrants all live in Africa it is
tic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Spaneicne, ssary to reach at least four migrants
Belgium and the United Kingdom- , fbienfore this variable affects their living
dings reveal individual frustratcion anditniod ns; for households with at least
financial support to the family moemne mber is grant who lives out of Africa, the
who stayed in the country. Indeed, tnuhme ber of migrants acts on their living
large number of unemployed (about 3c4%o) nditions already beginning with two
among Congolese migrants, the lomsigs oraf nts.
social status compared to their sitO uvaertaion ll, controlling for o-ther va
before migration and the long waritainbg les, the money which households
time to receive a resident permit c rouecleid ve from their migrant is related to
be considered as frustrating fatchteiorr ls. Iivn ing conditions. This r -elation
parallel, migration allows improshvemip enis t very sensitive to migrat-ory cha
of the living standard of fa-mily mracemteristics and to educati-on of house
bers who stayed in the home countrh yo. ld heads and insensitive to other
Using the same database, Masoncgiao-ldu emographic characteristics of
argues that while 25% of househhouoldss eholds. The various ends to which
without migrants experience very hbouasd eholds put the money received from
living conditions, this proportion f tha eilr mls igrants are not very sensitive to
to 15% and 10% among migrant h- ou tsheeir socio-demographic characteristics.
holds not receiving remittances aOnly snd pending on health care and, to a
those receiving remittances, respelectsisvelr ye. xtent, on education, are linked to
Nearly all households use t -he rsoemme cit haracteristics of hous-eholds (pro
tances received from their migrafnetss ision nal occupation, age of household
unproductive expenditures relatehd teao ds).
food, transportation, clothin -g, acIn tcomhe third paper on migration, Jean
modation, ceremonies, and celebraLutc Dionsem. onsant tries to answer three
The types of expenses on which h- ouquessetions: Why do migrants send sub-
Numéro 7 – Janvier 2014 13Jacques B.O. Emina and David Shapiro
stantial parts of their earninggs tlobao thl einr etwork of currently 49 health
ageing parents who stayed behind i an tndh de emographic surveillance system
village? What are the young migr(HaDntS’Ss ) field sites run by 42 member
incentives not to renege on sucreh a search centres in Africa, Asia and
contract? What do fathers havOe t co oeafnfiear . It is the only organization in
in return? The study relies on data thfe wrom orld capable of producing reliable
a survey of 150 households conductleod ingn itudinal data not only about the
the Senegal River Valley. Regresslivoens os f people in low- and middle-
with different model specificaitnicoonms e countries, but also about the
were displayed to show the robustimnpeass ct on those lives of development
of the results, putting much effoprot olicn ies and programmes. The paper
the specification of family sociadel ssctraibteus the advantages of running a
and (proxies for) wealth. The empHirDicSaS fl or evidence-based polic-ies, es
results suggest that the social spectai tluls oy in cf ountries where vi-tal regis
the family is a key to understandtinrg tathie on systems (VRS) and statistical
intergenerational social contrascyt astenmd is ats re inexistent or poo-rly deve
enforcement mechanisms. Wh-ile lopbeed.A t ypical HDSS can produce over
long-ing to a prestigious family l1ow00 ders emographic, health and poverty
the probability of a son migratinndg, iict ators for understanding trends and
raises the probability of freqdueetnetrlmy inants, including: population
remitting to the patriarch, condcithioanaral cteristics; household c- haracteris
on migration. Conversely, sons ftriocm s, assets and wealth indexing; health
disadvantaged groups are more staliketlusy / disease burdens; access, use and
to both migrate and cut ties with im tphaeicr t of health services; health seeking
family. Naturally, having a spou behse wavh ioo rs for severe and fatal conditions;
remained in the household of the faentvhireor nmental contexts, risk-s, expo
significantly increases the probasbuirleisty o; hf ousehold food security, impact
remitting. Nevertheless, a very sotf pronog verty reduction strategies; impact
motivation for remitting is to e-aron bf h leesalth interventions; and t-imely evi
sings and prayers for felicit-y. F duerntch e feror planning and setting priorities.
more, the desire to be buried at home In the light of these findings, s- ub-Sa
is an additional motive to maintha ain trahn Ae frican countries need integrated,
social status of the family and thoileis wsticit ah nd evidence-based population
parents. and social policies. Such policies should
The last paper by Osman Saprnokmohot e human development through
and Steve Tollm pranesents The Int-er universal access to secondary education,
national Network for the Demograeqpuhiticy i n employment and high return
Evaluation of Populations and Ton ihneivers tment in education and access
Health in Developing Countrie-s (tINo health services, including family
DEPTH) (www.indepth-network.or). g planning. This will substantially reduce
The network is a pioneer in healtih allegnadl m igration, encourage reduction
population research, providing roof hbusitg h fertility and promote health
answers to some of the most impoartnad snto cial equity. To make t-hese poli
questions in development, through icitess e ffective, countries should develop
14 Dounia, revue d'intelligence stratégique et des relations internationales