Spectroscopy of III-V Semiconductor Nanomaterials

Spectroscopy of III-V Semiconductor Nanomaterials

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  • dissertation
Spectroscopic Characterization of III-V Semiconductor Nanomaterials by Shanna Marie Crankshaw B.S. (Rice University) 2003 A dissertation submitted in partial satisfaction of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Applied Science & Technology And the Designated Emphasis in Nanoscale Science and Engineering in the Graduate Division of the University of California, Berkeley Committee in Charge: Professor Constance J. Chang-Hasnain, Chair Professor Peidong Yang Professor Steven Leone Fall 2009
  • wurtzite structure
  • exhibited properties
  • 5.6 spin
  • integrated micro-photoluminescence
  • shg polarization dependences
  • semiconductor nanomaterials
  • analogous manner as the traditional silicon logic industry
  • connection between the crystalline structure
  • gaas
  • polarization

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The Discovery of Freedom
Or, the ethical, prosperous society
Sanjeev Sabhlok (political philosopher and practitioner of public policy)

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progress of this manuscript
Breaking Free of Nehru Freedom Team of India

DRAFT FOR PUBLIC COMMENT
This draft manuscript has been up for public comment on the internet since mid-2008. I’ll be
grateful for your comments on this draft at sabhlok AT yahoo DOT com. Comments that
end up influencing the content of this book will be acknowledged.

Mosts artists don’t mind others observing from behind as they work on their paintings. Observers
therefore get to see how a blank canvas evolves into a beautiful work of art. Not so with writing.
For some reason, writers are reluctant to share their drafts, preferring to offer the finished
product, or something close to the finished product. But I’m happy for let you observe my work as
it evolves, warts and all. Although I know I’ll never be happy with this book, I must wind it up,
hopefully by end-2012.

I used a similar approach with Breaking Free of Nehru (Anthem Press, December 2008) and was
pleasantly surprised by the quality of feedback I received. I made good friends in the process. I
have been pleasantly surprised with the quality of feedback I’ve received on this draft so far, and
would like to thank the correspondents.

I seek comments mainly on content and accuracy. Many typos still litter this draft. Some
language shortcomings have been exacerbated by speech recognition software which I use
because of my severe typing injuries, or RSI.

There is no guarantee that anyone will publish this manuscript. But given that publishers don’t
like publishing books which are available freely, in full, on the internet, I’ll have to restrict
public disclosure over the course of the coming year, as it nears completion.

Please do not cite from this manuscript, since it is work in progress. My views at the
moment are tentative excursions. Only the published version will contain my final views (to the
extent that any liberal’s views can ever be final.)

Please delete this draft after reading! [join me at sabhlokcity.com]


1

© Sanjeev Sabhlok, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
All rights reserved.




































Version 0.292 dated 12 March 2012 – available on the internet at
http://discovery.sanjeev.sabhlokcity.com/.

Version record: http://sanjeev.sabhlokcity.com/book2/version.html (version record not updated for months, if not years!)
2Dedication

This book is dedicated to:
your success;
your family’s success;
your country’s success; and
the success of everyone on Earth.

Dedicated most importantly,
to your freedom to think and to be.
3
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FRONTISPIECE: FREEDOM IS BOUNDED BY ACCOUNTABILITY ............... 9
PREFACE............................................................................................... 10
INTRODUCTION.................................................................................... 19
PART 1 A THEORY OF FREEDOM............................................................ 23
CHAPTER 1 KNOW THYSELF.................................................................. 24
1. Stardust .................................................................................................................. 25
2. Our ‘racial’, tribal, and national identities ............................................................... 29
2.1 ‘Race’ ................................................................................................................. 29
2.2 Languages, religions, and cultures .......................................................................... 30
2.3 Tribes and nations................................................................................................ 31
3. How our brain affects our behaviour ....................................................................... 33
3.1 The lower brain: our body manager ........................................................................ 34
3.2 The middle brain: our motive force ......................................................................... 34
3.3 Our rational and aspirational higher brain ................................................................ 35
3.4 The mind and consciousness.................................................................................. 36
4. Which part of our brain predominates? ................................................................... 36
5. Human nature ......................................................................................................... 39
5.1 Individual and group nature................................................................................... 40
5.2 Our underlying needs, motivations, and intent.......................................................... 40
5.3 Range of behaviours ............................................................................................. 42
5.4 Regularities 43
6. The initial condition: State of nature ....................................................................... 48
6.1 Deductions from human nature .............................................................................. 48
6.2 Evidence from primitive tribes and breakdown of order.............................................. 50
7. Two approaches to political society......................................................................... 50
7.1 Collectivism......................................................................................................... 51
7.2 Individualism, or liberalism.................................................................................... 52
8. Imagining the future ............................................................................................... 54
CHAPTER 2 THE MEANINGS OF FREEDOM............................................. 59
1. The dictionary meanings of freedom ....................................................................... 59
2. Further exploration of freedom ............................................................................... 62
2.1 Inner vs. outer freedom ........................................................................................ 62
2.2 Negative and positive liberty.................................................................................. 63
2.2.1 Negative liberty as the absence of unnecessary constraints .................................. 63
2.2.1 Self-determination and self-realisation (positive liberty)....................................... 65
43. A definition of freedom............................................................................................ 66
4. The challenge of ensuring a free society.................................................................. 69
CHAPTER 3 TWO MODERN THEORIES OF JUSTICE (FREEDOM) ............. 71
1. Overview of the theories of freedom ....................................................................... 71
2. Two major theories of freedom and justice ............................................................. 74
2.1 Rawls’s conception of ‘social’ justice ........................................................................75
2.2 Nozick’s extrapolations from self-ownership..............................................................84
3. Where does this lead us?......................................................................................... 89
CHAPTER 4 A THEORY OF FREEDOM .................................................... 91
Proposition 1. Life is the yardstick of ultimate value ................................................... 93
Conditions for taking human life...................................................................................96
Proposition 2. We are born free, and must remain free ............................................... 98
Equal freedom ...........................................................................................................99
Not free to injure ourselves ....................................................................................... 101
Proposition 3. Freedom comes with matching accountability .................................... 106
The loop of accountability.......................................................................................... 108
Accountability (attribution) as the basis of property rights.............................................. 110 tability for one’s responsibilities........................................................................ 111
The processes and principles of accountability.............................................................. 113
Illustrations of accountability ..................................................................................... 118
Proposition 4. To defend our life and liberty we first need a collective fortress......... 120
Our primary obligation – towards group self-defence..................................................... 121
Relations with other nations ...................................................................................... 121
Proposition 5. Within the fortress operates the modern (strategic) social contract... 122
Reasonable equal opportunity and the social minimum .................................................. 128
Related issues ........................................................................................................... 136
Utilitarianism, neo-classical economics, and liberty ....................................................... 136
The happy slave? ..................................................................................................... 138
The institutions (pillars) of freedom.......................................................................... 139
PART 2 THE ‘PERSONAL’ PILLARS OF FREEDOM ................................. 142
CHAPTER 5 INDEPENDENT THINKING ............................................... 143
1. The value of oppositional thinking......................................................................... 144
1.1 Oppositional thinking in India – Charvaka, Buddha .................................................. 145
1.2 Oppositional (dialectical) thinking – Socrates.......................................................... 151
1.3 Systematic doubt – Peter Abelard 152
1.4 Opposing authority – Reformation 155
2. Not taking oneself too seriously ............................................................................ 158
CHAPTER 6 CRITICAL THINKING................................................................ 160
51. The liberating torch of logic and science ............................................................... 160
1.1 The dialectical method .........................................................................................161
1.2 Deductive method ...............................................................................................162
1.3 Scientific method ................................................................................................162
2. Critical thinking..................................................................................................... 166
CHAPTER 7 ASPIRATION FOR A MORAL LIFE.......................................169
1. The basis of morality ............................................................................................. 169
1.1 Strategic incentives170
1.2 The role of punishment ........................................................................................172
1.3 The promotion of crime by government ..................................................................173
2. Religion has little to do with morality.................................................................... 174
3. Self-realisation...................................................................................................... 176
4. Happiness.............................................................................................................. 177
PART 3 THE POLITICAL AND MARKET PILLARS OF FREEDOM............................179
CHAPTER 8 THE PILLAR OF TOLERANCE......................................................180
1. The theory of tolerance ......................................................................................... 180
2. The limits of ........................................................................................... 181
3. Tolerance among religions .................................................................................... 183
3.1 Tolerance (and intolerance) in Christianity ..............................................................184
3.2 Tole intolen Islam ......................................................................188
3.3 Tole intolerance) in Hinduism .................................................................190
4. Conclusion............................................................................................................. 198
CHAPTER 9 THE PILLAR OF LIMITED POWERS...............................................200
1. The proper status and role of government ............................................................ 200
1.1 The social contract and strong state.......................................................................200
1.2 The first order functions of the state203
1.3 Limiting other roles .............................................................................................203
2. Reforming bad rulers 205
2.1 Flattery and petitions...........................................................................................205
2.2 Pontificating .......................................................................................................205
2.2.1 Religious preaching .......................................................................................205
2.2.2 Strategic political counsel ...............................................................................208
3. The advance of popular sovereignty...................................................................... 209
4. Options against tyranny ........................................................................................ 212
4.1 Civil disobedience................................................................................................212
4.2 Violent revolution213
4.3 Exit ...................................................................................................................213
CHAPTER 10 THE PILLAR OF DEMOCRACY ..........................................214
61. Precursors of modern democracy .......................................................................... 215
1.1 Greek city states (and the Roman republic) ............................................................ 215
1.2 Indian republics and panchayats........................................................................... 216
2. The evolution of modern democracy...................................................................... 218
2.1 The growing power of early British parliaments (1265-1688) .................................... 218
2.2 The Glorious Revolution of 1688 220
2.3 The American Declaration of Independence, 1776 ................................................... 221
2.4 The right to vote ................................................................................................ 222
3. Citizen-leadership in democracy............................................................................ 223
3.1 Citizen assertion, and vigilance............................................................................. 223
3.2 Leading the society: forming government............................................................... 223
CHAPTER 11 THE PILLAR OF THE RULE OF LAW................................. 225
1. Laws must clarify expectations.............................................................................. 225
2. The same rules for all ............................................................................................ 226
3. The right to be produced before a court................................................................. 227
4. Separation of law-making and adjudication........................................................... 227
CHAPTER 12 THE PILLAR OF PROPERTY RIGHTS ............................... 228
1. National territorial rights (the Fortress)................................................................ 228
1.2 The curse of jingoism .......................................................................................... 229
2. Individual property rights...................................................................................... 230
2.1 Theories about citizens’ rights in property .............................................................. 233
CHAPTER 13 THE PILLAR OF EQUAL TREATMENT............................... 238
1. Equal individual sovereignty.................................................................................. 238
1.1 Sovereignty over our body: No slavery! ................................................................. 238
1.2 I’m not your ‘population problem’! ........................................................................ 241
1.3 No foreign aid, please! Teach us if you can............................................................. 244
2. The end of racism .................................................................................................. 246
3. Equal freedom for women...................................................................................... 250
4. Ending stereotypes ................................................................................................ 251
5. A social minimum for all ........................................................................................ 251
CHAPTER 14 THE (MANY) OTHER PILLARS OF FREEDOM ................... 253
1. Freedom of expression .......................................................................................... 253
2. Free markets, free banking and public finance ...................................................... 255
2.1 Free markets ..................................................................................................... 255
2.2 Free trade ......................................................................................................... 256
2.3 Free labour markets............................................................................................ 260
2.4 Free banking...................................................................................................... 263
2.5 Paying for the social contract: public finance .......................................................... 266
7PART 4 WHAT LIES AHEAD .................................................................270
CHAPTER 15 MODERN SOCIETIES EMERGE INTO FREEDOM................271
1. ‘Sovereignty’ of nations: The end of imperialism................................................... 271
2. Shunning utopias like the plague! ......................................................................... 271
3. Where to, now? ..................................................................................................... 273
1 APPENDIX 1...................................................................................275

8
Frontispiece: Freedom is bounded by accountability


Freedom
(to act)
Accountability
(including attribution*)

*A free person is always accountable for his or her actions (or inaction).

‘The essence of liberty has always lain in the ability to choose as you wish to choose, because you
wish so to choose, uncoerced, unbullied, not swallowed up in some vast system; and the right to
resist, to be unpopular, to stand up for your convictions merely because they are your
convictions. That is true freedom, and without it there is neither freedom of any kind, nor even
1the illusion of it.’ – Isaiah Berlin, in Freedom and Its Betrayal

‘Liberty in thought and action is the only condition of life, growth and well-being: Where it does
2not exist, the man, the race, and the nation must go down.’ – Vivekananda



1 Berlin, Isaiah, Freedom and its Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty, London: Pimlico, Random House, 2003,
p.103.
2 Cited in Modern India. 1986.NCERT. p. 218.
9Preface


‘The inherent vice of capitalism is the unequal sharing of the blessings. The inherent
blessing of socialism is the equal sharing of misery.’ – Winston Churchill


Imagine that each letter in this book represents one person – with dreams, emotions,
feelings. By now over 100 ‘people’ have been ‘created’ by these first few words. Now add up all
characters in this book (about one million). You now ‘own’ these one million people’s lives.
Imagine, next, that you purchase 200 copies of this book. Now burn them! ‘Kill’ off these 200
million ‘people’. Then buy another 600 copies and damage them: pour water, throw them into a
drain. Injure these additional 600 million ‘people’!
This bout of extraordinary violence against 800 books might sound crazy enough, but the
actual killings of 200 million people in the twentieth century, with another 600 million others
harmed, is real. Just imagining these numbers is virtually impossible.
Most of these killings or other forms of harm were undertaken by governments driven by
collectivist ideologies that oppose human freedom. God did not come forward to save them. Only
freedom could have saved them but that’s precisely what did not have.
Freedom doesn’t sound like a big thing to us, brought up as we are in relatively liberty. But
it actually matters more than anything else, save our life. But, you object: surely money matters
more! Well, in that case why don’t I lock you inside a bank safe with one trillion dollars and
switch off the lights? Happy now?
The difference between money and freedom is that freedom must necessarily form an
intrinsic part of our lives – like oxygen. Freedom should be omni-present, without fuss, an
automatic authorisation to exist, an intrinsic part of each breath we breathe. Money, on the
other hand, is only a means. The rich man thinks that he needs a bed to sleep, but when he is
really sleepy he can readily sleep on the ground. The bed, clothes, house, are all optional. Life
and liberty, on the other hand, are priceless.
That we don’t think much (and deeply) about freedom is a mistake that can potentially cost
us our life. There is immense, unique and universal power in freedom – the power to do
whatever one wants to do, unhindered. This power exceeds the mystery and attraction of
romantic love, the beauty of the sunset, and the urgent necessity of air, water and food. Freedom
is the stuff that lets us be (and become) who we are. It must pervade unimpeded; it must
accompany us everywhere.
This is not a book but a political pamphlet – just like my earlier book, Breaking Free of
Nehru (BFN). It basically asks each of us to stop interfering in other’s lives, so that we can all
live happily ever after.
1But interference is pervasive. Isaiah Berlin asked: ‘Why should anyone obey anyone else?’
You and I ‘obey’ someone else at least at some point during our day. If nothing else, we obey the
2traffic lights or traffic policeman. But why should we? Who stops us from driving wherever we
like? Who has made traffic rules? Does it make a difference if we follow rules? (or instance, does
this have anything to do with how rich or poor a society is?) These and related matters are
addressed in this book.
Let me begin by taking you to the deep end and invite you to browse through my definition
of freedom, below. It is not very elegant, but it is the best I could do. I invite you not to read it in

1 Berlin, Isaiah, Freedom and its Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty, London: Pimlico, Random House, 2003, p.1.
The essays were delivered initially as lectures in 1952 on the BBC.
2
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