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Nombre de lectures 11
Langue English
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Exrait

TEACHER GUIDANCE
FOR TRANSITION TO THE COMMON CORE
GEORGIA PERFORMANCE STANDARDS


GRADE SIX
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
“Making Education Work for All Georgians” Introduction
The purpose of this document is to provide concise and thorough guidance for teachers during the transition from the Georgia Performance
Standards (GPS) to the new Common Core Georgia Performance Standards (CCGPS). The document is divided into two main sections: CCGPS
Teacher Guidance by standard, and CCGPS/GPS Comparison and Transition. Contained within the CCGPS Teacher Guidance section are the
skills, concepts, vocabulary, and strategies essential to each standard. The CCGPS Comparison and Transition section provides a side-by-side
view of the original and the new standards to assist educators in identifying areas where instruction will remain unchanged and specific areas
where skills or concepts have been added, moved, or where they may no longer exist within a particular grade. The information provided here will
be vital to instructors and other stakeholders during the 2012-2013 implementation of the CCGPS and beyond.


About Grade 6
Students in Grade 6 are transitioning to a toward a more mature perspective on literature and informational text, and consolidating the
fundamental skills mastered in elementary school regarding the need for evidence and support in reading and writing. Students in grade 6 will be
required to cite strong textual evidence for inferences, claims, and analyses and will learn to identify the theme or central idea in a text as well as
develop themes and ideas in their own texts. Students in grade 6 will be expected to grasp nuances of characterization and plot structure beyond
simply identifying their basic elements. Students will be asked to identify specific literary and rhetorical elements that strengthen a text and to
make comparisons of these elements between and among multiple texts. As always within the CCGPS, learning to construct and identify sound
and valid arguments based on evidence will be of primary importance, and students will begin to experiment with more formal citation types and
styles. A focus on audience and purpose, as well as effective organization will be important in all genres of writing. Informational and narrative
writing include grade-appropriate development, style, transitions, language, and the construction of strong conclusions that are not predicated on
reiterating the information from the essay. Students in grade 6 use grade-appropriate technology for a variety of purposes including co-created
academic works and publication. They are learning to evaluate sources - especially digital sources - for validity, accuracy, and credibility. Students
will present their academic works using graphics and multimedia, speaking publically to peers and others to gain confidence in presentation skills,
and exhibiting their command of the conventions of standard English.



Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 2 of 70
All Rights Reserved


Key to Contents

GUIDANCE
A step by step guide to teaching CCGPS, including skills, concepts, and strategies

Standards that did not previously appear in GPS, or are new concepts


Additional material to assist in transitioning to the CCGPS



COMPARISON
A comparison of GPS and CCGPS rigor, texts, terminology, expectations, and tasks

Standards that did not previously appear in GPS, or are new concepts


Standards that previously appeared in GPS but do not appear in CCGPS


Additional material to assist in transitioning to the CCGPS
Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 3 of 70
All Rights Reserved










CCGPS TEACHER GUIDANCE:

Skills, concepts, strategies, tasks,
and recommended vocabulary





Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 4 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL1: Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the

text.

Skills/Concepts for Students:
Practice careful and attentive reading of both assigned texts and independent text choices
Use summary, paraphrase, annotation, and any other useful strategy you have learned to ensure that you are comprehending as you read and that you
have adequate recall of the material covered
Read a wide variety of texts, including a variety of styles, genres, literary periods, authors, perspectives, and subjects
Distinguish important facts and details from extraneous information
Distinguish facts that support your specific claim from facts that are irrelevant
Make a practice of taking notes from texts as you read in order to gather text evidence for claims
Practice reading texts within the prescribed time limit for your grade-level expectations

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL1 (see above)
Model frequent comprehension and recall checks throughout text (stop and question what was just read; paraphrase or summarize)
Provide foundational instruction on the literary and rhetorical terms students will need as they move into more sophisticated forms of analysis in their
essays
Require students to take effective notes, both within the classroom and when reading on their own, and allow them to use these notes in assessments on
occasion in order to support their engagement in the process
Assign reading at a level of rigor (including complexity and length) so that students continue to develop text endurance
Help students differentiate between strong and relevant evidence and weak or irrelevant information
Examine genre characteristics

Sample Task for Integration:
Standard RL1 goes beyond previous reading standards for comprehension in that it requires students to provide evidence from the text to support all claims and
inferences made in the analysis of a text. In grade 6, students may need scaffolding not only in gleaning the best, most relevant evidence for a claim, but also in
understanding what sorts of claims and inferences they might be making in textual analysis. For example, an inexperienced student might make the claim “This is
a good book, “ a vague and meaningless claim from a literary standpoint compared to something like, “Cisneros uses colorful Latino words and phrases along with
sensory details about the food, art, and architecture of her childhood home to create a culturally relevant setting.” Using a text under consideration by the class,
have students construct a claim about that text. Share and refine the claims and inferences through several rounds of discussion, providing avenues of focus (for
example, “Is it Poe’s choice of words with similar sounds that reminds you of the wind?” or “Did you notice how L’Engle repeated that phrase several times in the
passage? Why do you think she’d do that?). Creating a claim or inference that is worth exploring is the first step to an effective search for evidence!

Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Imagery Genre Sensory Detail Characterization Explicit
Characterization Setting Plot Inferred Evidence
Citation Analysis Annotation Tone Figurative Language

Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 5 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a

summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

Skills/Concepts for Students:
Understand that themes are usually universal concepts such as love, friendship, loss, etc.
Make predictions about developing themes within your class notes, citing evidence that influences your evolving opinion
Pay attention to details; authors can hide clues in many places! Does it rain often in this story? Why? Does the protagonist continually lose things? Why?
Was there a mirror in every room in a scene? Why? It can be fun to try and guess what it is the author is trying to hint at!
Consider literary elements such as narrative voice, organization, or word choice as well as explicit facts when determining the theme of a story (for
example, first person narration might be a clue that the theme will be about identity or self-discovery)
Practice summarizing a text using facts only, without relating your opinion about the text (this is harder than you might think!)

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL2 (see above)
To facilitate a discussion of theme, ask students to identify what kind of person the protagonist was at the story’s beginning, how he or she was
significantly different at the end, and what crisis in the narrative precipitated the change
Discuss the development of theme at consistent intervals throughout the exploration of a text; question students about themes that they see developing
and what evidence they can provide to support their claim
Compare and contrast themes from different places, times, and genres (for example, what themes do students consistently identify in stories with younger
protagonists as opposed to older protagonists? How are stories from the American West or Victorian England consistently similar?)
Allow students to examine individual elements as they contribute to theme (for example, characterization) as well as how the theme is developed as a
whole
Require students to summarize without bias frequently; note when opinion begins to creep into the summary and use student models to discuss

Sample Task for Integration:
An interesting activity to conduct early in the year is to list and discuss texts with which the students are already familiar, including texts they have read in school,
on their own, or seen performed on stage or in a movie. This brainstorming activity usually starts out slowly and picks up steam as students cue and remind one
another of various stories. Once a significant list has been compiled on a Smartboard or chart paper, have students in pairs or groups list plot, setting, main
character(s), and crisis/climax for each text. Sort the results by areas of similarity (several different variations may be possible, for example stories that feature
main characters who are pre-teens or teens, or stories that occur in an imagined world as opposed to the real world, or stories that feature girls more prominently
than boys or vice versa, stories that are sad as opposed to happy, etc.) After several iterations, the class can identify 3-5 stories that are similar in several ways.
Guide the class in a discussion in the similarities in theme among stories with similar details. Students will ultimately be able to see the ways in which universal
themes are developed.

Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Characterization Plot Structure Tone Mood Setting
Diction Organizational Structure Rising Action Climax Falling Action
Resolution Biased/Unbiased Objective Subjective Crisis
Protagonist Theme Universal

Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 6 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL3: Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters

respond or change as the plot moves towards a resolution.

Skills/Concepts for Students:
Identify and understand the elements of plot: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution
Examine plot structure understanding the way in which conflict drives the action in a story and how certain events and developments lead to
others
Think carefully about all of the choices the author makes: where the story happens, whether it happens quickly or slowly, in one day or over many
years, in a funny way or a frightening way; what is the author trying to make you think or feel?
Identify and understand the elements of characterization (a character’s thoughts, words, actions, appearance, experiences, etc.)
Determine which characters are the most important and most fully “realized” (written to seem like real people and not just place holders)
Understand the concept of narrative voice (first, second, or third person/omniscience, subjectivity, etc.)

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL3 (see above) specifically
including plot, character, setting, and language
Provide texts illustrating a number of narrative structures (a variety of plot strategies such as frame narrative, flashback, foreshadowing) and
voices
Allow students to explore the ways in which we are “characterized” in life, by our actions, appearance, habits, etc., comparing this to the ways in
which characters are developed by authors
Pay close attention to characters that change over time, drawing attention to those changes and relating them to theme (the nature of significant
changes to the protagonist’s feelings, circumstances, or beliefs through crisis usually will define the theme of a text)
Provide graphic illustrations of the plot structure within texts under consideration in the classroom
Point out the ways in which conflict drives plot action (if there are no problems or obstacles, you usually don’t have much of a story!)

Sample Task for Integration:
Challenge the students to identify a text wherein the protagonist does not undergo any significant emotional or situational change from the beginning of a
novel to the end. Provide guiding examples (is Harry Potter the same boy after he enters Hogwarts as he was when he lived in fear under the Dursley’s
stairs? Is Huck Finn the same boy after rafting down the river with Jim? Is Dorothy the same girl when she returns to Kansas as when she left it?).
Students will probably not be able to identify any significant literary character who does not undergo a meaningful change. Allow students to discuss the
ways in which these characters changed and the events that forced or allowed them to change. Identify similarities and differences in the ways that
famous characters reacted to change.

Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Plot Structure Characterization Dialogue Exposition Rising Action
Climax Falling Action Resolution Static Character Dynamic Character
Antagonist Protagonist Dialogue Conflict Episode
First Person Narrative Third Person Narrative Omniscient Setting

Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 7 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative

meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone.

Skills/Concepts for Students:
Evaluate the effect of sound in poetry and in narrative, especially with regard to how sound itself can contribute to meaning, tone, or mood (for
example “the brilliance twinkled, winking and sparkling in the velvet evening” feels quite different from “the mysterious flame glared and glowered
in the night”)
Identify and know how to use the major types of figurative language (for grade 6: metaphor, simile, hyperbole, and personification)
Identify and ke sound devices (for grade 7: alliteration, onomatopoeia)
Review and understand the basics of poetic structure and language appropriate to grade 6 (ballad, free-verse, etc.)

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL4 (see above)
Use poetry in addition to extended and shorter texts to provide instruction on figurative and connotative language and sound devices
Explore the concepts of denotation and connotation thoroughly, requiring students to identify connotations frequently (often students may seem to
understand the concept of connotation, but cannot provide appropriate examples when asked)
Explore the deep connection between connotative meaning and figurative language (we do not say “quiet as a rock” even though rocks are very
quiet! It is because mice can move around and accomplish a great deal in total silence that we say “quiet as a mouse”)
Take advantage of teachable moments to include concepts such as rhythm, rhyme, and rhyme scheme

Sample Task for Integration:
Allowing students to work in pairs, have them use figurative and connotatively rich language to change the meaning and tone of responses to a prompt.
For example: “I love turkey, stuffing, and pumpkin pie.” Now rewrite to show that you REALLY LOVE it: “I adore the delicious taste of a crisp turkey
drumstick with my grandma’s crumbly pecan stuffing and pie that tastes like a cinnamon cloud!” or to show that you don’t actually like it: “I like turkey
about as much as I like old socks for dinner and pumpkin pie reminds me of old Jello you get in the hospital when you’ve had your tonsils out!” Have the
students explore more and more nuanced changes to their responses and have other teams attempt to discern what their underlying meaning was (for
example, “Turkey and stuffing is a great meal once a year” seems to indicate that more than once a year might be too much, while “A good turkey dinner
is better than a snow day!” indicates a true love of the meal. Have students experiment with making their response clear without explicitly stating their
position.

Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Diction Metaphor Simile Personification Alliteration
Verse Stanza Hyperbole Onomatopoeia Symbol
Imagery Analogy Literal Figurative Concrete
Rhythm Rhyme Rhyme scheme Lyric Poem* Narrative Poem*
* Lyric poetry expresses feelings and emotions. Forms include the sonnet and the ode.
* Narrative poetry tells a story. Forms include the ballad and the epic
Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 8 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL5: Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and

contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.

Skills/Concepts for Students:
Acquire knowledge of the component parts of various kinds of texts (scene, act, chapter, stanza, line, etc.)
Acquire knowledge of poetic structures appropriate to grade 6 (including examples of both lyric and narrative poetry)
Identify and evaluate common organizational structures ( (e.g., logical order, cause and effect relationships, comparison and contrast, order of
importance)
Understand voice/point of view, author’s purpose, genre expectations, audience, length, and format requirements of various kinds of text
Take advantage of opportunities to see live dramatic performances
Read and write poetry for enjoyment
Analyze and evaluate the impact of poetic forms on the impact and meaning of a poems, reading a variety of poems from the simple, humorous, or
unrhymed to strict metrical forms such as sonnets

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL5 (see above)
Guide students in deconstructing texts into their component parts, whether through “reverse” graphic organizers, or by identifying the steps in a process
or events leading up to a crisis in a story
Require students to perform pieces of dramatic literature
Model reading interesting, relevant, or surprising poetry aloud, with appropriate pacing, tone, and inflection to engage the audience; have students
practice reading poetry aloud
Use Poet.Org (http://www.poets.org/) to allow students to explore multiple genres, literary periods, and subject matter in poetry, including hearing audio
recordings of poets reading their own work
Provide explicit instruction on the forms of lyric and narrative poetry appropriate to grade 6, as well as basic elements of rhythm, rhyme (both internal and
end), and rhyme scheme

Sample Task for Integration:
To facilitate student understanding of the development of a plot and the component parts of a text, have students purposefully examine the broad outlines of a
story through a graphic representation. In pairs, have students each write chapter summaries from a book they have read that their partner has not read
(alternatively, students can use chapter summaries from a site such as SparkNotes). Place the chapter summaries on note cards, then remove one or two key
chapters. Partners will attempt to piece together the narratives by placing the cards in order. Students should notice and discuss how difficult or easy they find this
task to be and why. What events or clues within a given chapter help the student to guess which event comes next? Are there chronological clues such as
seasons or birthdays? Is there physical or emotional growth? Are there changes in location or attitude? Students should try the exercise with one or two cards
missing and with all the cards there and notice how certain events are key to understanding the development of the plot. At the end of the exercise students will
write a brief analysis of the ways in which the plot was structured and the methods the author used to develop the story.

Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Act Scene Chapter Stanza Climax/Crisis
Rhyme Scheme Internal Rhyme End Rhyme Rhythm Shift
Arc Theme Setting Plot Characterization

Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 9 of 70
All Rights Reserved
Grade 6 CCGPS
Reading Literary (RL)
ELACC6RL6: Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text.


Skills/Concepts for Students:
Distinguish author from protagonist or narrator
Consider the biases and perspectives of an author when analyzing a text; research these when necessary
Acquire or review foundational knowledge of characterization and character traits
Acquire or review knowledge of narrative voice and structure (first person, third person, tense, omniscience, etc.), and be able to
distinguish what is meant by “point of view” as it relates to narrative voice and as it relates to an opinion or bias
Understand that conflict is a driver of plot action; characters (along with events, settings, and other elements) experience conflicts that
propel a story (for example characters love or hate one another, experience an obstacle or hindrance, are torn apart by circumstance, etc.)

Strategies for Teachers:
Provide explicit instruction and scaffolding as necessary for the skills and concepts students should acquire for RL6 (see above)
Provide example texts that have different narrative styles (first person, third person, omniscient, limited omniscient, overt narrator, etc.)
Trace the development of plot and character using visual timelines with evidence cited
Have students attempt to identify the point of view of various well-known characters and examine the evidence that leads them to believe
that a given point of view can be assigned to a character (for example, how would students judge Brian’s point of view about his parents in
Hatchet? What words, actions, or thoughts belie this point of view?)

Sample Task for Integration:
In order to illustrate how one’s actions, thoughts, and words make one’s point of view clear to others, have students read a variety of articles that
you know to have a bias. Visual texts (film clips or televised interviews) should be included. After reading or viewing a text, have students attempt
to identify the point of view of the speaker (try to include texts with subtle biases as well as some with overt biases). Students will create a chart
that lists each point within the text that gave the reader or viewer a clue as to the author’s bias. Students will write a brief analysis explaining the
cumulative effect of the various details that made the speaker’s point of view obvious.


Recommended Vocabulary for Teaching and Learning:
Author Narrator Bias Perspective Point of View







Georgia Department of Education
D R A F T
Dr. John D. Barge, State School Superintendent
December 2011 Page 10 of 70
All Rights Reserved

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