Slovakia in the spotlight of investors
21 pages

Slovakia in the spotlight of investors


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21 pages
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1Newsletter Slovak Investment and Trade Development Agency December / 2011 Slovakia in the spotlight of investors More on page 9
  • growth of 3.8 percent
  • big u.s.
  • domestic partners as a vehicle for growth
  • slovakia
  • packaging technology manufacturer travelin
  • volume of investment
  • projects to the regions with high unemployment rate
  • 0.5 percent
  • foreign investors
  • investment



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 22
Langue English


Universität Bonn - Institut für Politische Wissenschaft und Soziologie
Prof. Dr. Uwe Holtz - Am Hofgarten 15, 53113 Bonn – -
21 December 2011
University of Applied Sciences Bonn-Rhein-Sieg
MBA-Programme « NGO-Management », Winter Semester 2011/12
Module « Culture & Politics »
Overview on some relevant topics:
I. International Politics, trends and theories (p. 2-4)
II. Challenges for peace and security and answers (4-5)
stIII. Relevance of the United Nations for shaping the 21 century (6-
IV. Democracy as a universal value – relationship between devel-
opment, good governance and democracy (8-11)
V. Development, “sustainable, human development” and how to
measure development (11-13)
VI. Foreign aid – Development Cooperation (13-16)
VII. Positive and negative factors for development - the role of elites
and of development cooperation (17-19)
VIII. NGOs - political and cultural framework conditions (20)
IX. Role of NGOs and International Politics (21)2
I. International Politics (IP) / International Relations (IR),
Trends and Theories
Political science is an academic discipline that seeks to study (i) politics, (ii) polity
and (iii) policy scientifically and to address empirical (factual) and normative (ethical)
“International Politics” (also “International Relations”) represents the study of for-
eign affairs and global issues among states and regional groupings within the inter-
national system. It includes the roles of states, inter-governmental organizations
(IGOs), non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and international non-governmental
organizations (INGOs), as well as multinational or transnational compa-
nies/corporations (MNCs or MTCs).
It deals with global policy-making today and the complexities of political, economic
and social transformations that continue to reshape power (relations).
It is considered as a branch of political science, but should be treated as an interdis-
ciplinary field of study and research.
IP deals with some of the central issues that affect our lives.
The academic discipline of IP has traditionally focused on questions of peace and
war, but in recent years this agenda has broadened to include issues such as devel-
opment, climate and environment, human rights, human security and culture/religion.
2Trends which will influence and change international politics:
- Trend 1: World Financial Crisis
The world financial crisis is a major setback to socioeconomic progress in large parts
of the world, demonstrating conclusively that neoliberal paradigms are a spent force.
- Trend 2: End of the G7/8’s Monopoly
The world financial and economic crisis has finally discredited the G7/8’s monopoly
on exclusive club rule. The resurgence of more multilateral approaches is reflected in
the G20’s assumption of key consultation and, in some cases, leadership functions.
- Trend 3: Climate Change
Climate change has become the main driver of global environmental change, with
far-reaching implications for societies, economies and the international system.
- Trend 4: Rearmament and Fragile Statehood
Numerous countries continue to experience sporadic outbreaks of violence and are
affected by fragile statehood; this applies especially to sub-Saharan Africa. In paral-
lel, a decade of rearmament has been observed since the end of the 1990s.
- Trend 5: Religion as a Factor
The West has long underestimated the significance of religion as a factor in interna-
tional and transnational relations. The assumption of power by Ayatollah Khomeini in
Iran back in 1979 and the ending of the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan by muja-
hideen fighters were some of the first signs that global politics is crucially influenced
by politico-religious identities and ideologies as well.
- Trend 6: Urbanisation
Cf. U. Holtz: Module Lecture: All the presentations may be found at http://www.uni-;
Cf. Development and Peace Foundation/Institute for Development and Peace (eds.) (2010): Global
Trends 2010. Peace – Development – Environment3
The urbanisation process is steadily continuing. The rise of megacities, most of which
are located in the developing countries, poses a major development challenge.
- Trend 7: Migration
Migration has become the central human factor in transnational globalisation and, in
view of the substantial rise in the number of women migrants, is increasingly acquir-
ing a “female face”.
- Trend 8: Inequality of “life chances”
There continues to be extreme inequality of “life chances” between and within world
regions and societies, with the gap continuing to widen in some cases.
- Trend 9: Internationalisation of Science/Technology
Scientific and technological progress is becoming increasingly “internationalised” in
its organisation.
- Trend 10: New Governance Mechanisms
The hierarchical approach to global governance is increasingly being supplemented
– and indeed in some cases supplanted – by new horizontal governance mecha-
Further trends mentioned and discussed in the class: Democracy, Food (In-)Security,
International Crimes, Social Media
Main IP-IR Theories / Two models of analysis for interpretation of international
3relations have been very influential:
1. Realism asserts that
 Governments cannot count on the existence of a peaceful and cooperative
human nature to produce harmonious interactions.
 States exist in a condition of anarchy in which there is no ultimate enforcer of
 Foreign policy must be based on a state's need to protect and advance its own
power, not on morality (if power and morality come into conflict). (“Realpolitik”)
 States are self-interested, power-seeking rational actors, who seek to maxi-
mize their security and chances of survival.
 International political relations are prone to conflict; state security is under-
stood primarily as military security.
2. Idealism (or liberalism) asserts that
 Human nature is rational and capable of peace.
 States / governments should pursue ethical and moral principles in foreign pol-
 States mutually gain from international cooperation; they should promote hu-
man security (“quality-of-life security”).
 International organizations and institutions have the capacity to promote
peace and human security, human rights and democracy. The international
“regimes” affect the behaviour of states or other international actors (> Re-
gime theory).
 States tend to exist in a world that looks increasingly interdependent to many
idealists such as liberal institutionalists. The growing interdependence
3 th
See Ellen Grigsby (2009): Analyzing Politics: An Introduction to Political Science, 4 ed., Wadsworth,
p. 251-288, 256 (available at the library in Rheinbach).4
throughout and after the Cold War through international institutions led to neo-
4liberalism being defined as Institutionalism.
There are some other relevant theories, among them:
3. Regime theory is derived from the liberal tradition that argues that international
institutions or regimes affect the behaviour of states (or other international actors). It
assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. Regimes are
by definition, instances of international cooperation.
4. At the heart of Constructivism is the idea that significant aspects of international
relations are socially constructed and not primarily based on geographical, military or
economic conditions.
5. Marxist and Neo-Marxist theories reject the realist/liberal view of state conflict or
cooperation; instead focusing on the economic and material aspects. Marxists view
the international system as an integrated capitalist system in pursuit of capital accu-
mulation and as the exploitation of developing countries by industrialized countries.
5II. Challenges for peace and security and answers
Ursula Mogg, former MP, Lecturer at the Federal Armed Forces Academy in
Challenges and threats:
Weapons of mass destruction - proliferation of weapons, arms trade, war for borders,
water, farmland; [US government >] international terrorism, failing and failed states,
cyber attacks; privatisation of force - „new“ wars; organized crime, ethnic and reli-
gious rivalries, violation of human rights, mass migration, overpopulation, poverty and
hunger, pandemics, climate change, ecocide, human trafficking, drug traffic.
Risks and threats have to be addressed with a suitably matched range of instru-
ments. These include diplomatic, economic, development policy and policing meas-
ures as well as military means and, where called for, also armed operations.
 3 Ds (Diplomacy, Development and Defence)
Demands: Stability, good governance, multilateralism; UN as a framework for pre-
ventive action against dynamic threats; Core of the strategy is prevention of prolifera-
Actors on different levels:
 Besides the own efforts within states, international cooperation and multilater-
alism are needed
 states, regional groupings (NATO, EU, ASEAN, ECOWAS, MERCOSUR …)
may promote peace and security
Neo-liberalism also contains an economic theory (Milton Friedman) that is based on the use of ope

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