Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I

-

Documents
151 pages
Obtenez un accès à la bibliothèque pour le consulter en ligne
En savoir plus

Description

Niveau: Supérieur, Doctorat, Bac+8
Thèse de Doctorat de l'Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I Discipline: Sciences du vivant Présentée et soutenue publiquement par Anne PACQUELET Pour obtenir le grade de Docteur de l'Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I Sujet de thèse: Régulation de l'adhérence médiée par la DE-cadhérine au cours de la migration des cellules de bordure chez la Drosophile Soutenue le 02 juillet 2004 devant le jury composé de: Mr Jean-Marc Reichhart Professeur, Strasbourg Directeur de thèse Mme Pernille Rørth Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Codirectrice de thèse Mr Julien Royet Professeur, Strasbourg Rapporteur interne Mr Stephen Cohen Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Rapporteur externe Mr François Schweisguth Directeur de recherche, Paris Rapporteur externe

  • heidelberg codirectrice de thèse

  • cadherins

  • heidelberg rapporteur externe

  • who helped

  • thèse de doctorat

  • cadherin during

  • catenin tyrosine

  • directeur de la recherche

  • cadherin

  • border cell


Sujets

Informations

Publié par
Publié le 01 juillet 2004
Nombre de visites sur la page 151
Langue Français
Signaler un problème


Thèse de Doctorat de l’Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I
Discipline: Sciences du vivant


Présentée et soutenue publiquement par

Anne PACQUELET

Pour obtenir le grade de
Docteur de l’Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I


Sujet de thèse:

Régulation de l’adhérence médiée par
la DE-cadhérine au cours de la migration des
cellules de bordure chez la Drosophile




Soutenue le 02 juillet 2004 devant le jury composé de:

Mr Jean-Marc Reichhart Professeur, Strasbourg Directeur de thèse
Mme Pernille Rørth Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Codirectrice de thèse
Mr Julien Royet Professeur, Strasbourg Rapporteur interne
Mr Stephen Cohen Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Rapporteur externe
Mr François Schweisguth Directeur de recherche, Paris Rapporteur externe
Thèse de Doctorat de l’Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I
Disciplin: Biology


Defended by

Anne PACQUELET

To obtain the degree of
Docteur de l’Université Louis Pasteur Strasbourg I


Title:

Regulation of Drosophila E-cadherin mediated
adhesion during border cell migration






ndDefended on the 2 of July 2004 with the following jury:

Mr Jean-Marc Reichhart Professeur, Strasbourg Directeur de thèse
Mme Pernille Rørth Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Codirectrice de thèse
Mr Julien Royet Professeur, Strasbourg Rapporteur interne
Mr Stephen Cohen Directeur de recherche, Heidelberg Rapporteur externe
Mr François Schweisguth Directeur de recherche, Paris Rapporteur externe
1
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Many people have made this work possible, and I am glad to acknowledge them here.

First of all, I would like to thank Pernille Rørth for giving me the chance to work in her lab
and for all her advices, enthusiasm and support during these years.

I would also like to thank Jean-Marc Reichhart for kindly accepting to be my supervisor at the
Université Louis Pasteur and being always available when needed. Thanks to Damian
Brunner and Steve Cohen who took the time to participate in my thesis committee at EMBL.
Thanks to Steve Cohen, Julien Royet and François Schweisguth for accepting to read my
thesis and be in my defence committee.


Thanks to all the people in the lab – past and current members: Andreea, Carlos, Gaspar,
Gemma, Hsin-Ho, Juliette, Kalman, Lodovica, Luis, Oguz, Peter, Simone and Tudor – for
tossing my flies on Sundays or taking care of my eppendorfs when I had to be at home, for all
our scientific and political discussions and for the great time I had in the lab. A special thank
to Li Lin who helped with the quantifications on the p120ctn project and cloned the DE-
cadherin-4YF mutant. I am also grateful to Ann Mari Voie who did all the injections to
generate transgenic flies.

Thanks to all the people in the fly labs and in EMBL who provided flies, reagents, advices or
friendly little talks in the corridors.


Merci à ma famille, en particulier à mes parents pour leur soutien pendant toutes ces années.

Et bien sûr un immense merci à Gwénaël, pour tout, tout simplement.
Merci aussi à Lucie, qui sans cesse nous rappelle à l’essentiel.
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUMMARY................................................................................................................. 9
RÉSUMÉ (version courte) ..................................................................................... 10
RÉSUMÉ (version longue) ..................................................................................... 11
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ..................................................................................... 20

1 INTRODUCTION 23
1.1 Cell migration............................................................................................. 24
1.1.1 Importance...................................................................................................................24
1.1.2 Swimming and crawling............................................................................................ 24
1.1.3 Molecular mechanisms involved in cell crawling................................................... 25
1.1.3.1 Actin polymerization ....................................................................................26
1.1.3.2 Generation of traction forces.......................................................................29
1.1.3.3 Adhesion......................................................................................................29
1.2 Cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion...................................................... 32
1.2.1 The Cadherin superfamily......................................................................................... 32
1.2.1.1 A common feature: the cadherin repeat (CR) .............................................33
1.2.1.2 Classic cadherin ..........................................................................................34
1.2.1.3 Desmosomals cadherins.............................................................................36
1.2.1.4 Fat-like cadherins and seven-transmembrane cadherins...........................37
1.2.1.5 Protocadherins ............................................................................................37
1.2.2 Adhesion mechanisms.............................................................................................. 37
1.2.3 Role of classic cadherins during development ...................................................... 38
1.2.4 Molecules associated with classic cadherins at junctions ................................... 41
1.2.4.1 b-catenin and a-catenin: linking cadherin to actin......................................41
1.2.4.2 Other cytosolic proteins associated with cadherins ....................................43
1.2.4.3 Transmembrane proteins associated with cadherins..................................44
1.2.5 Regulation of cadherin mediated adhesion ............................................................ 44
1.2.5.1 Modulation of the link to actin filaments ......................................................45
1.2.5.2 Endocytosis .................................................................................................46 3
1.2.5.3 Regulation of lateral clustering....................................................................47
1.2.5.4 Regulation by p120 catenin.........................................................................47
1.2.5.5 Phosphorylation of cadherin and catenins ..................................................48
1.2.5.6 Small GTPases ...........................................................................................50
1.3 Border cell migration................................................................................. 52
1.3.1 Oogenesis and border cells...................................................................................... 52
1.3.2 Border cell specification ........................................................................................... 56
1.3.3 Guidance..................................................................................................................... 57
1.3.4 Extension formation and traction ............................................................................ 57
1.3.5 Adhesion during border cell migration ................................................................... 58
1.4 Aim of the project ...................................................................................... 60

2 RESULTS 61
2.1 p120ctn and juxtamembrane domain....................................................... 62
2.1.1 Strategy....................................................................................................................... 62
2.1.2 Controls ...................................................................................................................... 64
2.1.3 Neither interaction with p120ctn nor juxtamembrane domain are required
for DE-cadherin function during border cell migration ......................................... 68
2.1.4 Neither interaction with p120ctn nor juxtamembrane domain are required
for DE-cadherin function during oogenesis and development............................. 70
2.1.5 p120ctn itself does not seem to be required for Drosophila development ......... 74
2.2 Tyrosine phosphorylation......................................................................... 75
2.2.1 DE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation ................................................................... 75
2.2.1.1 Strategy .......................................................................................................75
2.2.1.2 DE-cadherin-4YF substitutes for endogenous DE-cadherin during
border cell migration ...................................................................................76
2.2.1.3 DE-cadherin-4YF substitutes for endogenous DE-cadherin during
oogenesis and development.......................................................................77
2.2.1.4 There is no redundancy between p120ctn and tyrosine
phosphorylation of DE-cadherin during border cell migration.....................78
2.2.2 b-catenin tyrosine phosphrylation........................................................................... 79
2.2.2.1 Strategy .......................................................................................................79 4
2.2.2.2 Phosphorylation of b-catenin tyrosine Y667 is not required for border
cell migration...............................................................................................80
2.2.2.3 Phosphorylation of b-catenin tyrosine Y667 is not required during
oogenesis....................................................................................................81
2.3 Link with the actin cytoskeleton............................................................... 83
2.3.1 DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin fusion ......................................................................... 83
2.3.1.1 Strategy .......................................................................................................83
2.3.1.2 Expression and subcellular localization ......................................................83
2.3.1.3 DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin rescues shg phenotypes in follicular
cells.............................................................................................................85
2.3.1.4 DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin does not rescue shg phenotype in
border cells .................................................................................................87
2.3.1.5 Overexpression of DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin inhibits border cell
migration .....................................................................................................87
2.3.2 DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/a-catenin fusions....................... 90
2.3.2.1 Strategy .......................................................................................................90
2.3.2.2 Expression and subcellular localization ......................................................90
2.3.2.3 DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/a-catenin rescue shg
phenotypes in follicular cells .......................................................................92
2.3.2.4 DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/a-catenin (partially)
rescue shg phenotype in border cells.........................................................93
2.3.2.5 Overexpression of DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin weakly inhibits border
cell migration...............................................................................................94
2.3.3 DE-cadherin-DCyt/CD2/a-catenin ............................................................................. 95
2.3.4 Cadherin/b-catenin fusions....................................................................................... 97
2.3.4.1 Strategy .......................................................................................................97
2.3.4.2 Expression and subcellular localization ......................................................98
2.3.4.3 DE-cadherin/b-catenin fusions do not rescue shg phenotypes...................99
2.3.4.4 Overexpression of DE-cadherin/b-catenin fusions inhibits adhesion in
a dominant-negative manner ....................................................................100
2.4 Endocytosis ............................................................................................. 103

3 DISCUSSION 106
3.1 Subcellular localization of DE-cadherin................................................. 107 5
3.2 Binding to b-catenin is required for DE-cadherin function .................. 109
3.3 Not all functions of DE-cadherin require regulation............................. 109
3.3.1 Tight transcriptional control of DE-cadherin is not required.............................. 109
3.3.2 DE-cadherin regulation does not seem to be required in follicular cells .......... 110
3.4 p120ctn is not essential for DE-cadherin function................................ 110
3.4.1 Interaction with p120ctn is not required for DE-cadherin function during
Drosophila development......................................................................................... 110
3.4.2 p120ctn in vertebrates and invertebrates ............................................................. 111
3.5 Tyrosine phosphorylation may not be essential for DE-cadherin
function......................................................................................................113
3.5.1 DE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation ................................................................. 113
3.5.2 b-catenin tyrosine phosphorylation....................................................................... 114
3.6 Regulation of the link between DE-cadherin and a-catenin is not
essential in follicular and border cells....................................................114
3.7 Why is DE-Cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin blocking border cell migration? 115
3.7.1 May be due to lack of regulation............................................................................ 115
3.7.2 What is the nature of the regulation? .................................................................... 118
3.8 DE-Cadherin/bbbb-catenin fusions behave as dominant negatives.......... 119
3.9 Conclusion ............................................................................................... 121

4 MATERIALS AND METHODS 123
4.1 Cloning ..................................................................................................... 124
4.2 Cell culture, immunoprecipitation and aggregation assays ................ 125
4.3 Drosophila genetics................................................................................. 126
4.3.1 Fly husbandry .......................................................................................................... 126
4.3.2 Generation of shg and arm clones – rescue experiments................................... 126
4.3.3 Rescue of embryonic phenotypes, p120ctn RNAi................................................ 127 6
4.3.4 Overexpression of UAS-transgenes in border cells and follicular cells............ 128
4.3.5 Genetic interactions with components of the endocytic pathway ..................... 129
4.4 Stainings – phenotype analysis.............................................................. 129
4.4.1 X-Gal stainings......................................................................................................... 129
4.4.2 Phalloidin/DAPI stainings ....................................................................................... 130
4.4.3 Immunostainings ..................................................................................................... 130
4.4.4 Cuticle preparations ................................................................................................ 131

PUBLICATION ....................................................................................................... 132
REFERENCES....................................................................................................... 133

7
LIST OF FIGURES



Figure 1.1: Swimming and crawling................................................................................. 25
Figure 1.2: Mechanisms of cell crawling.......................................................................... 26
Figure 1.3: Organization of actin filaments in keratocyte lamellipodia........................ 27
Figure 1.4: Model of actin dynamics in lamellipodia...................................................... 28
Figure 1.5: The cadherin superfamily.............................................................................. 33
Figure 1.6: Structure of the cadherin repeats and calcium binding pocket. ................ 34
Figure 1.7: Classic and desmosomal cadherins and associated proteins. ..................... 36
Figure 1.8: Domain composition of b-catenin, a-catenin and p120ctn. ....................... 42
Figure 1.9: Overview of Drosophila oogenesis................................................................. 52
Figure 1.10: Border cell migration during Drosophila oogenesis.................................... 54
Figure 1.11: Polarity markers in border cell clusters during the migration. ................. 55
Figure 1.12: DE-cadherin expression during border cell migration. .............................. 58

Figure 2.1: DE-cadherin variants. .................................................................................... 63
Figure 2.2: Expression of DE-cadherin variants in the ovary........................................ 65
Figure 2.3: DE-cadherin variants, binding to p120ctn and adhesive activity in S2
cells. ................................................................................................................. 67
Figure 2.4: DE-cadherin-wt, DE-cadherin-AAA and DE-cadherin-DJM but not
DE-cadherin-Db transgenes can rescue shg phenotype during border
cell migration................................................................................................... 69
Figure 2.5: DE-cadherin-wt, DE-cadherin-AAA and DE-cadherin-DJM but not
DE-cadherin-Db transgenes can rescue shg phenotype during oocyte
positioning. ...................................................................................................... 71 8
Figure 2.6: DE-cadherin-wt, DE-cadherin-AAA and DE-cadherin-DJM but not
DE-cadherin-Db transgenes can rescue shg phenotypes in the
follicular epithlium. ........................................................................................ 72
Figure 2.7: DE-cadherin-wt, DE-cadherin-AAA and DE-cadherin-DDDDJM
transgenes can rescue shg phenotypes during embryogenesis. .................. 73
Figure 2.8: Effect of p120ctn-RNAi transgenes............................................................... 74
Figure 2.9: DE-cadherin-4YF............................................................................................ 76
Figure 2.10: DE-cadherin-4YF can rescue shg phenotype during border cell
migration. ........................................................................................................ 77
Figure 2.11: DE-cadherin-4YF can rescue shg phenotype during oocyte positioning. 77
Figure 2.12: DE-cadherin-4YF rescues the lethality due to the absence of zygotic
DE-cadherin. ................................................................................................... 78
Figure 2.13: b-catenin-Y667F.............................................................................................. 79
Figure 2.14: b-catenin-Y667F can rescue arm phenotype during border cell
migration. ........................................................................................................ 80
Figure 2.15: b-catenin-Y667F can rescue arm phenotypes during oogenesis. ............... 82
Figure 2.16: DE-cadherin-Dcyt/a-catenin.......................................................................... 85
Figure 2.17: DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin rescues shg phenotypes in follicular cells. 86
Figure 2.18: DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin does not rescue shg phenotype in
border cells. ..................................................................................................... 87
Figure 2.19: Overexpression of DE-cadherin-DCyt/a-catenin in border cells. .............. 89
Figure 2.20: DE-cadherin-DDbb/aa-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/aa-catenin....................... 91 DDbb aa aa
Figure 2.21: DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/a-catenin rescue
shg phenotypes in follicular cells................................................................... 92
Figure 2.22: DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin and DE-cadherin-FL/a-catenin (partially)
rescue shg phenotype in border cells. ........................................................... 93
Figure 2.23: Overexpression of DE-cadherin-Db/a-catenin in border cells. .................. 95
Figure 2.24: DE-cadherin-DCyt/CD2/a-catenin................................................................ 96
Figure 2.25: DE-cadherin-DCyt/b-catenin and DE-cadherin-Db/b-catenin................... 98