Sustainable development in the European Union. 2011 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy. Edition 2011.

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Développement socio-économique, consommation et production durables, intégration sociale, changements démographiques, santé publique, changement climatique et énergie, transport durable, ressources naturelles, partenariat, bonne gouvernance.
En annexe : liste des indicateurs de développement durable.
Luxembourg. http://temis.documentation.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/document.xsp?id=Temis-0057388

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Sustainable development in the European Union 2009 monitoring report of the EU sustainable development strategy
KS-78-09-865-EN-C
S t a t is t ic al b o o k s
Sustainable development in
the European Union
2009 monitoring report of the EU Sustainable development
sustainable development strategy
in the European Union
The Eurostat monitoring report, based on the EU set
of sustainable development indicators, provides an
2009 monitoring reportobjective, statistical picture of progress towards the
goals and objectives of the EU sustainable development of the EU sustainable development strategy
strategy. It is published every two years and underpins
the European Commission’s progress report on the
implementation of the strategy.
The statistics covered illustrate the range of issues
relevant for sustainable development, and will
contribute to raising awareness of the opportunities
and challenges lying ahead. Quantitative rules applied
consistently across indicators, and visualised through
weather symbols, provide a relative assessment of
whether Europe is moving in the right direction, and at a
su cient pace, given the objectives and targets de ned
in the strategy. The data presented cover the period
from 1990 to 2007-8 (or the latest year available).
Sustainable development is a fundamental and
overarching objective of the European Union
(EU), enshrined in the Treaty. The EU sustainable
development strategy, launched by the European
Council in Gothenburg in 2001 and renewed in June
2006, aims for the continuous improvement of quality of
life for current and future generations.
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/
sustainabledevelopment
Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: EUR 30 ISBN 978-92-79-12695-6
9 7 8 9 2 7 9 1 2 6 9 5 6S ta tistic al b o oks
Sustainable development
in the European Union
2009 monitoring report
of the EU sustainable development strategyEurope Direct is a service to help you fnd answers
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ISBN 978-92-79-12695-6
DOI 10.2785/2901
Cat. No. KS-78-09-865-EN-C

Theme: General and regional statistics
Collection: Statistical books
© European Communities, 2009
© Cover photo: Fotolito 38
© Other photos: Chapter 3, 4, 5, 7, 8: Phovoir; Chapter 2, 6: Central audiovisual library of the
European Commission; Chapter 9: Javier Bonilla; Chapter 10: Nuria Munarriz
Printed in Belgium
P P P - P P P (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel/)
rthoraeedaerulreenctotadddeyanbaeelbwsfhotrhaegeraaniehcicecrlForeword
ustainable development is a great challenge for Sour societies; it is a primary goal of the EU, en-
shrined in its treaties since 1997. Te EU sustain-
able development strategy brings together the many
strands of economic, social and environmental pol-
icy under one overarching objective - to continually
improve the quality of life and well-being on Earth
for present and future generations. At this point in
time, when the world is facing a fnancial crisis and
a global recession, as well as a food crisis, a looming
energy crisis, and climate change, it is more than
ever important to have a coherent and long-term
vision for our future development.
Impartial and objective statistical information
is essential for all decision-making and provides
transparency and openness. Ofcial statistics play
a fundamental role in today's society and are essential for the development, implementation,
monitoring and evaluation of EU policies. Eurostat and the European Statistical System have
a leading role to play in providing data and monitoring to what extent the EU is on track to
achieving the concrete goals for a sustainable development set out in the strategy. Te main
visible outcome is a bi-annual Monitoring Report which underpins the Commission commu-
nication to the Council and the European Parliament.
Walter Radermacher
Director-General, Eurostat
Sustainable development in the European Union 1Abstract
Te Eurostat monitoring report, based on the EU set of sustainable development indicators,
provides an objective, statistical picture of progress towards the goals and objectives of the EU
sustainable development strategy. It is published every two years and underpins the European
Commission’s progress report on the implementation of the strategy.
Te statistics covered illustrate the range of issues relevant for sustainable development, and
will contribute to raising awareness of the opportunities and challenges lying ahead. Quanti-
tative rules applied consistently across indicators, and visualised through weather symbols,
provide a relative assessment of whether Europe is moving in the right direction, and at a suf-
fcient pace, given the objectives and targets defned in the strategy. Te data presented cover
the period from 1990 to 2007/8 (or the latest year available).
Sustainable development is a fundamental and overarching objective of the European Union,
enshrined in the Treaty. Te EU sustainable development strategy, launched by the European
Council in Gothenburg in 2001 and renewed in June 2006, aims for the continuous improve-
ment of quality of life for current and future generations.
2 Sustainable development in the European Union Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Data extraction and project management:
First drafs of the main chapters were based on data extracted at the beginning of 2009. Tese
chapters were then reviewed by experts within Eurostat and other Commission Services, and
from the European Environment Agency and the Member States. Revised chapters were fur-
ther reviewed by a team of independent specialists. A subsequent data extraction took place
over the summer of 2009 prior to further revision. Te fnal version of the manuscript was
completed in October 2009, and is entirely the responsibility of the editorial team.
Editorial team (in alphabetical order):
Viktoria Bolla, Wolfgang Hauschild, Onno Hofmeister, Dorothea Jung, Graham Lock, Anita
Pavlovic, Andrea Scheller, Vincent Tronet
Initial drafting of chapters and coordination:
Socioeconomic development: Wilhelm Zwirner (WU, RIMAS)
Climate change and energy: Nils Meyer-Ohlendorf, Katharina Umpfenbach, Viktoria Wess-
lowski (Ecologic)
Sustainable transport: Christoph Schreyer (INFRAS)
Sustainable consumption and production: Markus Hametner, Katharina Jarmai (WU, RIMAS)
Natural resources: Ingo Bräuer, Timo Kaphengst, Viktoria Wesslowski (Ecologic)
Public health: Judith Trageser, Tomas von Stokar (INFRAS)
Social inclusion: Christian Marti, Nicole North (INFRAS)
Demographic changes: Maria Latorre (ippr)
Global partnership: Nils Meyer-Ohlendorf, Christiane Gerstetter, Doris Knoblauch (Ecologic)
Good governance: Gerald Berger (WU, RIMAS)
Coordinators:
Markus Hametner (WU, RIMAS), Katharina Jarmai (WU, RIMAS), Maria Latorre (ippr), An-
dré Martinuzzi (WU, RIMAS), Nicole North (INFRAS), Anneke von Raggamby (Ecologic),
Tomas von Stokar (INFRAS)
Sustainable development in the European Union 3Acknowledgements
Independent specialist reviewers:
Socioeconomic development: Hans Martens, Jan-Egbert Sturm
Climate change and energy: Hans-Martin Füssel, Hans-Joachim Ziesing
Sustainable transport: Henrik Gudmundsson, Hermann Knofacher
Sustainable consumption and production: Don Huisingh, Lucia Reisch, Gerd Scholl
Natural resources: Lawrence Jones-Walters, Jon Lovett
Public health: Peter Allebeck, Walter Ricciardi
Social inclusion: Jochen Clasen, Heike Trappe
Demographic changes: Bert de Vroom, Rainer Münz
Global partnership: Mary Jane Mace, Stephen Morse
Good governance: Susan Baker, William Laferty
Other reviewers:
Marta Beck-Domzalska, Roland Beck, Teresa Bento, Katarzyna Biala, Achim Boenke, Giuseppe
Carone, Angel Andres Calvo Santes, Antonia Carparelli, Simone Casali, Sophie Condé , Ve-
ronica Corsini, Francesca d’Angelo, Arturo de la Fuente Nuño, Eric De Brabanter, Nathalie
Darnaut, Poul Degnbol, Cécile Dormoy, Didier Dupré, Marco Fantini, Ingeborg Fiala, Georg
Fischer, Jürgen Förster, Christian Freudenberger, Gilberto Gambini, Domenico Gaudioso, Ni-
colas Gérard, Kostas Giannakouris, Gudrun Gudfnnsdottir, Julie Hass, Keith Hayes, Pedro
Herrera Gimenez, Ralf Jacob, Lothar Janßen, Peder Jensen, Sylvain Jouhette, Erasmia Kitou,
Wim Kloek, Agota Krenusz, Katarzyna Kuske, Ariane Labat, Simon Le Grand, Fabienne Lefe-
bvre, Bartek Lessaer, Katarina Lindahl, Agnieszka Litwinska, Pekka Loesoenen, Casto López
Benítez, Anke Lukewiller, Dietmar Maaß, Leticia Martinez Aguilar, Liviana Mattonetti, Sven
Matzke, Ilias Mavroidis, Roeland Mertens, Andrea Mészáros, Maria Cristina Mohora, Fran-
çoise Moreau, Pierre Nadin, Andreas Nägele, Ligia Nobrega, Jonas Noreland, Colin Nugent,
Julius Op De Beke, Maria Papaioanou, Sergiu Valentin Parvan, Ruth Paserman, Vicenç Pedret
Cusco, Ivone Pereira Martins, Jerzy Pienkowski, Hans Sierd Pietersen, Roberta Pignatelli, Pa-
trizia Poggi, Doris Prammer, Fernando Reis, Elisabeth Rohner-Tielen, Maria Teresa Sanz Vil-
legas, Frederik Schutyser, Johan Selenius, Heidi Seybert, Maria Smihily, Marek Sturc, Gergely
Sulyok, Tamas Szedlak, Anne Teller, Günther Tosstorf, Birgit Van Tongelen, Jerome Vignon,
Martin Villner, Laura Wahrig, Håkan Wilén, Albrecht Wirthmann, Marilise Wolf-Crowther,
Monika Wozowczyk, Jakub Wtorek, Ana Xavier, Franco Zampogna, Natacha Zuinen
Page makeup and typesetting:
Fotolito 38 Cross-media publishing
For more information, please consult:
Eurostat pages on sustainable development indicators:
http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/sustainabledevelopment
4 Sustainable development in the European Union Contents
Contents
Foreword Page 1
Abstract 2
Acknowledgements 3
Executive summary 7
Introduction 29
Key objective: economic prosperity
1. Socioeconomic development 40
Headline indicator: growth of GDP per capita 46
Subtheme: ecvelopment 49
Subtheme: innovation, competitiveness and eco-efciency 53
Subtheme: employment 56

Key challenge 1: climate change and clean energy
2. Climate change and energy 66
Headline indicator: greenhouse gas emissions 73 tor: consumption of renewables 76
Subtheme: climate change 79
Subtheme: energy 83
Key challenge 2: sustainable transport
3. Sustainable transport 92
Headline indicator: energy consumption of transport relative to GDP 98
Subtheme: transport and mobility 101 t impacts 110
Key challenge 3: sustainable consumption and production
4. Sustainable consumption and production 118
Headline indicator: resource productivity 124
Subtheme: resource use and waste 127
Subtheme: consumption patterns 134
Subtheme: production patterns 139
Key challenge 4: conservation and management of natural resources
5. Conservation and management of natural resources 148
Headline indicator: abundance of common birds 155 tor: conservation of fsh stocks 156
Sustainable development in the European Union 5Contents
Subtheme: biodiversity 158
Subtheme: freshwater resources 161
Subtheme: marine ecosystems 164
Subtheme: land use 165
Key challenge 5: public health
6. Public health 172
Headline indicator: healthy life years 177
Subtheme: health and health inequalities 179
Subtheme: determinants of health 183
Key challenge 6: social inclusion, demography and migration
7. Social inclusion 194
Headline indicator: risk of poverty 200
Subtheme: monetary poverty and living conditions 203
Subtheme: access to labour market 205
Subtheme: education 209
8. Demographic changes 216
Headline indicator: employment rate of older workers 221
Subtheme: demography 223
Subtheme: old-age income adequacy 227
Subtheme: public fnance sustainability 229
Key challenge 7: global poverty and sustainable development challenges
9. Global partnership 236
Headline indicator: ofcial development assistance 243
Subtheme: globalisation of trade 245
Subtheme: fnancing for sustainable development 248
Subtheme: global resource management 254
Guiding principles
10. Good governance 258
Subtheme: policy coherence and efectiveness 264
Subtheme: openness and participation 269
Subtheme: economic instruments 274

Annex I: Abbreviations and acronyms 279
Annex II: Description of the complete EU set of sustainable development
indicators, by theme 281
Annex III: Complete list of EU sustainable development indicators 291
Index 301
6 Sustainable development in the European Union Executive summary
Executive summary
Sustainable development is a fundamental and overarching objective of the
European Union, aiming to continuously improve the quality of life and well-
being for present and future generations, by linking economic development,
protection of the environment and social justice.
Te 2006 EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS) sets out a single, The renewed EU SDS
coherent strategy on how the EU will more efectively meet the challenges of reafrms the overall
sustainable development. It reafrms the overall aim of achieving a continuous aim of improving
improvement in the quality of life of citizens through sustainable communities the quality of life
that manage and use resources efciently and tap the ecological and social in-
novation potential of the economy, ensuring prosperity, environmental protec-
tion and social cohesion.
Measuring progress towards sustainable development is an integral part of the Measuring progress
EU SDS, and it is Eurostat’s task to produce a monitoring report every two based on the EU
years based on the EU set of sustainable development indicators (EU SDIs). SDIs is an integral
Eurostat has so far published two monitoring reports, in December 2005 and part of the strategy
October 2007. Tis third report charts progress in the implementation of the
strategy’s objectives and key challenges.
Te SDS defnes objectives and targets intended to put the European Union on
a path towards sustainable development. Given these objectives and targets,
this report provides a relative assessment of whether the EU is moving in the
right direction. Te approach is essentially quantitative, focusing on the EU
SDIs as of October 2008. It complements the policy analysis provided in the
Commission’s progress report on the implementation of the Sustainable Devel-
(1)opment Strategy .
The current Te current economic and fnancial crisis poses a number of difculties for
economic and monitoring progress in the implementation of the EU SDS. Te recent eco-
fnancial crisis is nomic turmoil has the potential to produce dramatic changes in many of the
too recent to be domains covered by the SDI set presented here. But the disruptions have oc-
refected in the curred too recently to allow a reliable assessment of their impact on the indi-
indicatorscators. Evaluations of most of the indicators cover the period up to 2008 or
Sustainable development in the European Union 7