Brotherhood Comment November 2005
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Brotherhood Comment November 2005


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ISSN3208632A regul Ar upd Ate from Soci Al Action And r e Se ArchNovember 2005Studying the map and plotting a courseStrategic directions at the Brotherhood of St LaurenceWith the advent of a new Executive • the periods in and out of The focus on four transitions Director and in the context of the work – whether voluntary knits together our research and ever-changing social, economic and or involuntary services. It allows us to develop political climate the Brotherhood • retirement and ageing. major capacity in these key policy has, over the past several months, areas and to avoid spreading reviewed its strategy. We aim to be a national voice resources randomly and thinly.on matters of poverty and We challenged ourselves to answer disadvantage. Our voice will be Geography receives greater some fundamental questions: what grounded in service delivery which emphasis in the plan, reflecting sort of organisation we want the will focus on geographic regions our expectation that poverty in Brotherhood to be, what we want it representative of anticipated Australia will more and more to achieve, over what period of time, disadvantage and poverty. become a feature of life on the and what that means for the way in outskirts of our major cities and which we allocate our resources in We seek to ensure that our work in our rural communities. This the immediate future. New strategic reflects an understanding that the emphasis on place also reflects our priorities ...



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Nombre de lectures 169
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A r e gul A r u p d Ate f rom Soci A l Ac t ion A nd r e S e A rch
Studying the map and plotting a course Strategic directions at the Brotherhood of St Laurence
ISSN 1320 8632 November 2005
With the advent of a new Executive • the periods in and out of The focus on four transitions Director and in the context of the work – whether voluntary knits together our research and ever-changing social, economic and or involuntary services. It allows us to develop political climate the Brotherhood • retirement and ageing. major capacity in these key policy has, over the past several months, areas and to avoid spreading reviewed its strategy. We aim to be a national voice resources randomly and thinly. on matters of poverty and We challenged ourselves to answer disadvantage. Our voice will be Geography receives greater some fundamental questions: what grounded in service delivery which emphasis in the plan, reflecting sort of organisation we want the will focus on geographic regions our expectation that poverty in Brotherhood to be, what we want it representative of anticipated Australia will more and more to achieve, over what period of time, disadvantage and poverty. become a feature of life on the and what that means for the way in outskirts of our major cities and which we allocate our resources in We seek to ensure that our work in our rural communities. This the immediate future. New strategic reflects an understanding that the emphasis on place also reflects our priorities have been developed by remedy to poverty lies in integrating belief that success in eradicating extensive and intensive consultation social and economic policy, as a poverty lies in working with within and beyond the Brotherhood. basis for strengthening the capacities communities as well as individuals. of individuals and communities. The plan does not represent We are confident our new a radical departure from the We plan to undertake research, Strategic Plan involves a Brotherhood’s traditional approach service development and delivery, contemporary application of to its work. But, naturally, it does and advocacy, with the objective traditional Brotherhood values signal change. It realigns our of addressing unmet needs and and principles and will focus strategy to reflect what we see translating our learning into our efforts for the future. as the emerging characteristics new policies, programs and of poverty in Australia, and practices for implementation Tony Nicholson it will give greater focus and by governments and others. Executive Director internal coherence to our work. (03) 9483 1327 Key objectives Our new strategy commits us to four key objectives for Contents the next three years. Counting children in: current BSL research on socially excluded children 4 ‘Simple principles really’: observations about UK integrated early childhood services 5 We aim to work not just to alleviate, but to prevent, poverty. Doing It Differently: strengthening connections for students in years 5–8 6 We will focus on those people at greatest risk at the four transition Youth unemployment and skills shortages: seeking place-based solutions in Kingston 7 stages considered critical to Listening to older people: a preliminary study of social exclusion 8 their future well-being: Changes to Australia’s detention regime: limited steps towards justice for refugees 9 • the early years – both at home and into school Values, welfare and religion conference presentations 10–11 • the years from school to work Affordable housing and regional growth: a challenge for planners and policy makers 12 and further education Linking culture with social inclusion: perspectives from Europe 13 Does Australia’s wealth distribution match income distribution?: some insights from HILDA data 14
Update Life Chances and school engagement School engagement (active most recently in 2002 when the The objectives include: participation in school and children were aged 11 or 12. • to explore their level of positive attitudes to school) engagement with school at the means young people are more As 11 and 12-year-olds, some end of compulsory schooling likely to complete school and go children were excluded from • to examine the role of education on to gain tertiary qualifications. participating fully in school costs and other factors in Not only is engagement with activities because of costs; their experience of school school a pointer to later positive and we predicted this problem • to consider their home outcomes for students, but also would increase as they moved and social life, including it is desirable for the present. through secondary education. family, friends, recreation and work, in relation to The next stage of the Brotherhood By the end of 2005 all the children their school engagement of St Laurence’s Life Chances Study will have reached the age (15) • to explore their career plans. will enable us to investigate school when education is no longer engagement for a group of young compulsory (although the Victorian This follow-up is generously people we have known since birth. Government has foreshadowed supported by the Bokhara raising the age to 16). This is a Foundation and a gift of This longitudinal study commenced crucial transition stage when some the late Mrs Prue Myer. in 1990 with 167 children born may consider leaving school. in inner Melbourne to parents of Janet Taylor diverse backgrounds, to explore The next stage of the study will (03) 9483 1376 the impacts of low family income follow up selected children who and disadvantage for children have grown up in low-income over time. Families have been families, as children ‘at risk’ interviewed on six occasions, of early school leaving. New advocacy and information resources Policy commentaries New information sheet Social Action and Research The policy commentaries can be ‘Caring for older Australians staff have compiled Policy accessed on the Brotherhood’s and people with disabilities’ is Commentaries, briefly outlining the website (use the home page Search). the latest in the occasional series Brotherhood’s response to current Printed copies are also available. of information sheets called social policy issues, particularly Understanding our work , each aspects of welfare reform. It is planned that these of which outlines Brotherhood commentaries will be reviewed services for a particular age-group The first four hot topics and revised periodically; or sector. All are available on the to be addressed are and new commenta ries will website and as printed copies . • welfare reform and sole parents be added as required. • welfare reform and people Contact: with disabilities Library & Information Services • effective marginal tax (03) 9483 1388 rates and poverty traps • minimum wages.
Brotherhood Comment is published three times a year by the Social Published in November 2005 by Action and Research Division of the Brotherhood of St Laurence. Brotherhood of St Laurence 67 Brunswick Street The Brotherhood of St Laurence works for the well-being of Australians Fitzroy, Victoria, 3065 Australia on low incomes to improve their economic, social and personal circumstances. ABN 24 603 467 024 It does this b y providing a wide range of services and activities for families, Telephone: (03) 9483 1183 tuhned uernteamkepsl ocyoemd maundn ittyh ee daguecadt.i Iotn a alsnod  rleosbebairecs hgeos vtehren cmaeunste fs oorf  apboevtetretry ,d eal  Facsimile: (03) 9417 2691  E-mail: for people on low incomes.
From the General Manager, Social Action and Research Transitions, risks and the new social policy The adoption of the transitions purpose of social investment: to based employment programs to and risks framework in the new build people’s capacities to master reduce social exclusion in Europe, Strategic Plan will mean both risk. Our work on social inclusion while Eleanor Marsh reports important continuities and new and Sen’s analysis of ‘capabilities’ on a City of Kingston initiative departures in the work of Social has produced a framework of these designed to create pathways for Action and Research. Over the risks and capabilities which we can unemployed young people into last two years, we have been part now apply to our four transitions. with local employment. The of a national movement which challenges associated with ageing has begun to reframe Australian If a minimal goal of social and retirement are illustrated social policy thinking in quite policy is to afford everyone from early work on the experience fundamental ways. Now welfare equal opportunity, then the new of social exclusion by older is far less likely to be seen as an framework will allow us to specify Brotherhood clients. Also in this economic waste and much more what those opportunities ought to issue, Ecumenical Migration Centre likely as an investment in capacity be across the life cycle. It will also colleagues comment on Australia’s building for a more inclusive enable us to ground our research present policies regarding people society. A new, more particular themes in BSL service experience seeking refuge in this country. agenda is now taking shape. If in the four transition areas. welfare can be a good investment, A strategic issue for future research in what should we invest? The This issue of Comment reflects will be the significance for welfare Strategic Plan enables us to address the new strategy. Articles by Janet of recent debates about values and this question systematically. Stanley and Catharine Hydon religion. This Comment features emphasise substantial investment summaries of presentations The transitions approach offers a in the early years as a key source of by Kevin McDonald and Tony way of thinking about the key life better later life outcomes. In relation Nicholson at our BSL conference cycle transitions involving work, to the transition from school to which scoped these issues. family, education and community. work, the article on ‘Doing Things It points us towards integrated Differently’ reports on efforts to Paul Smyth policies which support each domain join up community supports for (03) 9483 1177 and do not privilege paid work disadvantaged schools. On the third over all else. The concept of risk is key transition ‘In and out of work’, also useful in identifying a major Martina Böse looks at culture- Australian Child Poverty Conference After 14 successive years of economic growth, around half a million children remain li ving in poverty in Australia. One in six children is growing up in a family where no parent is in paid work. The United Kingdom and other European countries are making the eradication of child poverty a national priority. It’s time Australia did too. Join the Brotherhood of St Laurence for t his important conference. 87. 4D5eacem m b5e.r0 02p00m5 Highlights Dallas Brooks • Kate Green , Child Poverty Action Group UK – delivering the Sambell Oration Conference Centre • Dr Shane Houston , Assistant Secretary, Office of Aboriginal Health, 300 Albert Street Family and Social Policy, Northern Territory East Melbourne 3002 • D He r a G h a  r U th ni Alperstein , Senior Lecturer, School of Women’s and Children’s To register, visit the website L lt , h of v t er h s e it  y B  r of o  t N h e e w r  h S o ou o t d h  s W S a o le c s i , a a l n B d a C r o o m m m et u e ni r t  y   P C ae h d il ia d t r ri e ci n a n s <>  Cahuanncce s – a new indicator of child poverty in A t alia or contact Jacinda Kleidon us r (03) 9483 1364
November 2005 3
Counting children in Current BSL research on socially excluded children Social exclusion occurs when likely to become a socially excluded program. In Dandenong, a needs people suffer from multiple adult (Social Exclusion Unit 2005). survey of families with children disadvantages such as low income, under five will help to identify poor health, and inadequate A closer look what would improve their well-housing and transport. One group While the UK’s Blair Government being and how the community especially vulnerable to social has taken a lead in targeting child can respond to children’s needs. exclusion is children. This should poverty (Hills & Stewart 2005; The BSL will also contribute be cause for concern and action. also see Hydon’s article, page 5), to the national evaluation. Australia is yet to follow suit. Children’s issues are commonly Speaking out overlooked by social analysts. For BSL research and services are Such projects will equip the BSL example, the income poverty of working together closely to address to advocate for equality and children is not directly measured this national oversight, for example justice for Australian children. In in national statistics. Children’s through the Breaking Cycles, December, the BSL’s Australian well-being is subsumed with that Building Futures (BCBF) project, Child Poverty Conference will of adults, measured by either part of the state government’s be addressed by Kate Green, household data (such as income) Best Start program to improve Director of the UK Child Poverty or individual adult indicators opportunities for disadvantaged Action Group. The event will urge (such as employment status). The children in 13 areas of Victoria. Australia’s decision makers to assumption that the child’s well- BCBF explored how children take children’s needs seriously. being mirrors the family’s or caring who are hardest to reach can be adult’s well-being often holds, but linked to universal services such as Janet Stanley exceptions exist, such as in the maternal and child health services (03) 9483 1385 situation of neglect (the prevalence and preschools (Hydon, Stanley, of child neglect and child abuse is Van Dyke & Webb 2005). References also not measured in Australia). Two important current BSL research Bradshaw, J 2001, Poverty: the outcomes for children, Family Australia’s children projects are the next stage of Life Policy Studies Centre , London. Even with limited data, we know Chances, the longitudinal study Hills, J & Stewart, K (eds) 2005, that while most children in of children (see page 2) and the A tralia are doing well, many grow index of child poverty. Within A more equal society? New Labour, us poverty, inequality and social up with considerable disadvantage. the BSL, services at The Cottage exclusion, Policy Press, Bristol, U.K. vTahei ecsh idledp penodvienrtgy  orna tew ihna t Aisu stralia tahree  ebsesienngt idaol ccuommepnotende,n ttso  ocfa tphtiusr e Hydon, C, Stanley, J, Van Dyke, N & r Webb, J unpublished [2005], Building measured, with estimates ranging unique program for excluded and futures: promoting inclusion in antenatal from 9.4% to 25.3%, in 2000 vulnerable children, and inform and universal early childhood services: o ortion o implementation and review of the Breaking  (NATSEM 2001). The pr p f a new program structure. Cycles, Building Futures project 2004 , chhaisl dinrecnr eians eidm; paonvderSishendd ehros ussteahteosl ds Child poverty in a wealthy Brotherhood of St Laurence, Fitzroy, Vic  au that children today are at far greater municipality, the City of NATSEM 2001, Financial disadvantage in Australia 1990 –2000, The Smith risk of poverty than previous Boroondara, has been explored Family, Camperdown, NSW. generations (Saunders 2005). in a small, recent study (Stanley, he Saunders, P 2005, The poverty Child poverty is associated with sEuardpirei s&in gB alekveerl  2o0f 0c5h)i.l dT poverty wars: Reconnecting research with reality, UNSW Press, Sydney. a long list of adverse outcomes poses a challenge for intervention dshaw 2001 se include Social Exclusion Unit, 2005, What is i(nBfreactious diseas)e.s ,T theeenage naendw  agdovvoecrancmy,e enst pfeucniadlsl yp rweistehn tly social exclusion? , viewed 4 July 2005, <>. pregnancies, poor educational being directed to geographical o suicide and Stanley, J, Eadie, C & Baker, C 2005, attainment, y uth areas of multiple disadvantage. Social exclusion in Boroondara, Stage One, mental illness. Leaving aside Brotherhood of St Laurence, Fitzroy, Vic. human rights and equity, this is The BSL is giving research and very costly for society. Moreover, practice advice to two sites social exclusion is considered to (Frankston and Dandenong) be intergenerational: a child from of the new four-year federal a socially excluded family is more Communities for Children
4 November 2005
The assumption that the child’s well-being mirrors the family’s or caring adult’s well-being often holds, but exceptions exist, such as in the situation of neglect
‘Simple principles really’… Observations about UK integrated early childhood services Carving innovative pathways for perspective. This is particularly rarely meeting except to collide the provision of services for young relevant given recent publicity about over resourcing or similar issues. children and their families requires early findings on Sure Start’s impact Integrated services for families grant a shift from conventional practice to (Ward 2005). Long-term outcomes space to those who can imagine sophisticated responses to changing cannot be expected in the short practice in a different way. The circumstances. Australia has much term—building community trust Fortune Park Children’s Centre in to learn from other countries, and strong relationships takes time! Islington was attempting to do just particularly the United Kingdom that, through in-depth consultation where policy-makers and providers Lessons for policy and by gathering the courage to are overcoming the old divides and development in Australia break traditional early childhood moving to offer services through While it would be inaccurate to boundaries and join forces with the Children’s services integrated child and family models. assert that Australia is not interested local primary school, special school h to and other can assume a in an integrated approac therapeutic programs for transformative role In response to high levels of children’s service delivery, policy children with additional needs. in communities disadvantage and the increasing responses have tinkered at the edges. when policies, body of evidence urging The merits of community structures investment in the early years, the Public policies in Australia governance are widely contested. and adequate Blair government has developed concerning the needs of children and Effective children’s services, funding allow a comprehensive plan for the their families need to be brought especially those that seek to work transformation of children’s together in a strategy that spans at in a new integrated manner, rely services. Its flagship early least 10 years—much longer than on communities developing a childhood initiative is Sure Start. an election cycle. This commitment vision from which practice and must be properly funded for the long services can flow. Otherwise, The children’s program I visited in term, not limited to pilot schemes, integrated models lose their the Seacroft Public Housing Estate in a respectful partnership with the connectedness to the lives of the in Leeds, established in the first communities it claims to target. children and families they serve. round of ‘Sure Start’ funding, is one example of translating the concept Sustainability Children’s services can assume of integrated services into a rich Sustainability such as I witnessed a transformative role in tapestry of opportunity. Programs in England, ensured by ongoing, communities when policies, for children aged 0–5 are offered substantial investment and multi- structures and adequate funding in four locations, more than 28 stream funding, offers many allow. Individual Australian parent support and participation advantages for children’s services. services are often excellent, but groups run every week, outreach It allows staff to take risks to reach what is yet to be seen is a truly workers deliver thousands of out to the most disconnected. In sophisticated integrated approach advertising leaflets as they walk the Seacroft program, this had moving beyond co-location to through the estate and a large team included offering a ‘boxercise’ class establish deep connections to of early childhood professionals after a particularly disconnected community, connections based in from counsellors to health nurses adolescent parent made a request. participation, supported through see children and parents with The program manager felt it 10-year funding commitments and specific needs. According to Bernard important to give the idea a try. underpinned by effective policies. McMahon, program manager: For parents, sustainability means Catharine Hydon The fundamental issues for us … that the service will be there in (03) 9483 2458 are equality of access, universal two years’ time to nurture children services, more choices and and maintain close relationships opportunities for children and their o ho are trusted. families—simple principles really. with pe ple w R W e a fe r r d e , n L c 2 e 005, ‘Doubts over value Local services staff were quick Governance and integration ionf t£er3nbant iSounrael  Setdairt, The Gua t r e d m ia b n, Governance structures that grant tion, 13 Sep er, p.1. to point out that programs of this scale and nature would not equal status to parents, staff and the community are critical. Without be possible without significant them, the different programs are government funding, a strong ‘ policy framework and a long-term lailkoen gs hdiopisn ign t thheei r noigwhnt t phionwge, rbinutg
November 2005 5
Doing It Differently Strengthening connections for students in years 5–8 Doing It Differently, a collaborative creating sustainable, positive there have been separate meetings in project of the Brotherhood of change will take time. For this each school, with the principal, staff St Laurence, Anglicare and the reason, Doing It Differently is a responsible for student welfare, staff Centre for Adolescent Health at three-year project and focuses leading Innovations and Excellence the Royal Children’s Hospital, on strengthening connections work, School Support Officers is working with seven schools in between schools, families and and School Nurse. The team has a disadvantaged community in community organisations. also engaged with organisations outer-metropolitan Melbourne, to outside the school. These include improve students’ connectedness The project works at several scales: Neighbourhood Renewal, local to school during the primary to with the schools cluster (through government, Departments of secondary school transition. the Department of Education’s Education and Training and Innovations and Excellence Human Services, School Focused The project responds to research Program), with teams of students, Youth Service (within DHS) and showing accelerating disengagement parents and staff in each school, the Red Cross (which coordinates from school for many young people and with community agencies. The the breakfast programs). during the middle years (Years 5–9). keen interest from each school in There is evidence of rising average developing a partnership with the The project team has also been absence rates and an increasing project team and with each other talking to students and parents, percentage of students below the has been pleasing, particularly as to raise interest and to better school leaving age who are not these schools have not traditionally understand their needs. Since the participating in education at all worked together. All the schools schools have found it difficult (Russell, Mackay & Jane 2003). have identified family concerns as to engage parents, they have Some students drift away, while affecting their ability to address welcomed this assistance. others challenge schools, families students’ educational needs. and communities with behaviours Doing It Differently aims to including bullying, substance abuse Early steps develop approaches that will and self-harm (Audas & Willms A formal partnership has been assist other communities. 2001; Campbell & Kertesz 2000). set up with two secondary and Staff of the Department of five primary schools. Strong Education, School Focused Youth This pattern is of concern because relationships have been built with Service and Neighbourhood engagement with learning the Innovations and Excellence Renewal have shown interest and with others in the school Educator (Coordinator) and in replicating the work. environment is a key to positive local Neighbourhood Renewal immediate and long-term health, Coordinator. Regular meetings Helen Butler and Ian Seal academic and life outcomes. In are scheduled for the Cluster team, Centre for Adolescent Health disadvantaged communities, student as well as for school teams. Royal Children’s Hospital disengagement from school is often exacerbated by limited community Demographic data has been involvement, family poverty and gathered about each school, as References low parental interest in education. well as the broader community, E A n udas, m R e & t  a W n il d l  m dr s, o  p J p D i  n 2 g 0 o 0 u 1, t    of school: gage n lied Doing It Differently aims to: aanndd  dciosmcumssuinointsy  hoerlgda nwiistaht isocnhso ols B a r li a f n e c -c h o , u S r t s r e a  t p e e g r i s c p P e o c l t i i c v y e ,,  HAuppman  RReessoeuarrccehs  • improve school engagement have been documented. Development, Canada, viewed 19 October of young people during 2005, < Years 5, 6, 7 and 8 Initiatives developed for students c2s0/s0p1/-h0r0sd0c1/7a5r/bS/Pp-u4b8l3ic-a0t1i-o0n2s/Er.epsedafr>c.h/ • assist schools and families to date include breakfast clubs in to work together within some schools and vegetable and Russell, J, Mackay, T & Jane, G 2003, communities to support herb gardens in each school, with Messages from MYRAD: Improving the students’ education, links to various curriculum areas. I m A id R d T le V  , y  e M a e r l s b o o f u s r c n h e o . oling , health and well-being • produce a support model that Involving the school community can be applied elsewhere. Research and direct experience show that the project team must Given the complexity of poverty engage a broad cross-section of each and social disadvantage, school community. To this end,
6 November 2005
Some students drift away, while others challenge schools, families and communities with behaviours including bullying, substance abuse and self-harm
Youth unemployment and skills shortages Seeking place-based solutions in Kingston Like other areas of Melbourne, the interested in the available work lack pathways to promotion can municipality of Kingston faces two the skills sought by employers. improve productivity, morale related and apparently intractable and staff retention. problems: on the one hand there are Obstacles and opportunities pockets of disadvantage and high Early findings from consultations Place-based approaches youth unemployment; and on the in Kingston confirm that a lack Many of the problems being other, employers—particularly in of skills is a significant problem identified in Kingston resemble manufacturing—report persistent for young people in the area. those found elsewhere. However, difficulties in filling vacancies, Manufacturers and youth service the local focus of this project both skilled and unskilled. providers report that many recognises that devising solutions young people seeking work requires a detailed understanding The City of Kingston, with funding lack ‘work-ready’ skills or basic of specific local conditions, provided through the Department literacy and numeracy skills, community characteristics, of Victorian Communities, has or do not understand how to employment opportunities engaged the Brotherhood of find and apply for a job. Young and skills needs. ‘Place-based’ St Laurence to undertake research approaches—increasingly being into the issues underlying these pEemopplloe ythemselves agrevei. dnd adopted in a number of OECD oWf ahiclceu ar alatce k problems. The findings will be used ers, service pro ers a countries—can identify gaps in information is to develop a Youth Employment young people have all suggested that local provision of services, highlight an issue, often a Strategy to address unemployment there are limited opportunities for specific opportunities and, most greater problem and underemployment among young people to gain the skills they importantly, bring together key is the ‘skills young people in the municipality. need. In Kingston, as elsewhere, actors to ensure that training and mismatch’: many Research will involve consultations young people who experienced support services meet the needs of of those young with all key groups: young people, difficulties at school say that school both communities and employers. people who are employers, parents, and providers did not adequately equip them for interested in the sofu pepdourcta tsieornvi, ceesm tpol oyyomuenngt  paenodp le.jtohba ts tehekinwg aanntd  mwoorre kt.r aTihneiyn gs aayn d As the project progresses, we would atvhaei lsakbillles workh lta ck ey like to move from consultations soug support in developing ‘life skills’, identifying local issues, to by employers The project will focus on two areas more opportunities to undertake discussions about opportunities within the municipality where work experience. They need more for partnerships, innovations in unemployment of 15–24 year olds support in learning how to search education and training delivery, and is markedly higher than the average for and successfully apply for jobs, how the various groups can work for Kingston (ABS 2001): Clayton and more support in their studies. together to support the needs of the South and Clarinda in the north, Young people and many employers local economy and the young people where a large proportion of the in the manufacturing sector also who live in the City of Kingston. population is from culturally and say that more vocational and linguistically diverse backgrounds, ‘hands on’ training opportunities Eleanor Marsh and Chelsea, Bonbeach and are required—both in school and (03) 9483 1370 Carrum in the south, where the in other settings—to give young population is predominantly from people practical skills and exposure English-speaking backgrounds. to different kinds of work. Reference Australian Bureau of Statistics 2001 Census Research into similar problems Consultations with young people of Population and Housing 2001 , Canberra. elsewhere suggests that the support other research findings that issues are likely to be complex, employers’ own practices can also be and solutions are unlikely to a cause of difficulties: poor training, revolve around simply ‘matching’ induction and retention strategies, unemployed people to jobs through low pay and poor conditions, improved information about over-reliance on casual labour, employment opportunities. While and problems such as workplace a lack of accurate information is bullying can also contribute to high a barrier, often a greater problem workforce turnover and difficulties is the ‘skills mismatch’: many in attracting staff. Conversely, of those young people who are good induction methods, working conditions and well-supported
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