Lecture 14 -Square Planar Complexes
205 pages
English
Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres

Lecture 14 -Square Planar Complexes

Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
205 pages
English

Description

  • cours magistral - matière potentielle : anticancer drugs
12P32 – Principles in Inorganic Chemistry Dr.M.Pilkington 1. Mechanism of ligand substitution for square planar complexes 2. Berry Pseudorotation 3. The trans-effect 4. Square planar Pt(II) anticancer drugs Lecture 14 – Square Planar Complexes Substitution reactions of square planar complexes Square planar is the common geometry for the following d8 metal ions. Kinetics – Ligand Substitution Reactions Recall: Octahedral ML5X + Y ML5Y + X dissociative mechanism ƒ For Square Planar ML3X + Y ML3Y + X X and Y can be any pair of ligands.
  • square planar pt
  • alterations of the dna structure
  • rate of substitution
  • trans
  • nh3
  • ligand
  • pt
  • cl
  • 2 dna
  • dna
  • series

Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Nombre de lectures 25
Langue English

Exrait

System Interfaces Guide
2550 Garcia Avenue
Mountain View, CA 94043
U.S.A.
A Sun Microsystems, Inc. BusinessÓ
1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 2550 Garcia Avenue, Mountain View, California 94043-1100 U.S.A.
All rights reserved. This product or document is protected by copyright and distributed under licenses restricting its use,
copying, distribution, and decompilation. No part of this product or document may be reproduced in any form by any means
without prior written authorization of Sun and its licensors, if any.
®Portions of this product may be derived from the UNIX system, licensed from UNIX System Laboratories, Inc., a wholly owned
subsidiary of Novell, Inc., and from the Berkeley 4.3 BSD system, licensed from the University of California. Third-party
software, including font technology in this product, is protected by copyright and licensed from Sun’s suppliers.
RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND: Use, duplication, or disclosure by the government is subject to restrictions as set forth in
subparagraph (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 and FAR 52.227-19.
The product described in this manual may be protected by one or more U.S. patents, foreign patents, or pending applications.
TRADEMARKS
Sun, Sun Microsystems, the Sun logo, SunSoft, the SunSoft logo, Solaris, SunOS, OpenWindows, DeskSet, ONC, ONC+, and NFS
are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries. UNIX is a registered
trademark in the United States and other countries, exclusively licensed through X/Open Company, Ltd. OPEN LOOK is a
registered trademark of Novell, Inc. PostScript and Display PostScript are trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc.
All SPARC trademarks are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. in the United States and other
countries. SPARCcenter, SPARCcluster, SPARCompiler, SPARCdesign, SPARC811, SPARCengine, SPARCprinter, SPARCserver,
SPARCstation, SPARCstorage, SPARCworks, microSPARC, microSPARC-II, and UltraSPARC are licensed exclusively to Sun
Microsystems, Inc. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon an architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
®The OPEN LOOK and Sun™ Graphical User Interfaces were developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. for its users and licensees.
Sun acknowledges the pioneering efforts of Xerox in researching and developing the concept of visual or graphical user
interfaces for the computer industry. Sun holds a non-exclusive license from Xerox to the Xerox Graphical User Interface, which
license also covers Sun’s licensees who implement OPEN LOOK GUIs and otherwise comply with Sun’s written license
agreements.
X Window System is a trademark of X Consortium, Inc.
THIS PUBLICATION IS PROVIDED “AS IS” WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A
PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR NON-INFRINGEMENT.
THIS PUBLICATION COULD INCLUDE TECHNICAL INACCURACIES OR TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS. CHANGES ARE
PERIODICALLY ADDED TO THE INFORMATION HEREIN. THESE CHANGES WILL BE INCORPORATED IN NEW
EDITIONS OF THE PUBLICATION. SUN MICROSYSTEMS, INC. MAY MAKE IMPROVEMENTS AND/OR CHANGES IN
THE PRODUCT(S) AND/OR THE PROGRAMS(S) DESCRIBED IN THIS PUBLICATION AT ANY TIME.
Please
RecycleContents
1. Introduction to the API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
The Programming Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Interface Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Static libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Dynamic libraries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Interface Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Standard Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Public Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Obsolete Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2. Processes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Functions 8
Spawning new processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
iiiRuntime Linking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Process Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Error Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3. Process Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Overview of the Process Scheduler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Time-Sharing Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
System Class. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Real-time Class 27
Commands and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Thepriocntl Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
The Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Thepriocntlset Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Interaction with Other Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Kernel Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
fork and exec 47
nice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
init 47
Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Process State Transition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Software Latencies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
4. Input/Output Interfaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Files and I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
iv System Interfaces Guide—November 1995Basic File I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Advanced File I/O. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
File System Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
File and Record Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Supported File Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Choosing A Lock Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Setting a File Lock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Opening a File for Record Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Setting and Removing Record Locks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Getting Lock Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
Forking Locks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Deadlock Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Selecting Advisory or Mandatory Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Cautions about Mandatory Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Terminal I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5. System V IPC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Permissions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
IPC Functions, Key Arguments, and Creation Flags. . . . . . 67
Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Structure of a Message Queue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Initializing a Message Queue withmsgget(). . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Controlling Message Queues withmsgctl() 72
Sending and Receiving Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Contents vSemaphores . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Structure of a Semaphore Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Initializing a Semaphore Set withsemget() . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Controlling Semaphores withsemctl(). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Performing Semaphore Operations withsemop(). . . . . . . . 82
System V Shared Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Structure of a System V Shared Memory Segment . . . . . . . 84
Usingshmget() to Access a Shar. . . . 85
Controlling a Shared Memory Segment withshmctl() . . . 87
Attaching and Detaching a Shared Memory Segment with
shmat() andshmdt() . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
6. Memory Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Overview of the Virtual Memory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Virtual Memory, Address Spaces, and Mapping . . . . . . . . 91
Networking, Heterogeneity, and Coherence . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Memory Management Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Creating and Using Mappings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Removing Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Cache Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Other Mapping Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Address Space Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
7. Realtime Programming and Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Basic Rules of Realtime Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Degrading Response Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
vi System Interfaces Guide—November 1995Runaway Realtime Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
I/O Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Dispatch Latency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
System Calls That Control Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Utilities that Control Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Configuring Scheduling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Memory Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
High Performance I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Asynchronous I/O 129
Synchronized I/O . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Interprocess Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
IPC Message Queues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
IPC Semaphores. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Shared Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
Choice of IPC Mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Asynchronous Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Modes of Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Networking Programming Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Asynchronous Connectionless-Mode Service . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Contents viiAsynchronous Connection-Mode Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141onous Open . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Timers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Timestamp Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
Interval Timer Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
A. Full Code Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
viii System Interfaces Guide—November 1995Tables
Table 2-1 Process Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Table 2-2 Signal Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Table 3-1 Validpriocntl ID Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Table 3-2 Valid idtype Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Table 3-3 Class-Specific Options for priocntl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Table 3-4 Valid priocntl.h idtypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 3-5 Valid cmd Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Table 3-6 WhatPC_GETPARMS Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Table 3-7 Special Values for rt_tqnsecs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Table 4-1 Basic File I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Table 4-2 Advanced File I/O Functions 53
Table 4-3 File System Control Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Table 4-4 Terminal I/O Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Table 5-1 IPC Reference Manual Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Table 5-2 Octal Permission Values. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Table 7-1 Realtime System Dispatch Latency with SunOS 5.x. . . . . . . . . 115
ixTable 7-2 Class Options for the dispadmin(1M) Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
x System Interfaces Guide—November 1995