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ESA95 GNI INVENTORY Sweden Reference year 2005 Revision 5 – October2009 Table of contents Chapter 1 Overview of the system of accounts 5 1.1 Introduction 5 1.2 Revisions policy and timetable for revising and finalising the estimates 6 1.3 Outline of production approach 8 1.4 Outline of income approach 13 1.5 Outline of the expenditure approach 18 1.6 The balancing procedure and main approaches to validation 27 1.7 Overview of the adjustments for exhaustiveness 28 1.8 Transition from GDP to GNI 29 1.9 The exclusion of the effect of the allocation of FISIM on GNI 30 Chapter 2 Revisions policy and timetable for revising and finalising the calculations 32 2.1 Revisions policy 32 2.1.1 Current revisions 33 2.1.2 Major revisions 33 2.2 Timetable for revising and finalising the accounts 35 Chapter 3 The production approach 38 3.0 Output from market producers and producers for own final use 38 3.1 Reference framework 39 3.2 Valuation 42 3.3 Transition from private accounting and administrative concepts to ESA 95 concepts 42 3.4 Roles of direct and indirect estimation methods 46 3.5 Roles of benchmarks and extrapolation 47 3.6 Approach to exhaustiveness 47 3.8 Fishing, NACE B, SNI 05 55 3.9-3.10 Mining and quarry and Manufacturing, NACE C-D, SNI 10-37 56 3.11 Electricity, gas, heat and water supply, NACE E, SNI 40-41 59 3.12 Construction, NACE F, SNI 45 61 3.

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ESA95 GNI INVENTORY


Sweden


Reference year 2005






Revision 5 – October2009

Table of contents
Chapter 1 Overview of the system of accounts 5
1.1 Introduction 5
1.2 Revisions policy and timetable for revising and finalising the estimates 6
1.3 Outline of production approach 8
1.4 Outline of income approach 13
1.5 Outline of the expenditure approach 18
1.6 The balancing procedure and main approaches to validation 27
1.7 Overview of the adjustments for exhaustiveness 28
1.8 Transition from GDP to GNI 29
1.9 The exclusion of the effect of the allocation of FISIM on GNI 30
Chapter 2 Revisions policy and timetable for revising and finalising the calculations 32
2.1 Revisions policy 32
2.1.1 Current revisions 33
2.1.2 Major revisions 33
2.2 Timetable for revising and finalising the accounts 35
Chapter 3 The production approach 38
3.0 Output from market producers and producers for own final use 38
3.1 Reference framework 39
3.2 Valuation 42
3.3 Transition from private accounting and administrative concepts to ESA 95
concepts 42
3.4 Roles of direct and indirect estimation methods 46
3.5 Roles of benchmarks and extrapolation 47
3.6 Approach to exhaustiveness 47
3.8 Fishing, NACE B, SNI 05 55
3.9-3.10 Mining and quarry and Manufacturing, NACE C-D, SNI 10-37 56
3.11 Electricity, gas, heat and water supply, NACE E, SNI 40-41 59
3.12 Construction, NACE F, SNI 45 61
3.13 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles, motor cycles and personal
and household goods, NACE G, SNI 50-52 64
3.14 Hotels and restaurants, NACE H, SNI 55 66
3.15 Transport, storage and communication, NACE I, SNI 60-64 68
3.16 Financial intermediation, NACE J, SNI 65-67 81
3.17 Real estate, renting and business activity, NACE K, SNI 70-74 90
3.18 Public administration and defence, compulsory social security, NACE L, SNI75
99
3.19 Education, NACE M, SNI 80 99
3.20 Health and social work, NACE N, SNI85 101
3.21 Other community, social and personal services activities, NACE O, SNI 90-93104
3.22 Private households with employed persons, NACE P, SNI 95 108
3.23 Extra-territorial organisations and bodies, NACE Q, SNI 99 109
3.24 Taxes on products, excluding VAT 109
3.25 Value-Added Tax 113
3.26 Subsidies on products 114

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Chapter 4 The income approach 115
4.1 Reference framework 115
4.2 Valuation 115
4.3 Transition from private accounting concepts to ESA 95 national accounts concepts
116
4.4 Roles of direct and indirect estimation methods 116
4.5 Roles of benchmarks and extrapolation 116
4.6 Exhaustiveness 116
4.7 Compensation of employees 117
4.8 Other taxes on production 125
4.9 Other subsidies on production 128
4.10 Gross operating surplus 129
4.11 Mixed income 131
4.12 Consumption of fixed assets (for non-market output) 133
Chapter 5 The expenditure approach 137
5.0 GDP according to the expenditure approach 137
5.1 – 5.6 137
5.7 Household final consumption expenditure 137
5.7.0 Summary and process table 137
5.8 NPISH final consumption expenditure 168
5.9 Government final consumption expenditure 171
5.10 Acquisitions less disposals of tangible fixed assets 189
5.11 Acquisitions less disposals of intangible fixed assets 201
5.12 Additions to the value of non-produced non-financial assets 208
5.13 Changes in inventories 209
5.14 Acquisitions less disposals of valuables 213
5.15 Exports of goods 214
5.16 Exports of services 216
5.17 Imports of goods 217
5.18 Imports of services 218
Chapter 6 The balancing procedure and main approaches to validation 219
6.1 GDP balancing procedure 219
6.2 Other approaches used to validate GDP 223
Chapter 7 Overview of the adjustments made to ensure exhaustiveness 226
7.1 The production approach 228
7.2 The income approach 229
7.3 Households’ consumption expenditure 231
7.4 General government consumption 233
7.5 Investment 233
7.6 Employment 233
7.7 Analysis of labour costs ratios and labour productivity 239
Chapter 8 Transition from GDP to GNI 241
8.0 Introduction and reference framework 241
8.1 Compensation of employees 242
8.2 Taxes on production and imports 242
8.3 Subsidies 243
8.4 Interest 243
8.5 Distributed income of corporations 244
8.6 Reinvested earnings on foreign direct investments to/from the rest of the world245
8.7 Property income attributed to insurance policy holders (D44) 245

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8.8 Rents on land and on sub-soil assets (D45) 245
Chapter 9 The exclusion of the effect of the allocation of FISIM on GNI 246
9.1 Introduction 246
9.2 Sources 246
9.3 Methods 246
9.4 Allocating FISIM 248
Chapter 10 Main classifications used 251
Chapter 11 Main data sources used 274
11.1 Statistical surveys and other data sources used for the production approach 287
11.2 Statistical surveys and other data sources used for the income approach 329
11.3 Statistical surveys and other data sources used for the expenditure approach 342
11.4 Statistical surveys and other data sources used for the transition from GDP to GNI
384
Report on compiling Process Table 389
Introduction 389
Preparation for completing the Process Table 389
Analysis of the Process Tables 390
Problems encountered 393
Specific questions related to NA compilation 393
Conclusions 394



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Chapter 1 Overview of the system of accounts


1.1 Introduction

The Swedish economy is usually described, relatively speaking, as a small and open
economy with a fairly high incidence of public sector activity. The table below shows the
different main aggregates and their relation to GDP.


Table 1 Balance of resources in 2005, SEK billions (percentage contribution to GDP)
GDP 2 735 Household consumption 1 328 (49)
Imports 1 121 (41) General government consumption 723 (26)
Gross fixed capital formation 472 (17)
Changes in inventories -4
Exports 1 333 (49)


1.1.1 Strategies

Complete calculations of the Swedish national accounts are currently only undertaken for
the production and expenditure sides, respectively. Independent industry-by-industry
calculations of GDP from the income side were undertaken partly as an experiment for the
period 1980-1993. Since the changeover to SNA93, however, complete income
calculations have not been carried out although it is the intention to resume them.

The main approach in the calculations is somewhat geared to the expenditure side. The
statistical basis is well developed, with possibilities for comparison between different
independent sources. The annual calculations are balanced in a system of supply and use
tables. These form the basic tables, which can be further developed to input/output tables.
The system also includes employment calculations, with average numbers of employees
and hours worked.

1.1.2 Geographical coverage

The national economy consists of units, which have a centre of economic interest located
within the economic territory of Sweden. Swedish territory comprises the area lying
within Sweden’s borders with the addition of Swedish ships and aeroplanes in
international traffic, Swedish fishing boats fishing in international waters and Sweden’s
embassies and consulates abroad. Conversely the embassies of foreign countries in
Sweden etc. are counted as foreign territory.

The units need not have the same nationality as the country itself. They may but need not
be legal entities. They need not be present within the economic territory of the country at
the time they execute a transaction. A unit has a centre of economic interest in Sweden if
it is located within the economic territory of Sweden and engages in economic activities
and transactions to a significant extent over a period of at least one year. 9 million people
2live in Sweden. The total land area, including lakes, is a little under 450 000 km . Hence
Sweden is the third largest country in the EU in terms of land area. In terms of number of
inhabitants, however, Sweden takes number fourteen.


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1.1.3 Organisation and responsibility within the national statistical institute

The production of statistics and responsibility for the various statistical areas is organised
in such a way that Statistics Sweden (Statistiska centralbyrån – SCB) has overall
responsibility for the coordination and supervision of official statistics and for the
development of statistical nomenclature and classifications. In addition Statistics Sweden
is responsible for coordinating international statistical reporting and contributes actively
to international cooperation.

Statistics Sweden has direct responsibility for official statistics in certain general areas of
society. This applies, for example, to the labour market, the economy, industry and prices,
the population and welfare as well as to housing and construction. In a number of other
areas of society, some 25 other agencies bear the responsibility for official statistics. The
production of these statistics is effected partly by Statistics Sweden and partly by other
producers of statistics.

The real economy accounts as well as the financial calculations are produced in Statistics
Sweden’s national accounts unit. As regards non-resident transactions, which affect GDP
and GNI, Statistics Sweden with effect from September 2007 collects data on commission
of the Swedish Central Bank. The Central Bank though has the responsibility for the
Balance of Payment. All the material is subsequently incorporated into the national
accounts. Analyses and comparisons of the different statistical and administrative material
are conducted continuously by the national accounts staff responsible for the area
concerned. Almost 60 persons work in the national accounts unit.

1.2 Revisions policy and timetable for revising and finalising the
estimates

1.2.1 Revisions policy

Revisions, in other words data changes relating to a period for which publication has
already taken place, are a normal part of the work on the national accounts. They stem
from a number of factors. The first accounts for a period are published very soon after the
close of the period to be reported on. They are based on preliminary data and must
therefore be revised when more final material becomes available. Another reason may be
reorganisations of the statistical basis, or the appearance of new statistics, which may
impose the need for revisions to the national accounts.

In Sweden, as regards current revisions, i.e. revisions carried out as the statistical basis
becomes more final, a relatively strict policy on the timing of revisions is applied, while
other revisions relating to longer periods do not follow such clear policy.

The first compilation of the national accounts for a certain year is published no more than
60 days after the close of the year.

Data relating to the previous year can be revised in connection with the compilation of the
first quarter of the following year.


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The previous year is also revised in the preliminary annual calculation, which is
published after 11 months in conjunction with the final annual calculation for t-2, which is
published after 23 months. Then all available data material will have been incorporated
for the final year and balanced in the system of supply and use tables. After the final
annual calculation no year is normally revised except in conjunction with major revisions.

Other revisions, covering longer periods, are carried out at less frequent intervals. There
is no strict timetable for such revisions. One major revision carried out on the Swedish
national accounts was the introduction of SNA93/ESA95, which was published in May
1999. Apart from adaptation to new international standards this also involved changes in
classifications, a major review of calculation methods and incorporation of new data
material. The new accounts have been implemented on the most detailed level with effect
from 1993. Other major revision affecting the whole period have been carried out in 2002
and 2007 respectively.

1.2.2 Timetable for the processing and completion of the accounts

The Swedish national accounts comprise both annual and quarterly accounts. The annual
and quarterly accounts are fully integrated so that the quarterly accounts are fully adjusted
to annual data when these are available. As has been noted, the first compilation of the
national accounts for a given year is published within 60 days after the close of the year
and is based to a considerable extent on the quarterly accounts.

The annual accounts are published in November. Preliminary annual accounts are then
published for year (t–1) and final accounts for year (t–2).

The final accounts are based on complete and detailed primary statistics. As regards the
product accounts, processing takes place in a detailed system of supply and use tables.
The annual accounts also include non-financial sector accounts with accounts for primary
and secondary income distribution, income use and capital formation for institutional
sectors. In addition also financial sector accounts covering assets and liabilities as well as
financial savings are produced.

The statistical basis, which is normally used for the annual accounts, is incorporated into
the preliminary annual accounts in so far as it is available at the time of calculation.

The preliminary annual accounts are currently not balanced in the system of supply and
use tables.

For the period 1950 to 1992 national accounts data are available only on a much more
aggregated level. Level changes introduced into the accounts because of the availability of
better statistics are generally adjusted by the use of previous figures for changes. Back-
casting on a more detailed level will be performed during 2009.







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1.3 Outline of production approach

1.3.0 Output of market producers and producers for own final use

The term market producers and producers for own final use (Näringslivet), also cover
central and local government public service undertakings. Producers for own final use
include the investment in roads and railways of the central government agencies National
Road Administration and National Rail Administration, housing services in owner-
occupied dwellings and local government construction investment. The table below shows
production values, intermediate consumption and value added in 2005 for the total
economy in SEK m.

Table 2 Production values, intermediate consumption and value added in 2005 for the total economy
in SEK.
Output Interm. Value Percent
SNI (NACE) industry value Cons. added TGVA
01 Agriculture 38977 27016 11961 0,50
02 Forestry 21016 7366 13650 0,57
05 Fishing 1364 775 589 0,02
10-14 Mining and quarrying 22484 10790 11694 0,49
114218
15-37 Manufacturing 1612211 6 470025 19,68
40-41 Electricity, gas and water supply 111688 41581 70107 2,94
45 Construction 221558 112553 109005 4,56
50-52 Trade and repair services 421528 154123 267405 11,20
55 Hotels and restaurants 82406 47027 35379 1,48
Transport, storage and
60-64 communication 474929 312316 162613 6,81
65-67 Financial intermediation 157234 50658 106576 4,46
Real estate, renting and business
70-74 activities 899124 410411 488713 20,46
80 Education 25397 9916 15481 0,65
85 Health and social work 71168 21942 49226 2,06
Oth.community, social, personal
90-93 service act. 110248 62297 47951 2,01
Private households with employed
95 persons 697 0 697 0,03
GVA market prod. & prod. for own 241095 186107
final use 4272029 7 2 77,93
Authorities of central government 128 047 5,36
Authorities of local government 362 577 15,18
NPISH 36 466 1,53
2 388
Total gross value added 162 100

1.3.1 Reference framework and main data sources

1.3.1.1 Business database, FDB
All statistics intended to provide information on the Swedish economy presuppose that
there should be coordination of definitions of inquiry units, industries, size criteria,
ownership categories and other recording variables. This in turn imposes the need for
registers, which describe these links and the status of the various units at different points
in time. Such a register constitutes the framework for all economic statistics. These basic

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requirements of coordination are met with the aid of Statistics Sweden’s business register.
The register covers enterprises, departments and agencies of government, organisations
and their activity units. Each enterprise has a unique corporate identification number and
each activity unit has a number unique to it, which makes it possible to computerise the
information and to establish links between different materials providing statistical
information.

The business register is a situation register in which circumstances at a particular point in
time are described. From a statistical point of view, however, it is more relevant that the
register should describe circumstances at different points in time. Information on changes
is therefore also stored and documented. By specifying the time at which changes take
place it is possible to follow the populations to be studied and at any time to update
sampling frames and samples for changes which have taken place and which are relevant
to the period to be reported on.

In 2000 the business register was reorganised and is now divided up into two different
parts, FDB-R, which contains legal entities and business establishments, and FDB-S,
which constitutes the statistical register. Here the enterprises are grouped into the
statistical units: enterprise unit, kind of activity unit and local kind of activity unit. The
FDB is a comprehensive register covering all enterprises in the country. Thanks to
coordinated sampling, in which branches of statistics use the same register and sampling
frame, all enterprises are included in the inquiry population. No enterprises are excluded,
which might easily be the case if different registers were used for different branches of
statistics. To sum up, it can be said that the Business database ensures the maintenance of
very high quality.

1.3.1.2 Sources
Since the start of 1997 the Business statistics (Företagsstatistiken – FS) conforming to the
EU regulation on Structural Business Statistics (SBS) have been the main source for the
output calculations. However, the statistics are considerably more comprehensive than is
required by the Regulation. They cover all industries apart from financial corporations. In
the Business statistics major enterprises are surveyed by questionnaire. For all the other
enterprises administrative material from the Swedish Tax Agency is used in combination
with sample surveys for information on specific activities on a detailed level.

For certain industries, however, sources other than the structural business statistics are
also used. For agriculture, forestry and fishing, material from the Swedish Board of
Agriculture, the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the National Board of
Forestry and the National Board of Fisheries is also used. For SNI 40-41 Electricity, gas,
heat, water and sewage plants, the structural business statistics are used but the energy
statistics also play an important role here. SNI 45 Construction is calculated from the
expenditure side as the sum of investment in and repairs to buildings and structures. For
the service industries, the structural business statistics are the main source, and for SNI 62
Air transport, complementary detailed special statistics are used and, for SNI 65-67
Financial activity, the main source are financial market statistics. For Mining and
Manufacturing, the Industrial goods production is used in combination with the SBS.

The Business statistics are structured somewhat differently for different industries.
Industry as a whole is surveyed by activity units, whereas service industries are surveyed
mainly on an enterprise level. Service industries are supplemented in the structural

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business statistics by those activity units in industrial enterprises, which are classified as
service industry units and reduced by those activity units in service enterprises, which are
classified as industrial units.

Prior to 2003 several other inquiries apart from the structural business statistics were used
in order to verify and supplement the structural business statistics. Intermittent sample
surveys of the service industries were produced, in which data were collected on a more
detailed level than was collected in the structural business statistics. From 2003 and
onwards all the old surveys are integrated into the SBS and therefore also conducted
annually. This has meant a great quality improvement in the source material for the
national accounts.

1.3.2 Valuation

Output is valued at the basic price, i.e. the price the producer receives excluding all taxes
and including any subsidies received on products. This valuation is also used in the
primary statistics.

Intermediate consumption is valued at the purchaser’s price, i.e. the price paid by the
enterprises for products exclusive of deductible VAT. This valuation also coincides with
the valuation obtained in the primary statistics. Value added is obtained residually and is
thus correctly valued at the basic price.

1.3.3 Transition from private accounting data to national accounting concepts in
accordance with ESA95

A number of corrections to output and intermediate consumption values have to be made
in order to obtain the definitions required by ESA95. Discrepancies between company
accounting and ESA95 mean that most industries need to be adjusted for the same
differences in definition. The primary statistics may show slight differences in structure,
so that some adjustments only concern certain industries.

1.3.4 Use of direct and indirect methods

Indirect methods are used in order to calculate the value of output for some industries and
sub-industries.

For agriculture the main method is qunaty * price compilations. Output of standing timber
in forestry is provided by a calculation model in which increment is estimated with the aid
of measurements on sample plots. Volume increment is extrapolated in cubic metres and
multiplied by a standing timber price. Volumes of timber felled in forestry are also
measured indirectly. Construction output is calculated as the sum of investment in and
repairs to buildings.

The value of output for owner-occupied dwellings is compiled by taking the price per
square metre for rented dwellings and multiplying by the total area of owner-occupied
housing based on information from the real-estate assessment register. The calculations
are performed stratified by various categories and regions in accordance with EU
directives.


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