Annexe 22 - Etude nationale Estonie

Annexe 22 - Etude nationale Estonie

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EVALUATION DES MESURES AGRO-ENVIRONNEMENTALES AGRI/ G4/ 2004 ANNEXE 22 : ETUDE NATIONALE ESTONIE Novembre 2005 SIA Estonian, Latvian & Lithuanian Environment, Skolas street 10-8, Riga, LV 1010, Latvia Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. STATE OF THE AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRY 1 1.1 Brief description of the agriculture in the country........................................................ 1 1.2 Brief description of the environment in agriculture ..................................................... 8 1.2.1 Total use of fertilisers and pesticides .......................................................................................... 8 1.2.2 Total irrigated area ...................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.3 Major agricultural issues in relation with the environment ......................................................... 9 1.3 Brief presentation of the AE system in the country .................................................... 15 1.3.1 Description of the historic of implementation of AEM............................................................. 16 1.3.2 Description of the portfolio of AEM in Estonia (main objectives of the AEM, possible zoning of intervention, etc.) ............................................................................. ...

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        EVALUATION DES MESURES AGRO-ENVIRONNEMENTALES AGRI/ G4/ 2004  ANNEXE22 : ETUDE NATIONALEESTONIE  
Novembre 2005    SIA Estonian, Latvian & Lithuanian Environment, Skolas street 10-8, Riga, LV 1010, Latvia
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 1. STATE OF THE AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRY1 1.1 the agriculture in the country........................................................ 1Brief description of  1.2 Brief description of the environment in agriculture ..................................................... 8 1.2.1 Total use of fertilisers and pesticides .......................................................................................... 8 1.2.2 Total irrigated area ...................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.3  ......................................................... 9Major agricultural issues in relation with the environment 1.3 Brief presentation of the AE system in the country .................................................... 15 1.3.1  16Description of the historic of implementation of AEM ............................................................. 1.3.2 of AEM in Estonia (main objectives of the AEM, possible zoningDescription of the portfolio of intervention, etc.) ............................................................................................................................... 17 1.3.3 List of the AEM......................................................................................................................... 21 1.3.4 Organisation of the implementation at national and regional level ........................................... 22 1.3.5 development of the good agricultural practice documentation ................................... 26Level of  1.4 The level of implementation of the measures............................................................... 29 2. ANSWER TO EVALUATION QUESTIONS......................................................................... 33 2.1 Preamble ......................................................................................................................... 33 2.2 Interpretation of the questions for NMS and list of questions to be asked in the NMS to answer the evaluation questions ........................................................................................... 33 2.2.1 existing or planned institutional structures and working methodsQ 9 : To what extent can the in the new Member States facilitate or hinder the construction of programmes and good quality agro-environmental measures? ...................................................................................................................... 33 2.2.2 is funding of the programme adequate as regards the EU contribution,Q 10 : To what extent Member State budget, regional budget ? ................................................................................................ 40 2.2.3 Q 11 : To what extent are the monitoring, evaluation and supervision of the agro-environmental measures in place in the Member States fit for the purpose ? ................................................................ 41 2.2.4 application been influenced (or should be influenced)Q 12 : To what extent have the degree of by other implementation factors or other relevant factors (such as the attitude towards the agro-environment, knowledge of the agro-environment at all levels within the Member State, the extent of GAPs, other CAP /EU measures, 5-year minimum contracts, limitation of beneficiaries to farmers only etc.) 44 3. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................................................................... 47 APPENDICES........................................................................................................................ 49 Annex 1: List of people met ....................................................................................................... 49 Annex 2: Main bibliography identified in relation with the study including reports made prior to the EU membership...................................................................................................... 49  TABLE OF TABLES  Table 1. Crop production in Estonia in 2000............................................................................................. 2 Table 2. of the land and the volumes of the yields in Estonia...................................................... 2The use  Table 3. Bases of financing agri-environmental support in 2004-2006 .................................................. 30 Table 4.  31 ..........................................................Original total ERDP budget in 2004-2006 (in million €) Table 5.  32 .....................................budget for 2004-2006 (01.08.2005, in million €)Revised ERDP total   
 
Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. AC AEM AEP AgRC ALS ARC ARDC ARIB CED CEEC CFPS EADP EAGGF EEC EEIC EERC EFMS EI ELB EPS ERDP ERIA EU EVIKA FAO GAP GDP GEF GMO IPPC JPBI JTAC LFA LIBSE MoA MoE NGO PHARE PPI RDP RLIB SAPARD SFI SFMC SMS SPD VAFL VFB
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
TABLE OF FIGURES  Total land by categories in possession of holdings in 2001 ........................................................ 1 GDP in Estonia in 2003 and 2004 ............................................................................................... 4 Share of agricultural products in total exports, 2004................................................................... 5 Share of agricultural products in total exports, 2004................................................................... 6 Map of water erosion in 2002.................................................................................................... 12 Agricultural support equivalent in 1986-2001 .......................................................................... 30  GLOSSARY Agricultural Census of 2001 Agri-Environmental Measures Agri-Environmental Policy Agricultural Research Centre Abandoned Land Scheme Animal Recording Centre The Agricultural and Rural Development Council The Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board County Environmental Departments Central and Eastern Europe Countries The Centre of Forest Protection and Silviculture Estonian Agricultural Development Plan European Agricultural Guidance and Guarantee Fund Council Regulation The Estonian Environment Information Centre The Estonian Environmental Research Centre Environmentally Friendly Management Scheme The Environmental Inspectorate The Estonian Land Board Environmentally-friendly Production Scheme Estonian Rural Development Plan The Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture European Union Estonian Plant Biotechnical Research Centre Food and Agriculture Organisation Good Agricultural Practise Gross Domestic Product Global Environmental Facilities Genetically Modified Organism Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute Jäneda Training and Advisory Centre Less Favourite Areas Land Improvement Bureau of Supervision and Expertise Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Estonia Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Estonia Non-Governmental Organisations Poland and Hungary Action for the Restructuring of the Economy Plant Production Inspectorate Rural Development Plan Regional Land Improvement Bureaus Special Accession Programme for Agriculture and Rural Development Statistical Forest Inventory State Forest Management Centre Supplementary Measures Scheme The National Development Plan for implementation of Structural Fund measures - the Single Programming Document 2003–2006 The Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory The Veterinary and Food Board
 
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
1. STATE OF THE AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE COUNTRY
1.1 description of the agriculture in the countryBrief The total area of Estonia is 45,227 km2, including 43,200 km2of land area. 17,387 km2of the total territory (40.25% of total land area) is agricultural land.  According to the Agricultural Consensus (AC) of 15 July 2001, 1,738,707 hectares of land were in the possession of 83,808 operating and non-operating holdings and 176,686 households. 1,705,136 hectares of land were in the possession of holdings (operating and non-operating). Of this, agricultural land made up 51.1 % (875799 hectares), woodland 32.1%, other land 16.1% and land under inland waters 0.4%. The major part of other land was unutilised agricultural land (62.7% or 1 172,421 hectares).  According to the Board of Statistics, 1,175,326 was in the ownership of 36,859 holdings, of which 795,640ha was agricultural land, 60,025 ha was unused agricultural land, 257,855ha was forest, 61,806 ha was other land2. Figure 1. land by categories in possession of holdings in 2001Total Total land in possession of holdings 2001 Inland waters; Other land; 0,40% 16,10%
Woodland; 32,10%
Agricultural land; 51,20%
 Source: Agricultural Census, 15 July, 2001. Share of this area by main types of crops Out of the 875,799 ha of agricultural land in 2001, 31% was under crops, 30% under permanent grassland, 26% under forage crops, 8% in other use (berries, kitchen gardens, nurseries etc) and 4% was left fallow.  Subsequently presented tables 1 and 2, show correspondingly the total crop production of the year of 2000 and the quantities of the yields accordingly to the land use.
                                                     1 Agricultural Consensus of 15 July 2001 2ERDP Monitoring Report 2004,fe=amk_mairsepde.1=52?3diline30f&.ee/agri.phplinktth.www//:p,; p. 16 1
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
Table 1. Crop production in Estonia in 2000 Total crop production 100% Grains 36,7% Oil crops 1,4% Legumes 1,7% Potatoes 25,3% Vegetables and fruits, berries 16,1% And others 18,8% Source : www.agri.ee. Table 2. The use of the land and the volumes of the yields in Estonia Crop 2000 2001 2002  growing quantity yield rowin uantit ield rowin uantit ield area ‘000 t kg/ha area ‘000 t kg/ha area ‘000 t kg/ha ‘000 ha ‘000 ha ‘000 ha rye 28 .9 .8 2,101 20.9 42.9 2,047 17.8 43.4 2,435 60 winter wheat 21.7 51.5 2,368 25.2 57.3 2,249 28.6 68.6 2,399 summer wheat 47.2 95.3 2,018 34.1 75.5 2,216 37.0 85.5 2,311 barley 165.1 347.5 2,105 134.3 270 2,011 132 249.8 1,893 Total legumes 3.9 6.6 1,706 3.6 6.5 1,780 2.5 5.3 2,124 Summer rape 28.82 38.62 1,339 27.3 41.1 1,506 33.0 65.8 1,991 Potatoes 30.9 471.7 15,281 22.1 343.1 15,503 17.5 285.7 16,431  vOepgeent afbileelds  3.8 45.5 12,015 3.3 40 12,023 3.1 34.1 104, 83 Perennial 402.9 - - 301 9 - - 299.5 - -. grasses Total cereals 329.3 696.6 2,115 274.1 558.4 2,037 267.2 543.7 2,035 Source : www.agri.ee Cereals Barley is the most important cereal sown in Estonia and it corresponds to 50% of the sowing area. Oat corresponds to 20% of the sowings and winter and spring wheat and rye 10% of each. Forage crops consist 95% of perennial grassland (results of AC). Main categories of production Agricultural holdings specialize mainly in three types of production: 45% of the farms engage in crop production, 21% in dairy farming, and 31% in mixed production (crop and livestock production). The most common crop type is grain, the output of which accounts for 36.7% of total crop production2 .  Milk output has been in decline for several years and it was 620,700 tons in 2002. According to the agreement achieved in the accession negotiations of Estonia and the EU, Estonia was given a milk production quota of 624,483 tons for 2004. Deliveries to dairies in 2003 correspond to 485,100 tons of milk. The yields of dairy herds started to grow in Estonia from the mid 1990s. In 2001, the annual average yield was 5152 kg per cow. The annual average yield of performance-tested cows was 5642 kg in 2002; the best cows yielded over 10,000 kg in 2001 and 2002.3       
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Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
The main meat produced in Estonia is pork, which accounted for 55% of the total meat production in 2000. Beef takes the second position with 28%, followed by poultry meat, 16%, and sheep and goat meat, 1%. The total meat production in Estonia was 182,000 tons in 1990 and 51,000 tons in 2000; a reduction of 72%3. One of the major reasons for the decreased production was the substantially decreased demand on the eastern market, as well as the low purchasing prices on the domestic market.  Potatoes are grown in Estonia mainly on small farms and private residences, and to a lesser extent, in larger agricultural enterprises. The area used for potato production has decreased in recent years. Total area for potato production in the year 2000 was 30,900 ha. The total yield was 471,661 tons with an average yield of 15.6 t/ha. In the year 2001, the total area for potato production decreased with a yield of 345,230 tons; the average yield was 16.1 t/ha. - The food potato demand (120,000 – 140,000 tons) was fully met in 2000.2  In 2003, 743 holdings were involved in organic farming4.  Forestry and fishery under the industrial concept are important production categories in Estonia. Forests are an important natural resource in Estonia. Forests have been intensively used in Estonia throughout the history. According to the Statistical Forest Inventory (SFI, collected every year by Eesti Metsakorralduskeskus) data of 2002, the area of forests was 2.21m ha or 50,5%, and together with other wooded land 52,3% (2,29m ha) of Estonia’s mainland territory, including about 830,000 ha of state forests. The annual cut has grown from 2.6m m3 in 1993 to about 12,6m m3 over bark in 2002. While the cut of state forests has remained quite stable (about 3m m3a year), the cut of private forests has increased remarkably over the last years. Estonian timber industry is developing rapidly. The scope of forest cutting has multiplied over the last ten years, and timber industry has developed together with it.  Fishing is an important industry for Estonia. According to Estonian Institute the present fish resources provide nearly 100 thousand tons of fish from the Baltic Sea annually. The present capacities allow an additional 120-150 thousand tons from other seas. Thus the total annual amount is 250 thousand tons. Only 25-30 thousand tons of fish and fish products are consumed on the Estonian domestic market.
                                                     2economy and food industry, Ministry of Agriculture, 2002Estonian Agriculture, Rural 3Estonian Rural Development Plan 200-2006, Ministry of Agriculture 4 ERDP Monitoring Report 2004,httwww.p://e./egairp.philkn25=1id3?enil&f03_kam=emadp.eriesf,; p. 16 3
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
Figure 2. GDP in Estonia in 2003 and 2004
GDP in current prices per economic sector (mEEK)
25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0
Prices 2004 Prices 2003
 
Source :ww.wtsat.ee Main agricultural product import and export trends Estonia’s trade policy has been liberal during the last ten years. Purchasing of agricultural produce by the state stopped in 1991 and pricing was deregulated.  As a result of reforms, the relative share of agriculture in the gross domestic product decreased from 15% to 3.3% during 1991–2000. The relative share of agriculture in the gross domestic product (GDP) had decreased 3.5 times since 1992 and the export of agricultural products decreased threefold.  While exports to Russia accounted for 44% of Estonia’s foreign trade in 1994, it consisted of only 4% by the year 2000. This decrease is due to higher basic import tariffs on Estonian products entering Russia, which are set twice as high as those established for its most favoured trade partners.  Trade is largest with European Union and Baltic states. Exports to Estonia’s neighbouring countries, Lithuania and Latvia have grown rapidly. While the share of Estonian agricultural products exported to these countries in 1994 was 15.6%, by the year 2000 it had increased to 39.4%. The relative share of Estonian agricultural products exported to the EU countries has continually grown. Export to the EU accounted for 23.2% of the total agricultural exports in 1994, and 39.4% in 2000.  Fish and milk products are the dominating articles of agricultural export, accounting for 39.4% and 4
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
24.7% of exports in 2000. The main products are canned fish and fish preserves. In terms of quantity, the greatest export article is frozen fish, but in monetary terms, canned fish takes first place. Cans are exported mainly to the eastern market and CEEC markets. Filleted fish is exported to the western markets.  The import of agricultural and food products to Estonia has also grown significantly. In 2000, the amount of imported milk products was 44,000 tons, which accounted for 10% of the domestic market consumption. Import of meat products in the same year was 40,600 tons, which accounted for 46% of the domestic market consumption.5  The development of the forestry and timber industry has been facilitated by the availability of forests, an opportunity to earn from the export of raw material. A significant part of timber and timber products are exported. The share of export in forest complex production has exceeded 70% in the past years, forming over 20% of export of primary industry. Export of round timber forms approximately 3 million m3, consisting 80% of pulpwood.  Import of grains and grain products amounted to 222,000 tons in 2000, consisting of one-third of the domestic market consumption.  As a conclusion: dairy industry accounted for 28%, the meat industry 15.8%, the fish industry 15.3%, the beverage industry 21.5%, flour and cereals production 0.7% and bread and baker's wares 8.7% of the total food industry in 2000.  Domestic horticultural products are preferred in Estonia. The development of Estonian horticulture has been influenced by the population's preference for domestic quality fruits, vegetables, and berries. Domestic products over imports are preferred for three main reasons: price, traditional tastes, and naturally cleaner raw materials.  The total value of export of the main categories of agricultural production in 2004 was 15,586,066,758 EEK (€ 996128674,10). Total value of import of the main categories of agricultural production in 2004 was 11,313,709,392 EEK (€ 723,075,970). Figure 3. Share of agricultural products in total exports, 2004 Share in exports 2004 (EEK) 223802244 2378933482 9674913336
467478282
2840939414
source: www.stat.ee
                                                     5Estonian Agriculture, Rural economy and food industry, Ministry of Agriculture, 2002 5
58691196756
 
Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
Figure 4. Share of agricultural products in total exports, 2004 Animal orShare in import 2004 vegetable fats and oils and their cleavage 2pr0o3d8u0c7ts f oPordeptaurffesd;  Wooof d waonodd  aertticc;l es Vegetableetc; 362 s products; 5184151893 3436103918 2331249774 Live animals; animal products; 1820991851
Other economic production; 94114875034
 source: www.stat.ee  Responsible institutions for the organisation of agriculture in the country are: - Ministry of Agriculture - Ministry of Environment Under the supervision of the Ministry of Agriculture: The Estonian Agricultural Registers and Information Board (ARIB) ARIB`s functions are to maintain the register of farm animals as well as the register of agricultural supports and agricultural parcels and to allocate different agricultural, fishery and rural development supports. It acts as the main administration and coordination body for the implementation of AEM.  Plant Production Inspectorate (PPI) The main purpose of the Inspectorate is to offer control over the plants and plant products, to production and importation of plants and plant products, certification and control of seeds, registration of plant protection products and supervision of marketing. Within the framework of AEMs’ implementation, the PPI issues the certificates of organic farming and carries out control of respecting the terms of organic farming and cooperates with ARIB to administer the organic farming measure.  The Veterinary and Food Board (VFB) VFB functions as a supervising body and sees to that that the requirements stipulated by the legislation that governs veterinary, food safety, market regulation, animal welfare and farm animal breeding are followed. VFB executes supervision over fulfilment of these requirements and applies enforcement by state pursuant to the procedures and in the amount prescribed by law. In the frames of implementing AEM, the VFB maintains the register of farm animals. Information on farming and breeding local endangered animal species has to be reported to the VFB by farmers based on the herd books.  Jäneda Training and Advisory Centre (JTAC) The purpose of the centre is to offer the advisory and training service to the agricultural producers and teachers. It contributes also the collection and handling of agricultural data. The JTAC contributes to the provision of compulsory training required in the frames of AEM support.  Animal Recording Centre (ARC)
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Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
The mission of the centre is to collect data of the agricultural animals` husbandry and performing animal recording and independent testing of the quality of raw milk.  Agricultural Research Centre (AgRC) The centre is a state organisation that combines several different laboratories, testing centres and departments that perform different responsibilities. The mission of the centre consists of promoting the Estonian agriculture in the framework of the European Union’s common agriculture by creating and mediating new knowledge. AgRC conducts agricultural monitoring in the frames of AEM monitoring.  The Estonian Veterinary and Food Laboratory (VAFL) The first priority of the VAFL is to carry out the statutory testing under various farm animal disease surveillance and food safety control programs, also laboratory testing of imported and exported animals and relevant goods. Along the statutory functions, the VAFL offers the laboratory services to private veterinarians and farmers for the diagnosis and control of animal diseases and to food processing industry for food safety and quality control.  Regional Land Improvement Bureaus (RLIB) Whose duty is to exercise state supervision and to apply state constraint in accordance with the legislation basis and extent, also organising the land improvement monitoring for environmental assessment. RLIBs approve, in cooperation with the County Environmental Departments, the plans for implementing the AEM for the establishment of hedgerows. Jõgeva Plant Breeding Institute (JPBI)  The main strategic goals of JPBI: to improve efficiency and competitiveness of agricultural production and bring into compliance with EU requirements, to guarantee stability of domestic market price level, to insure supply of population with main domestic foodstuff, to maximize the agricultural sectors` contribution to national economic and social well being on sustainable basis.  The Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture (ERIA) ERIA´s field of activities includes fundamental and applied studies of crop cultivation, post-harvesting, processing and preservation, development activities, innovation and testing of agricultural machinery. ERIA collaborates with educational, scientific, development and other institutions of Estonia and other countries in different spheres of scientific research, development, innovation and economic activities. Very close collaboration takes place with Estonian farmers. ERIA contributes to the evaluation of AEM based on statistics from ARIB and collection of data about the agri-environmental indicators to identify the respect of set objectives as set in the ERDP. ERIA also participates to the training of farmers in the framework of implementing AEM. Under the domain of the Ministry of the Environment: County Environmental Departments (CEDs) (15 total) Directly subordinate to the Ministry of Environment, the CEDs are responsible for the implementation of environmental legislation and regulations, and the environmental, nature protection, forest and fisheries programmes and action plans on the county level, manages information gathering and reporting in the field of environment and nature use; administrate protected natural objects designated by the Government of the Republic. The CEDs are also responsible for granting and controlling the environmental permitting, including special water permits (granted to e.g. dairy and pig farms) and IPPC permits.  The Estonian Land Board (ELB) ELB is responsible of maintaining the Land Cadastre, of organisation and co-ordination of the activities in the field of land consolidation, land assessment, geodesy, cartography, geographical information. The board was established for the implementation of the land policy of the Government of Estonia. Among its activities, the ELB upholds and updates the information regarding the land use and ownership for agricultural purposes.
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Evaluation of agri-environmental measures - Estonia
 The Environmental Inspectorate (EI) – the Institution operates as an independent national-level environmental supervision body with co-ordinating and performing the supervision over the exploitation of nature environment and resources, applying legal remedies on the extension and on the basis of law. Among other duties, it conducts independent inspections of agricultural enterprises.  The Centre of Forest Protection and Silviculture (CFPS) – the role of the centre is to participate in the drafting of legislation on the sustainable and multifunctional management of forests. It also organises forest protection, forest seed management, forest tree breeding, game management and management of protection forests. Analyses and monitors law-abidance, like-wisely collects and prepares information on the fulfilment of international agreements about the protection and sustainable management of forests. Through the listed activities, it also contributes to the implementation of ERDP.  The Estonian Environment Information Centre (EEIC) – the primary function of EEIC is collecting, analysing, processing and providing environmental information and data for environmental purposes. The data concerns air, waste, landfills, marine, surface and ground water, nature conservation, use of natural resources, waste water and waste water treatment plants. It cooperates closely with the ERIA and AgRC for providing environmental data for agricultural purposes.  State Forest Management Centre (SFMC) – the centre manages Estonian state forests. It is a governmental profit-making institution, the one and only institution of such type in Estonia. It also has tasks that do not bring direct economic income, but that are useful: maintaining the unique forest nature, nature friendly forest works, creation of free recreation possibilities. The centre is dealing with the areas of forest management, plant cultivation, recreation, hunting management and offering consulting services.  The Estonian Environmental Research Centre (EERC) - is specialised in chemical analyses in the field of environment protection. The main fields of activity cover the chemical analyses of waste water, surface water, groundwater, soil, air, foodstuffs, etc. The centre’s functions are also soil researching, microbiological analysis, conducting and implementation of environmental monitoring programmes, performing environmental impact assessments and environmental audits, training and consultations. 1.2 Brief description of the environment in agriculture
1.2.1 Total use of fertilisers and pesticides According to the Ministry of Agriculture statistics in 1997–2000, 77–89 kg/ha of active substances (N+P2O5+K2O) of mineral fertilisers were applied to fertilised fields. The quantities of nitrogen taken to the agri-ecological systems have decreased 3–5 fold. While 72,000–112,000 tons of active substances of nitrogen fertilisers were used to fertilise field crops in 1980–1990, the quantity has dropped to only 20,000–25,000 tonnes in the years of 1997–2000. Nitrogen quantities applied to the soils in the form of fertilisers form the largest part. The phosphorus quantities applied to the soils with mineral fertilisers have decreased from 49,000–62,000 tonnes in 1980–1990 to 3,000– 4,000 tonnes in 1997–2000.  The use of fertilisers is supervised by the Plant Production Inspectorate (PPI), the Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, the Environmental Inspectorate, and the Estonian Environmental Research Centre.  
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