Research methodology for economists: philosophy and practice
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Research methodology for economists: philosophy and practice


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4 pages


  • cours - matière potentielle : result
Glenn L. Johnson Research Methodology for Economists - 1 of 8 - Johnson, Glenn Leroy Research methodology for economists: philosophy and practice Macmillan ; 1986. xx, 252 p. Chapter 1 Why Study Research Methodology in Economics? • The Variety and Extent of Research Efforts Involving Economists • What is Methodology? • Why not a book on research techniques and methods? • Under-girding Philosophies • Sensitivities about philosophic orientations • Semantic fears • This book is for economists, not philosophers • Objectives of the book • Structure of the book • Assigned readings • Required readings • Additional references Chapter 2 Three Kinds of Research • Introduction 1.
  • characteristics of the real world
  • prescriptive knowledge
  • decision rule
  • research methodology
  • positivism
  • consequences
  • science
  • values
  • value
  • problem



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Nombre de lectures 35
Langue English


PREGED LESSON PLAN  Language Arts, Writing (Level 6.0  8.9) COMPETENCY:1.12 Use literary techniques, including symbols and foreshadowing, in the comprehension and creation of written and visual communication. CONNECTIONS:2.10, 4.11, 4.12 Classroom Procedure:Vocabulary: 1. Distributetwo copies of "Working Definition" worksheet to each student and a dictionary to each group.literal language 2. Dividethe class into groups for this "Jigsaw" learning activity by counting off 14.Assign each group two of the following literary terms tofigurative language research:metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, symbolism, foreshadowing, and rhymemetaphor Have students write the word and its definition in the appropriate boxes on the "Working Definition" sheet.simile Have groups fill in as many synonyms and antonyms as possible in the ovals.Have students research examples in referencealliteration books or on the Internet and fill in the "examples" and "nonexamples" boxes on the worksheet.repetition 3. Regroupthe class so that each new group has one member from each definition group (one of each number from the original count off)onomatopoeia Each member of the new group has the responsibility of teaching about their assigned words to the other group members.personification 4. Distributecopies of the first six stanzas of the poem "The Highwayman" by Alfred Noyes and read the excerpt aloud.symbol/symbolism Have students (in their new groups or individually) mark the following on their copy of the poem:foreshadowing a. Underlineexamples of similes. b. Doubleunderlineexamples of metaphors. c. Circle the repeated letters in a phrase with alliteration. d. Drawa box around examples of onomatopoeia. 5. Discussthe poet's use of rhyme and rhyme pattern, the use of repetition for effect and have students look for foreshadowing, symbolism or personification. Extend the lesson by having students read the poem in its entirety to confirm the foreshadowing and look for other literary devices and figurative language. Alternative assignment: If computers are available to students, the assignment can be completed using the word processing software and an copy of the excerpt on disk.TeacherMade or Have students use the word processing tools to:Alternative Material: a. Underlineexamples of similes. b. Changeexamples of metaphors to bold type. c. Highlight in yellowphrases containing alliteration. d. Changeexamples of onomatopoeia to italics.
PreGED Textbooks:Materials Needed:Supplemental Resources: SteckVaughn PreGED:Dictionaries, reference booksGlossary and examples of literary terms: Page 41Copies of "Working Definition"  graphicorganizer worksheet Copies of excerpt from "TheFor the complete version of "The Highwayman"  Highwayman"by Alfred Noye Literary Terms Reference
Evaluation: Teacher evaluation of correct identification of examples of figurative language in the poem.
Working Definition
PreGED 1.12
is not
Literary Terms Reference Writing 1.12 Metaphor a comparison made by calling one item another item. Examples: "theevening of life," "sunshine of our love," “love is a rose.” Simile a comparison using "like" or "as" Examples: "As snug as a bug in a rug," "he drinks like a fish," “Life is like a box of chocolates.” Personification to think of or represent an inanimate object as a person. Examples: "The rocks will cry out his name," "the planets danced in their orbits," the car sputtered angrily,” "Justice is blind."Consider the following lines from Carl Sandburg's "Chicago:"  Stormy,husky, brawling,  Cityof the big shoulders: Alliteration the repetition of the same consonant sounds or different vowel sounds at the beginning of words or stressed syllables. Examples: "sevenswans aswimming," "even Alice's otter ate the icecream," Onomatopoeia A literary device wherein the sound of a word echoes the sound it represents. Examples: “buzz,”“crackle,” “shatter,” “splash," "knock," and "roar" Symbolism– A device in literature where an object represents an idea. Example: InWilliam Blake's "The Lamb," the speaker tells the lamb that the force that made him or her is also called a lamb: Little lamb, who made thee? Little lamb, who made thee? Little lamb, I'll tell thee, Little lamb, I'll tell thee!  Heis called by thy name,  Forhe calls himself a lamb; The symbol of the lamb in the above lines corresponds to the symbolism of the lamb in Christianity wherein Christ is referred to as The Lamb of God Foreshadowing– Foreshadowing refers to a clue which suggests a later event in the plot, or the outcome of the story. Example: InShakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," Romeo's expression of fear in Act 1, scene 4 foreshadows the catastrophe to come:  Ifear too early; for my mind misgives  Someconsequence yet hanging in the stars  Shallbitterly begin his fearful date  Withthis night's revels and expire the term  Ofa despised life closed in my breast  Bysome vile forfeit of untimely death.  ButHe that hath the steerage of my course,  Directmy sail! On, lusty gentlemen Rhyme Special kinds of rhyme (also spelled rime)The similar sound between at the end of two or more lines of poetry. include:Couplet:a pair of lines rhyming consecutively.Eye rhyme:words whose spellings would lead one to think that they rhymed (slough, tough, cough, bough, though, hiccough. Or: love, move, prove. Or: daughter, laughter.) Re etitionhasis or effect.ain for emhrase over aof a word orThe writin Example: thelast stanza from Robert Frost’s Stopping By Woods on a Snowy EveningThe woods are lovely, dark and deep. But I have promises to keep, And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.
The HighwaymanPart One
By Alfred Noyes IThe wind was a torrent of darkness among the gusty trees, The moon was a ghostly galleon tossed upon cloudy seas, The road was a ribbon of moonlight, over the purple moor, And the highwayman came riding Ridingriding The highwayman came riding, up to the old inndoor. II He'd a French cockedhat on his forehead, a bunch of lace at his chin, A coat of the claret velvet, and breeches of brown doeskin; They fitted with never a wrinkle: his boots were up to the thigh! And he rode with a jewelled twinkle, His pistol butts atwinkle, His rapier hilt atwinkle, under the jewelled sky. III Over the cobbles he clattered and clashed in the dark innyard, And he tapped with his whip on the shutters, but all was locked and barred; He whistled a tune to the window, and who should be waiting there But the landlord's blackeyed daughter,  Bess,the landlord's daughter, Plaiting a dark red loveknot into her long black hair. IV And dark in the old innyard a stablewicket creaked Where Tim the ostler listened; his face was white and peaked; His eyes were hollows of madness, his hair like mouldy hay, But he loved the landlord's daughter, The landlord's redlipped daughter, Dumb as a dog he listened, and he heard the robber say V "One kiss, my bonny sweetheart, I'm after a prize tonight, But I shall be back with the yellow gold before the morning light; Yet, if they press me sharply, and harry me through the day, Then look for me by moonlight, Watch for me by moonlight, I'll come to thee by moonlight, though hell should bar the way." VI He rose upright in the stirrups; he scarce could reach her hand, But she loosened her hair i' the casement! His face burnt like a brand As the black cascade of perfume came tumbling over his breast; And he kissed its waves in the moonlight, (Oh, sweet black waves in the moonlight!) Then he tugged at his rein in the moonlight, and galloped away to the West. PreGED 1.12
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