Perception and Art Lecture 3: Perspective and Depth
13 pages
English
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Perception and Art Lecture 3: Perspective and Depth

-

Le téléchargement nécessite un accès à la bibliothèque YouScribe
Tout savoir sur nos offres
13 pages
English

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  • cours magistral
Perception and Art Lecture 3: Perspective and Depth Bob Dougherty Stanford Institute for Reading and Learning ARTH202, Winter 2007
  • close distance
  • medium distance
  • stereo disparity
  • arth202
  • course website
  • wallpaper illusion
  • infinite distance

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Nombre de lectures 14
Langue English

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One Stop Shop For Educators

The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary.
Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are available by using the Search Standards feature located on GeorgiaStandards.Org.

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Unit: Equilibrium
Differentiated (Tiered) Task

The Effects of Selection Pressures on Population Curves

Overview: This task shows population dynamics then moves to changes in characteristics of populations due to selection pressures
and uses an extension to human populations. Students will produce graphs of population data and make predictions on future
populations based on characteristics of and patterns of population data.

Standards:
SB4. Students will assess the dependence of all organisms on one another and the flow of energy and matter within their
ecosystems.
a. Investigate the relationships among organisms, populations, communities, ecosystems, and biomes.
d. Assess and explain human activities that influence and modify the environment such as global warming, population
growth, pesticide use, and water and power consumption.

SB5. Students will evaluate the role of natural selection in the development of the theory of evolution.
d. Relate natural selection to changes in organisms.
e. Recognize the role of evolution to biological resistance (pesticide and antibiotic resistance).

SCSh3. Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically.
a. Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems.
b. Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.
c. Collect, organize and record appropriate data.

SCSh4. Students use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials.
a. Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information.
b. Use technology to produce tables and graphs.
c. Use technology to develop, test, and revise experimental or mathematical models.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 1 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

SCSh6. Students will communicate scientific investigations and information clearly.
a. Write clear, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations.
b. Write clear, coherent accounts of current scientific issues, including possible alternative interpretations of the data.
c. Use data as evidence to support scientific arguments and claims in written or oral presentations.
d. Participate in group discussions of scientific investigation and current scientific issues.

Enduring Understandings:
• Ecosystems result from dynamic relationships between organisms and their environment.
• Organisms are interdependent on each other and their environment.
• Diversity among organisms is due to adaptations to changing environmental conditions.
• Human activities and natural phenomena disrupt the homeostatic nature of the environment.
• Evolution occurs in populations of organisms not individuals.

Essential Question(s):
1. How do natural selection pressures shape population growth curves?
2. How do ecosystems influence the relationships among organisms in changing environments?

Pre-Assessment:
Use the KIM model to check for understanding of prior knowledge of population growth from environmental pressures. Teacher could
pose a question: How do environmental factors shape the growth of a population?
Other pre-assessments such as a KWL chart with a focus question to address what type of environmental pressures effect population
growth can be used.

BASIC INTERMEDIATE ADVANCED
Outcome/ Outcome 1
Performance Level Students will construct graphs of population growth data and interpret outside pressures to
predict the shapes of the graphs. Indicator
Outcome 2
After graphical interpretation, students will generate and justify predictions for the types of traits
which would favor survival in the environment.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 2 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Performance Task: Teacher Role: Teacher Role: Teacher Role:
Teacher’s role is to be a facilitator Teacher’s role is to be a Teacher’s role is to be a (Detailed
of the task and to make sure facilitator of the task and to facilitator of the task and to Description)
constructive dialogue occurs make sure constructive make sure constructive
among peers. Teacher will also dialogue occurs among peers. dialogue occurs among peers. Teacher role?
model the graphing techniques Teacher may elect to show a Teacher will check the peer
and check of progress and similar set of data using dialogue for flawed thinking Student role?
understanding. pictures or modeling the and redirect with clues.
graphical technique for
students. Teacher will Student Role: Student Role:
Students will use the fly and continue to check for Students will use the fly and
rabbit data to make predictions understanding. rabbit data to make
for the types of environment, predictions for the types of
selective pressures and intrinsic environment, selective Student Role:
growth factors that lead to Students will use the fly and pressures and intrinsic growth
favorable traits for survival. Peer rabbit data to make factors that lead to favorable
collaboration is encouraged to predictions for the types of traits for survival. Peer
promote higher order thinking. environment, selective collaboration is encouraged to
pressures and intrinsic growth promote higher order thinking.
Description: factors that lead to favorable
1. Students will use the graphic traits for survival. Peer Description:
organizer KIM and draw collaboration is encouraged to 1. Students will use the
population curves and then make promote higher order thinking. graphic organizer (KIM) and
predictions for the reasons why draw population curves and
the species population grows in a Description: then make predictions for the
certain growth pattern. 1. Students will use the intrinsic growth factors of the
2. Students will be guided through graphic organizer (KIM) and organisms.
modeling how to plot the data and draw population curves and 2. Students will graph data
draw the graphs through teacher then make predictions for the and answer questions for
direction. reasons why the species analysis.
3. Students will then be directed population grows in a certain 3. After analysis, students will
through a pair-share team to growth pattern. then revisit the graphic
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 3 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

complete the questions together 2. Students will graph data organizer to check off any
and then ask teacher to check and answer questions for predictions that may not
answers for correctness. analysis. explain the trend off the
4. After analysis, students will 3. After analysis, students will graphs.
revisit the graphic organizer to then revisit the graphic 4. Students will then make
check off any predictions that organizer to check off any predictions for types of traits
may not explain the trend off the predictions that may not or selective pressures that
graphs. explain the trend off the make the individual
5. Students will be asked to list graphs. population grow.
environmental factors that could 4. Students make predictions 5. Students use their
lead to certain traits that would for types of traits or selective predictions to research the
favor the successful growth of the pressures that make the habitat of fruit flies and rabbit
fly and rabbit. individual population grow. habitat and reproductive
6. Students draw a fly or rabbit 5. Students research the life efforts (or life cycles).
trait needed for survival in their cycles and habitat of the fly 6. After investigation of fly
habitat and explain to the teacher and rabbit to help explain why and rabbit reproductive rates,
their logic for their drawing. the species grows in certain students investigate the 3
7. After completion of drawing population growth patterns. natural selective pressures that
with student explanation, students 6. Students play animations or may lead to the growth pattern
can list on chart paper some teacher can project animation of the population.
reproductive reasons why the to show the distribution of 7. Students can then use the
population of the species may be traits needed for survival and data to predict on a normal
successful in their environment. correlate to the population printed bell curve and ask
curves. students to superimpose their
Teacher notes: Teacher can use data based certain
animations from clips to Teacher notes: Teacher can environmental pressures the
reemphasize natural selective use animations from clips to teacher will give to the
forces on populations reemphasize natural selective students.
forces on populations 8. Students write an analysis
of data to justify their reasons
for the shape of their bell
curve distribution.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 4 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Teacher Notes: Teacher can
give each group a different
selective pressure to influence
wither stabilizing, directional,
or disruptive selection.

Teacher can use animations
from clips to reemphasize
natural selective forces on
populations.
Types of natural selection Types of natural selection Population growth curves and Resources
http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_free http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_f reasons for shape.
man_biosci_1/0,6452,499541- reeman_biosci_1/0,6452,4995 http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.
,00.html 41-,00.html ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/P/P
opulations2.html
Human population graph Human Population graph
http://www.greatchange.org/imag http://www.greatchange.org/i Types of natural selection
es/ov-price,energy3.gif mages/ov-price,energy3.gif http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_f
reeman_biosci_1/0,6452,4995
41-,00.html

Blood Type A
http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary
/images/map_of_A_blood_all
ele.gif

Blood Type O:
http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary
/images/map_of_O_blood_in_
the_world.gif

Blood Type B:
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 5 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

http://anthro.palomar.edu/vary
/images/map_of_B_blood_in_
the_world.gif

Blood Type AB
Students can predict where
a distribution of AB alleles
would occur more
frequently by studying the
A, B, and O blood type
graphs.

Homework/ Students can look at human Students could research Students will research and
Extension population growth graphs over human population growth investigate a global map of
the last 1000 years and and decide if humans are the origin of blood type
determine some environmental immune to natural selective distribution and make
factors that would cause the forces. Students could bring predictions on global
humans population boom in the examples for events in location why certain blood
th20 century. In addition, have history to discuss in class. types are more prevalent in
students project human Have students draw pictures certain climate zones.
population the next 1000 years or write a small essay on the Based on global warming
based on today’s environmental effects of human population and the increasing carrying
stresses such as global warming on biodiversity in the next capacity of humans, explain
and ozone depletion. 1000 years. how insects carrying blood
borne pathogens could create
a shift in blood type
expression across the globe
(which human blood type
will become more prevalent
in the next 1000 years?)

Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 6 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Instructional Tasks • Create a word wall for vocabulary; word wall can be an interactive whereby students use
yarn to make connections with key vocabulary Accommodations
for ELL Students • Include illustrations with the word wall
• Use KIM vocabulary strategy ( Key word, Illustration, and Meaning student in students own
words
• Modify language requirements for written assessments
• Pair with more advanced native language speaking partner ( allow for translation in native
language for comprehension) as needed
• Provide paragraph summary template ( fill in the blank format)
• Provide bilingual support using word to word translation such as dictionaries, and glossaries
• Provide native language text books and support material whenever possible
• Provide sentence starter for giving hypothesis
• Keep language simple, eliminate unnecessary text, modify difficult text ( use visual
representations
Instructional Tasks • Review and Implement IEP accommodations for specific student needs
Accommodations • Word banks for written assessments such as essays
• Create a word wall for vocabulary; word wall can be an interactive whereby students use yarn to for Students with
make connections with key vocabulary Specific Disabilities
• Include illustrations with the word wall
• Use KIM vocabulary strategy ( Key word, Illustration, and Meaning student in students own
words
• Provide list of internet sites for homework that has lower level reading
• Provide step by step check off sheet for activities
• Verbal responses to explain the drawing and or graph
• Give extended time to complete
Instructional Tasks • Investigate further if there are any affects of global movement of people on the prevalence
Accommodations and survival rate of blood types in certain climate zones.
for Gifted Students • Make a multi-media presentation of prevalence of certain blood types in certain climate
zones of the world.
• Students may research a newly reported case of disease and correlate it to environmental
pressures from humans.
Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 7 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Teacher Aligned Resources for further extension of activity:

Struggle for existence and population growth in aphids:
http://www.scienceteacherprogram.org/biology/Cook04.html
Antibiotic Resistance of E. coli: Task focus questions could be modified to reflect Performance Level Descriptors (PLD):
http://www.scienceteacherprogram.org/biology/Webster02.html




Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 8 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Selection pressures on population trends. KIM Diagram
Complete the graphic organizer describing three classic growth patterns for populations.
Explanation of
portions and Conditions which
Growth Pattern variations of the favor development of Graphical
growth curve over this growth pattern Illustration
time in populations

Exponential growth


Logistic growth


“S” curve or growth
tapering around a
Carrying capacity


Population crash or
growth curve

overshooting the
carrying capacity






Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 9 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved
One Stop Shop For Educators

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Biology 9-12

Activity: Factors that effect population trends:

What are the possible effects of selection pressures on population curves?
Purpose: To demonstrate understanding in population models and graphing techniques.
Materials: Lab paper & graphing paper
Procedures:
1. Make a graph for each of the populations below, graphing generations on the X axis and
time on the Y axis. Be sure to label the X and Y axis and time. ALSO be sure to have a
key for the graph
2. Use the graphs to answer the following questions


DATA TABLES
Fruit Fly Population Rabbit Population
Days Number of Weeks Number of Rabbits
Fruit Flies
5 10 5 10
10 50 10 15
15 100 25 40
20 200 37 110
25 300 55 300
30 310 72 520
35 320 93 950
40 320 100 1100




Georgia Department of Education
Kathy Cox, State Superintendent of Schools
Biology  9-12  Equilibrium
August 17, 2007  Page 10 of 13
Copyright 2007 © All Rights Reserved