//img.uscri.be/pth/5e87c85f14ca841e2aeef4af504e3cf09b7e7dac
Cet ouvrage fait partie de la bibliothèque YouScribe
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le lire en ligne
En savoir plus

FOAM a new simple benthic degradative1

De
37 pages
FOAM, a new simple benthic degradative1 module for the LAMP3D model: an2 application to a Mediterranean fish farm3 Patrizia De Gaetano 1, Andrea M. Doglioli 2, Marcello G. Magaldi 3, Paolo Vassallo 4, Mauro Fabiano 4 4 1 DIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova5 2 Aix-Marseille Universite ; CNRS ; LOB-UMR 6535, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie et de6 Biogeochimie, OSU/Centre d'Oceanologie de Marseille7 3 Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS), Division of Meteorology8 and Physical Oceanography (MPO), University of Miami9 4 DIPTERIS, Dipartimento per lo Studio del Territorio e delle sue Risorse, Universita di10 Genova11 Corresponding author address:12 Patrizia De Gaetano, DIFI, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Genova, Via Dode-13 caneso 33, 16146 Genova, Italia.14 Phone: +39 010 353 6385 Fax: +39 010 353 6354 E-mail: Running title: FOAM, Finite Organic Accumulation Module16 Keywords: Biodegradation modeling, Aquaculture impact, Mediterranean Sea,17 Husbandry, Net-pen, Organic matter.18 Preprint submitted to Aquaculture Research March 11, 200819 1

  • realistic scenario

  • matical models

  • finite organic

  • aquaculture

  • organic load

  • marine fish

  • modeling framework

  • dispersion using

  • biodegradation modeling


Voir plus Voir moins
1FOAM,anewsimplebenthicdegradative2modulefortheLAMP3Dmodel:an3applicationtoaMediterraneanfishfarm4PatriziaDeGaetano1,AndreaM.Doglioli2,MarcelloG.Magaldi3,PaoloVassallo4,MauroFabiano451DIFI,DipartimentodiFisica,Universita`diGenova62Aix-MarseilleUniversite´;CNRS;LOB-UMR6535,Laboratoired’Oce´anographieetde7Bioge´ochimie,OSU/Centred’Oce´anologiedeMarseille83RosenstielSchoolofMarineandAtmosphericScience(RSMAS),DivisionofMeteorology9andPhysicalOceanography(MPO),UniversityofMiami104DIPTERIS,DipartimentoperloStudiodelTerritorioedellesueRisorse,Universita`di11Genova12Correspondingauthoraddress:13PatriziaDeGaetano,DIFI,DipartimentodiFisica,Universita´diGenova,ViaDode-14caneso33,16146Genova,Italia.15Phone:+390103536385Fax:+390103536354E-mail:degaetano@fisica.unige.it16Runningtitle:FOAM,FiniteOrganicAccumulationModule17Keywords:Biodegradationmodeling,Aquacultureimpact,MediterraneanSea,18Husbandry,Net-pen,Organicmatter.19PreprintsubmittedtoAquacultureResearch1March11,2008
20Abstract1222ThemodelingframeworkalreadyintroducedbyDogliolietal.(2004a)topredict23thepotentialimpactofamarinefishfarmisimprovedfollowingdifferentdirections.24Namely:(i)realhistoriccurrent-meterdataareusedtoforcethesimulations;(ii)25settlingvelocityvaluesspecificallytargetingMediterraneanfishspeciesareused;and26(iii)anewbenthicdegradativemodule,FOAM,isaddedtothemodelingframework.27FOAMusestheoutputoftheotherfunctionalunitsofthemodelingframeworkto28calculatetheorganicloadontheseabed.FOAMconsidersthenaturalcapabilityof29theseafloorinabsorbingpartoftheorganicload.Differentremineralizationrates30reflectthesedimentstresslevelaccordingtotheworkofFindlay&Watling(1997).31Organicdegradationforbothuneatenfeedandfaecesisevaluatedbychanging32releasemodality(continuousandperiodical)andbyvaryingthesettlingvelocities.33Itisfoundthatthemaximumimpactonthebenthiccommunityisobservedeither34forquickly-sinkinguneatenfeedreleasedtwiceaday,orforlessintensenearbottom35currentconditions.Ifboththeabovementionedscenarioscoexist,ahighstresslevel36isestablishedinthesediment.Themodelalsosuggeststhattheuseofself-feeders37incagescansignificantlyreducefarmimpacts.Theseresultsshowhowthenewand38morecompletemodelingframeworkpresentedhereisabletoimprovetheobjectivity39inthedecisionmakingprocessesandhowitmaybesuccessfullyusedforplanning40andmonitoringpurposes.2
411Introduction42Theincreaseinglobalfishconsumptionandthedecreaseofwildfishstocksarethe43mainreasonsbehindthecontinuousdevelopmentofmarineaquaculture(FAOFish-44eriesDivision,2006,http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0874e/a0874e00.htm).45Theworldwideexpansionofmarinefishfarms,however,hasalwaysbeengenerating46concernregardingthepossibleimpactsoncoastalecosystems.Alreadyin1995,the47FoodandAgricultureOrganization(FAO)oftheUnitedNationsadoptedaCode48ofConductforResponsibleFisheries.TheCodeprovidedthenecessaryframework49fornationalandinternationaleffortstoensuresustainableexploitationofaquatic50livingresources.Particularattentionwaspaidtotheaquaculturegrowthinaccord51withthesustainableandintegrateduseoftheenvironment,takingintoaccountthe52fragilityofcoastalecosystems,thefinitenatureoftheirnaturalresourcesandthe53needsofcoastalcommunities.In2001,followingthesamedirection,theEuropean54Unionstartedtosetupastrategyforsustainableaquaculturedevelopmentwiththe55BiodiversityActionPlanforFisheries(COM162,2001)andtheEuropeanStrat-56egyforSustainableDevelopment(COM264,2001).Thesetwodocumentsledto57themorerecentandspecificStrategyfortheSustainableDevelopmentofEuropean58Aquaculture(COM511,2002).59Marineaquacultureoperationsarestillveryexpensive,andtheonlymeansby60whichprofitabilitycanbesustainedistointensifyfishproduction.Unfortunately61thisintensificationincreasesthealreadyexistingconcernsaboutreachingandsur-62passingthenaturalcapabilityoftheenvironment.Thescientificliteraturehasiden-63tifiedthemainenvironmentalimpactfromfishfarmstobethereleaseofparticulate64wasteproducts(Halletal.,1990;Holmer&Kristensen,1992;Karakassisetal.,652000).Theparticulatewastesincreasetheorganicloadonthebenthicenvironment66andmightdeterminechangesinthecommunitystructureandinthebiodiversity67ofthebenthicassemblages(Tsutsumietal.,1991;Wuetal.,1994;Vezzullietal.,682002,2003).Thereforeweareinneedforpredictivetoolsabletoassesswhetheror3