Slovakia in the spotlight of investors

Slovakia in the spotlight of investors

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1Newsletter Slovak Investment and Trade Development Agency December / 2011 Slovakia in the spotlight of investors More on page 9
  • growth of 3.8 percent
  • big u.s.
  • domestic partners as a vehicle for growth
  • slovakia
  • packaging technology manufacturer travelin
  • volume of investment
  • projects to the regions with high unemployment rate
  • 0.5 percent
  • foreign investors
  • investment

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Nombre de lectures 22
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Universität Bonn - Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie
Prof. Dr. Uwe Holtz - Am Hofgarten 15, 53113 Bonn – uholtz@aol.com - www.uni-bonn.de/~uholtz
21 December 2011
University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
MBA-Programme « NGO-Management », Winter Semester 2011/12
Module « Culture & Politics »
INTERNATIONAL POLITICS
Overview on some relevant topics:
I. International Politics, trends and theories (p. 2-4)
II. Challenges for peace and security and answers (4-5)
stIII. Relevance of the United Nations for shaping the 21 century (6-
8)
IV. Democracy as a universal value – relationship between devel-
opment, good governance and democracy (8-11)
V. Development, “sustainable, human development” and how to
measure development (11-13)
VI. Foreign aid – Development Cooperation (13-16)
VII. Positive and negative factors for development - the role of elites
and of development cooperation (17-19)
VIII. NGOs - political and cultural framework conditions (20)
IX. Role of NGOs and International Politics (21)2
I. International Politics (IP) / International Relations (IR),
Trends and Theories
Political science is an academic discipline that seeks to study (i) politics, (ii) polity
and (iii) policy scientifically and to address empirical (factual) and normative (ethical)
1questions.
“International Politics” (also “International Relations”) represents the study of for-
eign affairs and global issues among states and regional groupings within the inter-
national system. It includes the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations
(IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international non-governmental
organizations (INGOs), as well as multinational or transnational compa-
nies/corporations (MNCs or MTCs).
It deals with global policy-making today and the complexities of political, economic
and social transformations that continue to reshape power (relations).
It is considered as a branch of political science, but should be treated as an interdis-
ciplinary field of study and research.
IP deals with some of the central issues that affect our lives.
The academic discipline of IP has traditionally focused on questions of peace and
war, but in recent years this agenda has broadened to include issues such as devel-
opment, climate and environment, human rights, human security and culture/religion.
2Trends which will influence and change international politics:
- Trend 1: World Financial Crisis
The world financial crisis is a major setback to socioeconomic progress in large parts
of the world, demonstrating conclusively that neoliberal paradigms are a spent force.
- Trend 2: End of the G7/8’s Monopoly
The world financial and economic crisis has finally discredited the G7/8’s monopoly
on exclusive club rule. The resurgence of more multilateral approaches is reflected in
the G20’s assumption of key consultation and, in some cases, leadership functions.
- Trend 3: Climate Change
Climate change has become the main driver of global environmental change, with
far-reaching implications for societies, economies and the international system.
- Trend 4: Rearmament and Fragile Statehood
Numerous countries continue to experience sporadic outbreaks of violence and are
affected by fragile statehood; this applies especially to sub-Saharan Africa. In paral-
lel, a decade of rearmament has been observed since the end of the 1990s.
- Trend 5: Religion as a Factor
The West has long underestimated the significance of religion as a factor in interna-
tional and transnational relations. The assumption of power by Ayatollah Khomeini in
Iran back in 1979 and the ending of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan by muja-
hideen fighters were some of the first signs that global politics is crucially influenced
by politico-religious identities and ideologies as well.
- Trend 6: Urbanisation
1
Cf. U. Holtz: Module Lecture: All the presentations may be found at http://www.uni-
bonn.de/~uholtz/lehrmaterial/Kurzinfo.html);
2
Cf. Development and Peace Foundation/Institute for Development and Peace (eds.) (2010): Global
Trends 2010. Peace – Development – Environment3
The urbanisation process is steadily continuing. The rise of megacities, most of which
are located in the developing countries, poses a major development challenge.
- Trend 7: Migration
Migration has become the central human factor in transnational globalisation and, in
view of the substantial rise in the number of women migrants, is increasingly acquir-
ing a “female face”.
- Trend 8: Inequality of “life chances”
There continues to be extreme inequality of “life chances” between and within world
regions and societies, with the gap continuing to widen in some cases.
- Trend 9: Internationalisation of Science/Technology
Scientific and technological progress is becoming increasingly “internationalised” in
its organisation.
- Trend 10: New Governance Mechanisms
The hierarchical approach to global governance is increasingly being supplemented
– and indeed in some cases supplanted – by new horizontal governance mecha-
nisms.
Further trends mentioned and discussed in the class: Democracy, Food (In-)Security,
International Crimes, Social Media
Main IP-IR Theories / Two models of analysis for interpretation of international
3relations have been very influential:
1. Realism asserts that
 Governments cannot count on the existence of a peaceful and cooperative
human nature to produce harmonious interactions.
 States exist in a condition of anarchy in which there is no ultimate enforcer of
rules.
 Foreign policy must be based on a state's need to protect and advance its own
power, not on morality (if power and morality come into conflict). (“Realpolitik”)
 States are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maxi-
mize their security and chances of survival.
 International political relations are prone to conflict; state security is under-
stood primarily as military security.
2. Idealism (or liberalism) asserts that
 Human nature is rational and capable of peace.
 States / governments should pursue ethical and moral principles in foreign pol-
icy.
 States mutually gain from international cooperation; they should promote hu-
man security (“quality-of-life security”).
 International organizations and institutions have the capacity to promote
peace and human security, human rights and democracy. The international
“regimes” affect the behaviour of states or other international actors (> Re-
gime theory).
 States tend to exist in a world that looks increasingly interdependent to many
idealists such as liberal institutionalists. The growing interdependence
3 th
See Ellen Grigsby (2009): Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, 4 ed., Wadsworth,
p. 251-288, 256 (available at the library in Rheinbach).4
throughout and after the Cold War through international institutions led to neo-
4liberalism being defined as Institutionalism.
There are some other relevant theories, among them:
3. Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international
institutions or regimes affect the behaviour of states (or other international actors). It
assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. Regimes are
by definition, instances of international cooperation.
4. At the heart of Constructivism is the idea that significant aspects of international
relations are socially constructed and not primarily based on geographical, military or
economic conditions.
5. Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or
cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. Marxists view
the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accu-
mulation and as the exploitation of developing countries by industrialized countries.
5II. Challenges for peace and security and answers
Ursula Mogg, former MP, Lecturer at the Federal Armed Forces Academy in
Koblenz:
Challenges and threats:
Weapons of mass destruction - proliferation of weapons, arms trade, war for borders,
water, farmland; [US government >] international terrorism, failing and failed states,
cyber attacks; privatisation of force - „new“ wars; organized crime, ethnic and reli-
gious rivalries, violation of human rights, mass migration, overpopulation, poverty and
hunger, pandemics, climate change, ecocide, human trafficking, drug traffic.
Answers:
Risks and threats have to be addressed with a suitably matched range of instru-
ments. These include diplomatic, economic, development policy and policing meas-
ures as well as military means and, where called for, also armed operations.
 3 Ds (Diplomacy, Development and Defence)
Demands: Stability, good governance, multilateralism; UN as a framework for pre-
ventive action against dynamic threats; Core of the strategy is prevention of prolifera-
tion.
Actors on different levels:
 Besides the own efforts within states, international cooperation and multilater-
alism are needed
 states, regional groupings (NATO, EU, ASEAN, ECOWAS, MERCOSUR …)
may promote peace and security
4
Neo-liberalism also contains an economic theory (Milton Friedman) that is based on the use of open
and free markets with little, if any, government intervention to prevent monopolies and other conglom-
erates from forming.
5
Main references: Ulrike Mogg and Peter Croll – Lectures (the PowerPoint-Presentations were sent to
all participants respectively put on the website http://www.uni-
bonn.de/~uholtz/lehrmaterial/Kurzinfo.html); and U. Holtz5
 “human” security with its economic, social, environmental and political dimen-
sions is a matter of states, international organizations, NGOs, the private sec-
tor etc.
Peter Croll, BICC, director:
Conflict management describes various strategies of dealing with a conflict at dif-
ferent levels from interpersonal to inter-state conflict
Mainstream Literature categorizes conflict management strategies into three: Con-
flict Settlement, Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation.
The practice of conflict resolution entails providing opportunities for the parties to:
1. Analyse the relationship, generate a definition of the problem in terms of moti-
vations and human needs,
2. Cost their goals and policies once they are fully informed of all aspects of the
dispute,
3. Discover the possible options that may be available once there has been a full
analysis of the conflict in all its elements.
Regarding conflict resolution and the case of small arms, the contribution of the Bonn
International Center for Conversion/BICC consisted in:
• Training and Education form critical parts of resolving conflicts as these as-
pects help to transform the manner in which a society thinks about conflict.
• When resolving a conflict one of the most important aspects is dealing with
the mass of small weapons that are left behind.
• Not addressing this problem may lead to heightened insecurity and violent
crime as people will have uncontrolled access to dangerous weapons that
soon become part of everyday life.
• The TRESA (Training and Education on Small Arms) project at BICC has
been tasked with the preparation and propagation of training tools on small
arms control. Since its inception in late 2003, the project, together with col-
laborators from other organizations, has designed and is field testing com-
prehensive approach to small arms training.
U. Holtz
What to do in the future?
A. Basis
I. Making use of the experiences and the thinking of Willy Brandt, Amartya Sen and
Wangari Maathai
2. The UN Millennium Declaration and the MDGs being a good road map for interna-
tional politics and development cooperation in the 21st century
B. Implementation imperatives
1. Creation of more nuclear-weapon-free zones / world
2. Strengthening of regional organizations in a multipolar world
3. More Global Governance, stronger institutions and stronger United Nations
4. UN-Security Council for economic, social and environmental issues
5. International social and ecological market economy instead of wild, barbarian capi-
talism > a fair, human globalisation
6. Strengthening of parliamentary oversight and influence in global affairs — a UN
Parliamentary Assembly
7. New alliances — coalition of the willing (States, Regional Grouping, private sec-
tors, trade unions, NGOs, international political party organizations...)6
st 6III. Relevance of the United Nations for shaping the 21 Century
The most international address for IP is the UN (* 1945) in New York with the 192
member-states (Idealism + Regime theory):
The UN as the unique organization whose activities are universally legitimized
The UN plays a critical role in developing values and norms important for a broad
range of activities of states and non-state actors.
Very important directions for the shaping of international relations and for a better life
– for a vision of a better world - are to be found in:
A. The UN Charter (1945)
PREAMBLE
WE THE PEOPLES …HAVE RESOLVED TO COMBINE OUR EFFORTS TO
ACCOMPLISH THESE AIMS
1. To maintain international peace and security,
2. To bring about by peaceful means adjustment or settlement of international
disputes,
3. To develop friendly relations among nations,
4. To achieve international co-operation in solving international problems.
B. The International Bill of Human Rights
-- 1948: Universal Declaration of HUMAN RIGHTS
PREAMBLE
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of
all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in
the world, …
…the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and
belief and freedom from fear and want … (< so-called 4 freedoms)
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith
in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the
equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and
better standards of life in larger freedom, …
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLA-
RATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples
and all nations …
-- 1966: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
Rights/ICESCR adopted by the General Assembly - entering into force 3 Janu-
ary 1976; International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights/ICCPR – entering
into force 23 March 1976.
-- „New“ Generation of Rights: Collective Rights
Right of peoples to: • Self-determination, • Development (1986), • Free use of their
wealth and natural resources • Peace • A healthy environment
Other collective rights:
6
Reference: Holtz Lecture7
• Rights of national, ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities, • Rights of indigenous
peoples
In 1993, the WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS, Vienna, 14-25 June
1993, confirmed: All human rights are universal, indivisible and interdependent and
interrelated.
C. The Millennium Declaration and the MDGs (2000)
-- United Nations Millennium Declaration (Resolution adopted by the General As-
sembly - A/55/L.2):
1. We, heads of State and Government, have gathered at United Nations Headquar-
ters in New York from 6 to 8 September 2000, at the dawn of a new millennium, to
reaffirm our faith in the Organization and its Charter as indispensable foundations of
a more peaceful, prosperous and just world.
2. We recognize that, in addition to our separate responsibilities to our individual so-
cieties, we have a collective responsibility to uphold the principles of human dignity,
equality and equity at the global level. As leaders we have a duty therefore to all the
world’s people, especially the most vulnerable and, in particular, the children of the
world, to whom the future belongs.
6. We consider certain fundamental values to be essential to international
relations in the twenty-first century. These include: Freedom; Equality; Solidarity;
Tolerance; Respect for nature; Shared responsibility.
-- MDGs
A huge endeavour to promote human security was undertaken by the international
community and the UN in 2000/01 by adopting the eight Millennium Development
Goals (MDGs) as a roadmap for meeting some challenges.
Regarding the MDGs, there are mixed results so far - successes, shortcomings and
failures:
a) In general:
7Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General, United Nations:
“Already, the MDGs have helped to lift millions of people out of poverty, save lives
and ensure that children attend school. They have reduced maternal deaths, ex-
panded opportunities for women, increased access to clean water and freed many
people from deadly and debilitating disease.
At the same time, the report shows that we still have a long way to go in empowering
women and girls, promoting sustainable development, and protecting the most vul-
nerable from the devastating effects of multiple crises, be they conflicts, natural dis-
asters or volatility in prices for food and energy.”
b) Regarding the 8 MDGs:
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger.
Extreme poverty is lessening - joblessness and hunger are not.
2. Achieve universal primary education.
Despite encouraging progress, the goal may not be met by 2015, especially in sub-
Saharan Africa and Southern Asia.
3. Promote gender equality and empower women.
7
UN (2011): The Millennium Development Goals Report 2011, New York, p. 3 (see also
www.un.org/millenniumgoals/pdf/%282011_E%29%20MDG%20Report%202011_Book%20LR.pdf)8
Poverty remains a barrier to education for girls; women remain less favoured than
men in the employment market.
4. Reduce child mortality.
Child deaths are falling, but not fast enough to meet the 2015 target of a two-thirds
reduction, compared with 1990, in the under-five mortality rate.
5. Improve maternal health. Most maternal deaths in child-birth could be avoided
with the right medical care, but giving birth remains especially risky in sub-Saharan
Africa and Southern Asia and progress has slowed in reducing the number of teen-
age pregnancies.
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. The spread of HIV has stabi-
lised in most regions, but the rate of infection continues to surpass the expansion of
treatment. Procurement of antimalarial drugs is increasing, but poverty still limits the
use of mosquito nets.
7. Ensure environmental sustainability. The rate of deforestation, though high, is
slowing - but the world has missed the 2010 target for biodiversity conservation and
the target of halving by 2015 the number of people without basic sanitation will be
difficult to reach.
8. Develop a global partnership for development. Aid for the least developed
countries continues to rise, despite the global economic crisis, but only five donor
countries have reached the UN target for official aid. Developing and least developed
countries are gaining greater access to developed markets, and debt burdens have
been lightened - but they remain well behind rich countries in information and com-
munications technology.
IV. Democracy as a universal value – relationship between devel-
opment, good governance and democracy
US President Abraham Lincoln in his »Gettysburg Address« (19.11.1863):
Democracy is “government of the people by the people for the people”
- rule emanating from the people (legitimacy)
- participatory form of rule (execution)
- committed to the people and the public welfare (normative aspect of rule).
There is much debate on the ability of a democracy to properly represent both the
‘will of the people’ and to do what is ‘right’, but to quote Winston Churchill:
“Democracy is the worst form of government except for all those others that have
been tried.”
This is because there is no system that can ideally order society. Traditionally the
purpose of democracy is to prevent tyranny and dictatorship (the accumulation of too
much authority in the hands of one or a few).
U. Holtz:
The triangle of core components of any democracy
1. Free, fair and regular elections with the possibility to change government
Elections require the freedom of expression and associational freedom. Electoral
competition is required for any democracy to thrive and flourish. ”In a democracy,
multiple political forces compete inside an institutional framework” (Adam Przeworski
1991). Without inclusion, certain segments of society are not eligible to participate,
leaving a lack of true democratic representation.
2. Politics shall be bound by constitutional law and order9
This requires the - at least a minimum of – separation of powers, independent judici-
ary, rule of law
3. The respect for, and observance and protection of inalienable human rights and
civil and political liberties
Elections and a body of civil rights - both institutions limit the power of the state: the
first by ensuring that the rascals can be thrown out of office, the second by making
sure that the rascals cannot do certain things even while in office. Civil rights also
protect minorities against the dictatorship of the majority.Democracy and human
rights are belonging together and mutually reinforcing.
Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU): Universal Declaration on Democracy, 1997:
Democracy is a universally recognised ideal as well as a goal, which is based on
common values shared by peoples throughout the world.
Democracy is the only political system that has the capacity for self-correction.
Democracy is founded on the primacy of the law and the exercise of human rights. In
a democratic State, no one is above the law and all are equal before the law.
Peace and economic, social and cultural development are both conditions for and
fruits of democracy. There is thus interdependence between peace, development,
respect for and observance of the rule of law and human rights.
(www.ipu.org/cnl-e/161-dem.htm)
8Amartya Sen, 1999:
The recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system, which moves in the
direction of its acceptance as a universal value, is a major revolution in thinking, and
one of the main contributions of the twentieth century. … Democracy enriches the
lives of the citizens.
This recognition of democracy as a universally relevant system, which moves in the
direction of its acceptance as a universal value, is a major revolution in thinking.
A country does not have to be deemed fit for democracy; rather, it has to become fit
through democracy. This is indeed a momentous change, extending the potential
reach of democracy to cover billions of people, with their varying histories and cul-
tures and disparate levels of affluence.
Indeed, we can distinguish three different ways in which democracy enriches the
lives of the citizens. First, political freedom is a part of human freedom in general,
and exercising civil and political rights is a crucial part of good lives of individuals as
social beings. Political and social participation has intrinsic value for human life and
well-being. To be prevented from participation in the political life of the community is
a major deprivation.
Second, as I have just discussed (in disputing the claim that democracy is in tension
with economic development), democracy has an important instrumental value in en-
hancing the hearing that people get in expressing and supporting their claims to po-
litical attention (including claims of economic needs) (> the instrumental importance
of political incentives in keeping governments responsible and accountable).
Third--and this is a point to be explored further--the practice of democracy gives citi-
zens an opportunity to learn from one another, and helps society to form its values
and priorities (> the constructive role of democracy in the formation of values and in
the understanding of needs, rights, and duties).
8
Amartya Sen (1999): Democracy as a Universal Value, in: Journal of Democracy 10.3 (1999), p. 3-
17. (recommended literature - www.uni-bonn.de/~uholtz/lehrmaterial/ngo_management_sen.pdf)10
Development, good governance and democracy
Holtz:
Development is a long term, complex and multi-dimensional process leading to the
improvement of the living conditions. It means the satisfaction of (basic) human
needs and the realisation of human rights. It must be sustainable.
This is a challenge facing parliaments and governments, non-governmental organiza-
tions, private enterprises, research and teaching institutions, communities and indi-
viduals.
Good governance is more than good government; it encompasses good administra-
tion. [In French: “bonne gestion des affaires publiques”]
9Kofi Annan, Secretary-General of the UN, 1997:
“Good governance and sustainable development are indivisible.
That is the lesson of all our efforts and experiences, from Africa to Asia to Latin
America. Without good governance -- without the rule of law, predictable administra-
tion, legitimate power, and responsive regulation -- no amount of funding, no amount
of charity will set us on the path to prosperity.”
A central prerequisite for sustainable development is good, legitimate and effective
governance.
The EU-ACP Cotonou Agreement (2000; Art 9.3) gives the following defintion:
“In the context of political and institutional environment that upholds human rights,
democratic principles and the rule of law, good governance is the transparent and
accountable management of human, natural, economic and financial resources for
the purposes of equitable and sustainable development.
It entails clear decision-making procedures at the level of public authorities, transpar-
ent and accountable institutions, the primacy of law in the management and distribu-
tion of resources and capacity building for elaborating and implementing measures
aiming in particular at preventing and combating corruption.”
The international community about the links:
UNDP‘s HUMAN DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2002:
The links between democracy and human development are not automatic. Political
freedom and participation are part of human development, both as development
goals in their own right and as means for advancing human development.
EU-ACP COTONOU AGREEMENT, 2000:
The partnership shall actively support the promotion of human rights, processes of
democratisation, consolidation of the rule of law, and good governance.
NEPAD/The New Partnership for Africa's Development, 2001, article 71
African leaders have learnt from their own experiences that peace, security, democ-
racy, good governance, human rights and sound economic management are condi-
tions for sustainable development.
9
http://mirror.undp.org/magnet/icg97/ANNAN.HTM, p. 44