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eurostat Statistisches Bundesamt Country profile The Soviet Union, 1980 to 1991 Survey of the final years eurostat Country profile Statistisches Bundesamt The Soviet Union, 1980 to 1991 Survey of the final years Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication. STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT Gustav Stresemann-Ring 11, D-6200 Wiesbaden and EUROSTAT, STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMU Plateau de Kirchberg, L-2920 Luxembourg Edited by: Statistisches Bundesamt The French version of this publication is available from the Office for Publications of the European Communities. The German version of this publication may be obtained from the pu Metzler-Poeschel, Stuttgart. Delivery: Hermann Leins GmbH & Co K( Holzwiesenstrasse 2, D-W-7408 Kusterdingen (fax: 49/70 71/336 53). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commi Statistisches Bundesamt The Soviet Union, 1980 to 1991 Survey of the final years With soie 290 lillion inhabitants and a total area of 22.4 lillion la', the Soviet Onion was the largest cohesive national territory in the world. Mow it has ceased to exist, having broken up at the end of 1991, and new structures are eierging. It is iiportant for this new beginning and for the construction of new States and their econoiies to have infonation on the situation at the tile when the new countries eierged.

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eurostat
Statistisches Bundesamt Country profile
The Soviet Union,
1980 to 1991
Survey of the final years eurostat
Country profile Statistisches Bundesamt
The Soviet Union,
1980 to 1991
Survey of the final years Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
STATISTISCHES BUNDESAMT
Gustav Stresemann-Ring 11, D-6200 Wiesbaden
and
EUROSTAT, STATISTICAL OFFICE OF THE EUROPEAN COMMU
Plateau de Kirchberg, L-2920 Luxembourg
Edited by: Statistisches Bundesamt
The French version of this publication is available from the Office for
Publications of the European Communities.
The German version of this publication may be obtained from the pu
Metzler-Poeschel, Stuttgart. Delivery: Hermann Leins GmbH & Co K(
Holzwiesenstrasse 2, D-W-7408 Kusterdingen (fax: 49/70 71/336 53).
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Commi Statistisches Bundesamt
The Soviet Union, 1980 to 1991
Survey of the final years With soie 290 lillion inhabitants and a total area of 22.4 lillion la',
the Soviet Onion was the largest cohesive national territory in the
world. Mow it has ceased to exist, having broken up at the end of 1991,
and new structures are eierging.
It is iiportant for this new beginning and for the construction of new
States and their econoiies to have infonation on the situation at the
tile when the new countries eierged. The "Survey of the final years"
presents statistical data on the Soviet Onion froi 1980 to 1991, and in
soie cases on the individual republics. It is thus a vital source of
inforiation for all those who wish to develop econoiic ties with the new
States or siiply to find out about the country that was once a
superpower.
λ chapter by the Institut fur Angewandte Wirtschaftsforschung (UW) I1'
analyses in detail and couents on the econoiic probleis underlying the
figures and the disintegration of the Soviet Onion in 1991.
This publication is the prelude to a series of reports on the newly
independent States of the foner Soviet onion, beginning in 1992 with the
Russian Federation.
155 pages. Illustrated with
laps and graphics in colour.
DH 24.80
Order Ho: 520
ISBH 3-8246
I1' Institute for Applied Econoiic Research Published by: Herausgeber:
Federal Statistical Office Statistisches Bundesait
Gustav-Streseiann-Ring 11 Gustav-Streseiann-Ring 11
D-6200 Wiesbaden 1 D-6200 Wiesbaden 1
Verlag: Publishers:
J. B. Hetzler/C. E. Poeschel J. B. Hetzler/C. E. Poeschel
Verlagsauslieferung: Delivery:
Messrs. Henann Leins GibH S Co. KG Henann Leins GibH i Co. KG
Holzwiesenstr. 2 Holzwiesenstr. 2
Postfach 11 52 Postfach 11 52
7408 Kusterdingen D-7408 Kusterdingen
Tel.: 07071/33046 Tel.: 07071/33046
Telefax: 07071/33653 Telefax: 07071/33653
Telex: 7262 891 îepo d Telex: 7262 891 lepo d
Published in Erschienen ii
Price: DH 24.80 Preis: DM 24.80
Order maber: Bestellnuiier:
ISBN ISBH
Statistisches Bundesait Copyright: Statistisches Bundesait Copyright:
Wiesbaden, 1992 Wiesbaden, 1992
All rights reserved. Ho part of this Alle Rechte vorbehalten. Es ist insbesondere
publication lay in particular be nicht gestattet, ohne ausdrückliche Genehiigung
translated, reproduced or copied, des Statistischen Bundesaltes diese
recorded on licrofili/iicrofiche or Veröffentlichung oder Teile daraus zu übersetzen,
stored in electronic systeis without zu vervielfältigen,-auf Hikrofili/-fiche
the explicit prior penission of the zu verfilien oder in elektronische Systeie
Federal Statistical Office. einzuspeichern.
This publication also appears in a Genan and a French edition.
It can be obtained froi the:
Office for Official Publications of the European Couunities
2, rue Hercier
L-2985 Luxeibourg FOREWORD
Since the end of 1991, there bas been no country called the Soviet Onion. A world power which doiinated vast areas
of the globe and played a lajor role on its political stage, and whose frontiers larked the boundaries of the
econoiic and intellectual lifestyles of the rest of the world, has ceased to exist.
Despite the wide variety of nations and regions which it bound together, the Soviet Onion often appeared to the
outside observer as a îonolith. But froi its ashes, new sovereign States have arisen. Its îaterial and political
legacy is being divided up aiong its successor States, which are loving towards either cooperation or full
independence.
The econoiic probleis which already existed have coie to the forefront since the disintegration of the old systei
which was iiposed on the whole area. All politicians and econoiists with responsibilities in this area lust now
endeavour to ensure that the necessary supplies reach the population and that new econoiic structures are built up
to enable the new countries to becoie internationally coipetitive and share in the opportunities of a free larket.
The econoiies and governients of the rest of the world are called upon to take the initiative and both provide and
exploit to the full every possible opportunity for cooperation with the foner Soviet econoiy, to the benefit of all
concerned, especially a population particularly hard-hit by the transition to a free-iarket econoiy.
If countries are to cooperate, they need infönation about each other. Data on the Soviet Onion over the past decade
are still reguired today, to enable the potential for initiatives to be analysed.
This Statistisches Bundesait publication therefore presents facts and figures on the foner Soviet Onion and its
republics, as they existed at the end of 1991 and the beginning of 1992. It was decided not to produce any detailed
coiientaries, in order to lake the data available as guickly as possible.
The report was coipiled with the assistance of colleagues froi the foner State Couittee of the OSSR on Statistics
(Goskoistat), and in cooperation with statisticians froi soie of the independent republics, such as Russia, »e
should like to thank thei all for their help.
A series of publications will follow this final report on the Soviet Onion, describing the newly independent
successor States. A report on the Russian Federation, at least, is planned for 1992.
With these data, the Statistisches Bundesait hopes to lake a lajor contribution towards the peaceful but rapid and
effective changeover to new and lore intensive patterns of East/West cooperation (to use an expression which,
although in coiion use for decades, lay well becoie obsolete in the future).
Wiesbaden
The President of the Statistisches Bundesait
Egon Holder COHTEMTS DEALT
Seite/Page
Syibols and abbreviations 5 Zeichenerklärung und Abkürzungen
List of tables Tabellenverzeichnis 7
Introductory reiark 11 Vorbeierkung
Karten Haps 12
14 Allgeieiner Überblick General survey 1
2 Gebiet Area 21
Bevölkerung Population 22 3
4 Gesundheitswesen Health 37
Bildungswesen Education 42 5
6 Erwerbstãtigkeit Eiployient 47
7 Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Fischerei Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries 55
8 Produzierendes Gewerbe Industrial production 66
Foreign trade 9 Außenhandel 79
Verkehr und Hachrichtenwesen Transport and couunications 10 94
Tourisi 11 Reiseverkehr 100
Geld und Kredit Honey and credit 103 12
Public finance 13 Öffentliche Finanzen 107
Löhne und Gehalter, Preise Wages, salaries and Prices 112 14
Environient 121 15 Oiwelt
Hational accounts 126 16 Volkswirtschaftliche Gesaitrechnungen
The econoiic probleis of the disintegration 17 Die ökonoiischen Probleie des Zerfalls
of the Soviet Onion in 1991 der Soviet Onion ii Jahre 1991 131
Bibliography 140 18 Quellenhinweis
ZEICIEHERKLARÜMG/EXPLAHATIOH OF SYMBOLS
Less than half of 1 at the last occupied Weniger als die Hälfte von 1 in
digit, but lore than nil der letzten besetzten Stelle,
jedoch lehr als nichts
nichts vorhanden Magnitude zero
grundsätzliche Änderung General break in the series
innerhalb einer Reihe, die den affecting coiparison over tiie
zeitlichen Vergleich beein­
trächtigt
Zahlenwert unbekannt Figure unknown
Tabellenfach gesperrt, weil Tabular group blocked, because
Aussage nicht sinnvoll infonation is not íeaningful GEIERAL ABBREVUnOHS f1'
kW kilowatt (10° Watt) grai q
kWh kilowatt hour (10° Watt hour) kilograi kg
HW = ìegawatt (IO6 Watt) dt 100 kg
HWh legawatt hour (IO6 Watt hour) t tonne (1000 kg)
GW gigawatt (IO9 Watt) lilliietre 11
gigawatt hour (IO9 Watt hour) = centiietre GWh Cl
piece = îetre St I
kiloietre Ρ pair kl
sguare îetre Hio. lillion 1¡
Mrd billion ha hectare (10 000 i!)
JA beginning of year ki! sguare kiloietre
JH liddle of the year 1 = litre
JE end of the year hl hectolitre (100 1)
JD = year average 1Γ cubic îetre
quarter tki tonne­kiloietre vj
= half-year GRT gross registered tonne Bj
average HRT = net registered tonne D
td» dead­weight tonne KD ìonthly average
(tdw = 1 016,05 kg)
kVA kilovolt­aipere cif cost, insurance, freight incl
Rbl = rouble fob = free on board
OSD = OS dollar DH Deutsch lark
I1) Special abbreviations are allocated to the respective sections. With only few exceptions, provisional,
revised and estiiated figures are not larked as such. Detail lay not add to total because of rounding.