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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 20
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 6 Mo



Howard Iseri

American Research Press

Smarandache Manifolds

Howard Iseri
Associate Professor of Mathematics
Department of Mathematics and
Computer Information Science
Mansfield University
Mansfield, PA 16933

American Research Press
Rehoboth, NM

The picture on the cover is a representation of an s-manifold illustrating some of the
behavior of lines in an s-manifold.

This book has been peer reviewed and recommended for publication by:
Joel Hass, University of California, Davis
Marcus Marsh, California State University, Sacramento
Catherine D’Ortona, Mansfield University of Pennsylvania

This book can be ordered in microfilm format from:
Books on Demand
ProQuest Information & Learning
(University Microfilm International)
300 N. Zeeb Road
P.O. Box 1346
Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1346
Tel.: 800-521-0600 (Customer Service)
And online from Publishing Online, Co. (Seattle, WA) at

Copyright 2002 by American Research Press and Howard Iseri
Box 141, Rehoboth
NM 87322, USA

More papers on Smarandache geometries can be downloaded from:

An international club on Smarandache geometries can be found at
that merged into an international group at

Paper abstracts can be submitted online to the First International Conference on
Smarandache Geometries, that will be held between 3-5 May, 2003, at the Griffith
University, Gold Coast Campus, Queensland, Australia, organized by Dr. Jack Allen, at

ISBN: 1-931233-44-6
Standard Address Number: 297-5092
Printed in the United States of America
Table of Contents
Introduction 5
Chapter 1. Smarandache Manifolds 9
s-Manifolds 9
Basic Theorems 17
Other Objects 24
Chapter 2. Hilbert’s Axioms 27
Incidence 27
Betweenness 35
Congruence 41
Parallels 45
Chapter 3. Smarandache Geometries 53
Paradoxist Geometries 53
Non-Geometries 61
Other Smarandache Geometries 67
Chapter 4. Closed s-Manifolds 71
Closed s-Manifolds 71
Topological 2-Manifolds 81
Suggestions For Further Research 89
References 91
Index 93
3 Introduction
A complete understanding of what something is must include an understanding of what it
is not. In his paper, “Paradoxist Mathematics” [19], Florentin Smarandache proposed a
number of ways in which we could explore “new math concepts and theories, especially
if they run counter to the classical ones.” In a manner consistent with his unique point of
view, he defined several types of geometry that are purposefully not Euclidean and that
focus on structures that the rest of us can use to enhance our understanding of geometry
in general.

To most of us, Euclidean geometry seems self-evident and natural. This feeling is so
strong that it took thousands of years for anyone to even consider an alternative to
Euclid’s teachings. These non-Euclidean ideas started, for the most part, with Gauss,
Bolyai, and Lobachevski, and continued with Riemann, when they found
counterexamples to the notion that geometry is precisely Euclidean geometry. This
opened a whole universe of possibilities for what geometry could be, and many years
later, Smarandache’s imagination has wandered off into this universe.

The geometry associated with Gauss, Bolyai, and Lobachevski is now generally called
hyperbolic geometry. Compared to Euclidean geometry, the lines in hyperbolic geometry
are less prone to intersecting one another. Whereas even the slightest change upsets the
delicate balance of parallelism for Euclidean lines, parallelism of hyperbolic lines is
distinctly more robust. On the other hand, it is impossible for lines to be parallel in
Riemann’s geometry. It is not clear which Riemann had in mind (see [3]), but today we
would call it either elliptic or spherical geometry. All of these geometries (Euclidean,
hyperbolic, elliptic, and spherical) are homogeneous and isotropic. This is to say that
each of these geometries looks the same at any point and in any direction within the
space. Most of the study of geometry at the undergraduate level concerns these “modern”
geometries (see [3, 12, 10]).

Although the term Riemannian geometry sometimes refers specifically to one of the
geometries just mentioned (elliptic or spherical), it is now most likely to be associated
with a class of differential geometric spaces called Riemannian manifolds. Here,
geometry is studied through curvature, and the basic Euclidean, hyperbolic, elliptic, and
spherical geometries are particular constant curvature examples. Riemannian geometry
eventually evolved into the geometry of general relativity, and it is currently a very active
[21, 16, 4, 8]area of mathematical research (see ).

Riemannian manifolds could be described as those possible universes that inhabitants
might mistake as being Euclidean, elliptic, or hyperbolic. Great insight comes from the
realization that the geometries of Euclid, Gauss, Bolyai, et al, are particular examples of
one kind of space, and extending attention to non-uniform spaces brings much generality,
applicability (e.g. general relativity), and much more to understand.

Smarandache continues in the spirit of Riemann by wanting to explore non-uniformity,
but he does this from another, and perhaps more classical, point of view. While much of
5 the current study of geometry continues the work of Riemann and the transformational
approach of Klein (see [13]), Smarandache challenges the axiomatic approach inspired by
Euclid, and now closely associated with Hilbert. This axiomatic approach is generally
referred to as synthetic geometry (see [9, 14, 12]).

By its nature, the axiomatic approach promotes uniformity. If we require that through any
two points there is exactly one line, for example, then all points share this property. Each
axiom of a geometry, therefore, tends to force the space to be more uniform. If an axiom
holding true in a geometry creates uniformity, then Smarandache asks, what if it is false?
Simply being false, however, does not necessarily counter uniformity. With Hilbert’s
axioms, for example, replacing the Euclidean parallel axiom with its negation, the
hyperbolic parallel axiom, only results in transforming Euclidean uniformity into
hyperbolic uniformity.

In Smarandache geometry, the intent is to study non-uniformity, so we require it in a very
general way. A Smarandache geometry (1969) is a geometric space (i.e., one with
points and lines) such that some “axiom” is false in at least two different ways, or is false
and also sometimes true. Such an axiom is said to be Smarandachely denied (or S-
denied for short).

As first mentioned, Smarandache defined several specific types of Smarandache
geometries: paradoxist geometry, non-geometry, counter-projective geometry, and anti-
geometry (see [19]). For the paradoxist geometry, he gives an example and poses the
question, “Now, the problem is to find a nice model (on manifolds) for this Paradoxist
Geometry, and study some of its characteristics.” This particular study of Smarandache
manifolds began with an attempt to find a solution to this problem.

A paradoxist geometry focuses attention on the parallel postulate, the same postulate of
Euclid that Gauss, Bolyai, Lobachevski, and Riemann sought to contradict. In fact,
Riemann began the study of geometric spaces that are non-uniform with respect to the
parallel postulate, since in a Riemannian manifold, the curvature may change from point
to point. This corresponds roughly with what we will call semi-paradoxist. It would seem,
therefore, that a study of Smarandache geometry should start with Riemannian manifolds,
and inadvertently, it has. Unfortunately, describing and manipulating Riemannian
manifolds is far from trivial, and many Smarandache-type structures probably cannot
exist in a Riemannian manifold.

In discussions within the Smarandache Geometry Club [2], a special type of manifold,
similar in many ways to a Riemannian manifold, showed promise as a tool to easily
construct paradoxist geometries. This led to the paper, “Partially paradoxist geometries”
[15]. It quickly became apparent that almost all of the properties that Smarandache
proposed in [19] could be found in manifolds of this type.

These s-manifolds, which is what we will call them, follow a long tradition of piecewise
linear approaches to, and avoidances of, the problems of the differential and the
continuous. As we will define them, s-manifolds are a very restricted subclass of the
6 polyhedral surfaces. The relationship between polyhedral surfaces and Riemannian
manifolds is as old as Riemannian geometry itself, and the all-important notion of
curvature can be viewed as an extension of the angle defect in a polyhedral surface due to
Descartes (see [17, 11]). In addition, some concept of a line, or a geodesic, is a natural
part of the study of polyhedral surfaces, but we will use a particular definition of a line
that may have appeared as recently as 1998 in [18]. So while the basic ideas studied in
this book are not new, the particular formulations and the focus on plane figures seems to
be unique, and therefore, the potential exists for original research at all levels.

The purpose of this book is to lay out basic definitions and terminology, rephrase the
most obvious applicable results from existing areas of geometry and topology, and to
show that s-manifolds can be a useful tool in studying Smarandache geometry.

In Chapter 1, we define what an s-manifold is. Smarandache geometry is quite general, so
it is difficult to see any basic structures that exist widely. Our definition for an s-
manifold, therefore, is purposefully restrictive, so that we may have a reasonable
opportunity to find general results. We will probably have to focus attention even more
tightly before making significant progress.

In Chapter 2, we analyze the axioms of Hilbert in an s-manifold context. These cover
most of the basic concepts of 2-dimensional geometry, and of course, all of the theorems
of Euclidean geometry are based on them.

Some s-manifold examples of Smarandache geometries are presented in Chapter 3, and
some of the basic issues surrounding closed s-manifolds, in particular the topology of 2-
manifolds, are discussed in Chapter 4. The book ends with some notes on continued

Throughout this book, questions and conjectures are posed. You are invited to post
[2]answers to these questions to the Smarandache Geometry Club . You may also pose
questions of your own and participate in discussions about Smarandache geometry here.
The publisher of this book is interested in publishing papers generated out of these
explorations as a collection of papers or in the Smarandache Notions Journal.

Members of the Smarandache Geometry Club [2] were involved in the discussions that
generated the basic idea of an s-manifold and many of the concepts explored in this book.
These include mikeantholy (Mike Antholy), m_l_perez (Minh Perez), noneuclid (M.
Downly), johnkamla2000 (Kamla), dacosta_teresinha (Dacosta), jeanmariecharrier (Jean
Marie), marcelleparis (Marcelle), ken5prasad (Ken Prasad), zimolson (Zim Olson),
duncan4320001 (Joan), charlestle (Charlie), ghniculescu, bsaucer (Ben Saucer), and
klaus1997de. Most of these discussions can be viewed at the club website.

I would like to thank the reviewers Joel Hass, Marcus Marsh, and Catherine D’Ortona.
Prof. Marsh was the teacher most responsible for my turning to mathematics, and Prof.
Hass, my thesis advisor, introduced me to the real world of geometry and topology.
Virtually all of my thinking in mathematics can be traced back in some way to these two
7 mathematicians. Prof. D’Ortona, a valued colleague, and my wife Linda are currently the
most active forces on my professional ideas. I am, of course, responsible for the
correctness of the material presented here and how I chose to implement the suggestions
of the reviewers.

This book is dedicated to my two huns, Linda and Zoe.
Chapter 1. Smarandache Manifolds
We present here a definition for a special type of Smarandache manifold, which we will
call an s-manifold. Since at present, these s-manifolds are the only manifolds presented
in the context of Smarandache geometry, we will leave a more general definition to the
future. We will see that an s-manifold is general enough to display almost all of the
properties of a Smarandache geometry, but is restrictive enough so that we can start to
make general statements about them.

For the purposes of this book, an uppercase “S,” as in “S-denial”, will be short for
“Smarandache.” A lowercase “s,” as in “s-manifold”, will refer to the special type of
Smarandache manifold that is the focus here.

The idea of an s-manifold was based on the hyperbolic paper described in [21] and
credited to W. Thurston. Essentially the same idea in a more general setting can be found
in the straightest geodesics of [18] (see also [1]). In [21], the structure of the hyperbolic
plane is visualized by taping together equilateral triangles made of paper so that each
vertex is surrounded by seven triangles. Squeezing seven equilateral triangles around a
single vertex, as opposed to the six triangles we would see in a tiling of the plane, forces
the paper into a kind of saddle shape (see Figure 1).

Figure 1. A paper model with seven equilateral triangles around one vertex.

We will extend this idea to elliptic geometry by putting five triangles around a vertex,
and of course, to Euclidean geometry by using six (see Figures 2 and 3). The basic
concept of an s-manifold is contained in these paper models made of equilateral triangles
taped together edge to edge with five, six, or seven triangles around any particular vertex.


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