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A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension

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10 pages
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension Ralph Debusmann and Denys Duchier Programming Systems Lab, Saarland University, Saarbr ?ucken, Germany and ·Equipe Calligramme, LORIA, Nancy, France A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension – p.1

  • grammatical functions

  • dominance dimension

  • additional root node

  • incoming edges

  • optional grammatical

  • immediate dominance


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A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The
Immediate Dominance Dimension
Ralph Debusmann
and
Denys Duchier
Programming Systems Lab, Saarland University, Saarbruc¤ ken, Germany
and
·
Equipe Calligramme, LORIA, Nancy, France
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.1Immediate Dominance Dimension

idea: model surface syntactic structure

choices:

factor out word order

factor out deep dependencies (e.g. control, raising)
einen roman maria zu schreiben verspricht .
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.2
subj
obj
vinf
par
t
det
rootSpecifying the class of models
einen roman maria zu schreiben verspricht .

labeled trees

edge labels: grammatical functions like subject, object,
determiner etc.

additional root node for the full stop for convenience
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.3
subj
obj
vinf
par
t
det
rootSubcategorization

incoming edges: possible grammatical functions

outgoing edges: required/optional grammatical functions
" #
in : fsubj?;obj?;iobj?g
Roman :
out : fdet!;adj;prep?;rel?g
" #
in : fsub?;rel?;root?g
verspricht :
out : fsubj!;vinf!;adv;prep g
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.4Agreement

restriction to case (nominative and accusative only) for
simplicity

concepts:

case assignment

case agreement

case government
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.5Case assignment

rst idea: lexically:
h i
Frau :
agr : nom
1
h i
Frau :
agr : acc
2

uneconomical. better: lexically assign a set of possible
cases:
h i
Frau :
agrs : fnom;accg

use additional node attribute to pick out one of the cases for
each node:
8v2 V : agr(v)2 agrs(v)
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.6Case agreement

for certain grammatical relations: case agreement

e.g. for German, the determiners and adjectives agree with
their nouns

but nouns do not agree with their PPs and relative clauses

i.e. set of agreeing edge labels: agree =fdet;adjg
l
8h! d : l2 agree ) agr(h) = agr(d)
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.7Case agreement contd.

want to get more exibility: lexicalize the set of agreeing
edge labels:
" #
out : fdet!;adj;prep?;rel?g
Roman :
agree : fdet;adjg
l
8h! d : l2 agree(h) ) agr(h) = agr(d)
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.8Case government

for certain grammatical relations: heads restrict the
agreement of their dependents

e.g. for German and also English, nite verbs require their
subjects to be nominative

and transitive verbs require their objects to be accusative

i.e. mapping of governed edge labels to agreement
restrictions:
govern = fsubj7!fnomg;
obj7!faccgg
l
8h! d : agr(d)2 govern(l)
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.9Case government contd.

want more exibility: lexicalize the mapping of governed
edge labels to agreement restrictions:
" #
out : fsubj!;vinf!;adv;prep g
verspricht :
govern : fsubj7!fnomgg
l
8h! d : agr(d)2 govern(h)(l)
A Comparative Introduction to XDG: The Immediate Dominance Dimension ? p.10