Democracy as a Tragic Regime

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  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : about the state of exception
  • cours magistral
  • exposé
  • expression écrite - matière potentielle : on biopolitics
1 Democracy as a Tragic Regime Nathalie Karagiannis Lecture prepared for delivery at the University of Michigan This is not the full text of the lecture and references are missing. Please do not quote without contacting the author at: Greek tragedy makes the undecidable bearable Steiner, Antigones I. Enigma of democracy Democracy stubbornly resists the huge amounts of literature that are written about it – it remains an enigma.
  • permanent ‘state of exception
  • state of exception
  • permanent self-cancellation
  • tragic regime
  • linear continuation with the democratic phenomenon
  • tragedy
  • situations
  • democracy
  • law
  • political life

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Latin American Modal Split in
International Transport – Year 2008

Colombia

Ricardo J. Sánchez
Gordon Wilmsmeier
Oscar Medina
Marc HesseUNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 1
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS BY REGION OR COUNTRY OF DEPARTURE
VolumeValue (FOB)
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
Africa 115,790,536 0.33% 157,446 0.80%
Argentina 801,366,565 2.27% 1,382,999 7.06%
Asia/Pacific 6,744,523,415 19.12% 2,392,895 12.21%
Bolivia 27,183,897 0.08% 43,065 0.22%
Brazil 2,220,465,070 6.29% 1,191,072 6.08%
Chile 793,668,123 2.25% 622,344 3.18%
Ecuador 807,744,525 2.29% 571,748 2.92%
Europe 5,749,758,733 16.30% 1,584,901 8.09%
Mexico 2,809,942,168 7.97% 946,921 4.83%
North America 11,509,607,439 32.63% 8,056,654 41.11%
Not classified 732,474,969 2.08% 165,878 0.85%
Other LAC 1,031,192,147 2.92% 852,989 4.35%
Paraguay 3,054,749 0.01% 1,383 0.01%
Peru 769,024,527 2.18% 519,391 2.65%
Uruguay 65,666,562 0.19% 11,388 0.06%
Venezuela 1,095,118,150 3.10% 1,094,776 5.59%
Total 35,276,581,575 100% 19,595,849 100%
Figure 1
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS BY REGION OF DEPARTURE
VALUE (FOB, current USD) VOLUME (Metric Tons)
LAC
30%
LAC
38%
Other
Regions
Other 62%
Regions
70%
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 1UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 2
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS BY REGION OR COUNTRY OF DESTINATION
Value (FOB) Volume
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
Africa 47,769,931 0.23% 23,944 0.24%
Argentina 81,625,523 0.40% 35,261 0.36%
Asia/Pacific 1,147,941,990 5.65% 305,568 3.11%
Bolivia 101,759,308 0.50% 50,990 0.52%
Brazil 376,872,951 1.85% 177,417 1.81%
Chile 326,997,949 1.61% 276,795 2.82%
Ecuador 1,440,251,705 7.08% 698,375 7.11%
Europe 3,380,360,200 16.63% 2,040,322 20.78%
Mexico 484,607,563 2.38% 130,477 1.33%
North America 4,225,243,891 20.78% 2,360,797 24.04%
Not classified 543,237,393 2.67% 208,201 2.12%
Other LAC 1,480,697,644 7.28% 1,410,002 14.36%
Paraguay 6,027,995 0.03% 1,498 0.02%
Peru 726,776,658 3.57% 445,490 4.54%
Uruguay 18,814,690 0.09% 9,657 0.10%
Venezuela 5,941,906,700 29.23% 1,644,943 16.75%
Total 20,330,892,091 100% 9,819,735 100%
Figure 2
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS BY REGION OF DESTINATION
VALUE (FOB, current USD) VOLUME (Metric Tons)
Other
Regions LAC
Other 46% 50%
RegionsLAC
50%54%
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 2UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 3
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS
SITC ONE-DIGIT COMMODITY GROUP FROM OUTSIDE LAC
Value (FOB) Volume
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 1,712,995,105 6.90% 4,960,447 40.16%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 60,736,432 0.24% 21,672 0.18%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 463,671,114 1.87% 800,596 6.48%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 127,219,564 0.51% 99,708 0.81%
SITC 5: Chemical products 5,090,707,828 20.49% 3,343,312 27.07%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 3,469,619,704 13.97% 2,030,736 16.44%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 11,684,317,318 47.03% 894,704 7.24%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 2,234,098,835 8.99% 200,164 1.62%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 28,081 0.00% 1 0.00%
Total 24,843,393,981 100% 12,351,340 100%
Figure 3
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS BY COMMODITY GROUP FROM OUTSIDE LAC
VOLUMEVALUE (FOB)
Not Classified (SITCNot Classified (SITC
100% 100% 9) and Not Declared9) and Not Declared
90%
80% 80%
Manufactured Goods Manufactured70%
(SITC 5 to 8 - 68) Goods (SITC 5 to 8 -60% 60%
68)50%
40% All Food Items (SITC 40% All Food Items (SITC
30% 0 + 1 + 22 + 4) 0 + 1 + 22 + 4)
20% 20%
10%
Agricultural & Raw
0% Agricultural & RawMaterials (SITC 2 - 0%
Colombia Materials (SITC 2 -Colombia(22,27,28))
(22,27,28))
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 3UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 4
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS
SITC ONE-DIGIT COMMODITY GROUP BOUND FOR OUTSIDE LAC
VolumeValue (FOB)
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 3,213,790,861 34.40% 2,670,175 54.08%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 34,635,516 0.37% 17,386 0.35%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 1,526,720,567 16.34% 350,772 7.10%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 249,332,290 2.67% 238,697 4.83%
SITC 5: Chemical products 559,543,815 5.99% 251,216 5.09%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 1,753,230,088 18.77% 1,311,957 26.57%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 418,462,480 4.48% 32,888 0.67%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 560,616,889 6.00% 64,059 1.30%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 1,025,127,469 10.97% 50 0.00%
Total 9,341,459,975 100% 4,937,200 100%
Figure 4
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS BY COMMODITY GROUP BOUND FOR OUTSIDE LAC
VALUE (FOB) VOLUME
Not Classified (SITCNot Classified (SITC
100% 100% 9) and Not Declared9) and Not Declared
90%
80% 80%
Manufactured GoodsManufactured Goods
70% (SITC 5 to 8 - 68)(SITC 5 to 8 - 68)
60% 60%
50%
All Food Items (SITC 040% All Food Items (SITC 0 40%
+ 1 + 22 + 4)+ 1 + 22 + 4)30%
20% 20%
10% Agricultural & Raw Agricultural & Raw
0% Materials (SITC 2 - 0% Materials (SITC 2 -
Colombia (22,27,28)) Colombia (22,27,28))
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 4UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 5
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS
SITC ONE-DIGIT COMMODITY GROUP FROM LAC
Value (FOB) Volume
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 1,170,643,246 11.02% 2,469,817 32.22%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 61,816,599 0.58% 31,953 0.42%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 345,797,905 3.26% 1,355,325 17.68%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 252,005,606 2.37% 194,353 2.54%
SITC 5: Chemical products 1,850,748,427 17.42% 1,066,180 13.91%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 2,772,738,807 26.10% 1,999,877 26.09%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 3,494,200,613 32.89% 420,967 5.49%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 668,730,920 6.30% 126,939 1.66%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 6,035,039 0.06% 0 0.00%
Total 10,622,717,162 100% 7,665,412 100%
Figure 5
Colombia: INCOMING FLOWS BY COMMODITY GROUP FROM LAC
VALUE (FOB) VOLUME
Not Classified (SITC Not Classified (SITC
9) and Not Declared100% 100% 9) and Not Declared
90% 90%
80% 80%Manufactured Manufactured Goods70% 70%Goods (SITC 5 to 8 - (SITC 5 to 8 - 68)60% 68) 60%
50% 50%
All Food Items (SITC40% All Food Items (SITC40%
0 + 1 + 22 + 4)30% 0 + 1 + 22 + 4)30%
20%
20%
10%
Agricultural & Raw 10% Agricultural & Raw0% Materials (SITC 2 - 0% Materials (SITC 2 -Colombia
(22,27,28)) Colombia (22,27,28))
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 5UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 6
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS
SITC ONE-DIGIT COMMODITY GROUP BOUND FOR INSIDE LAC
Value (FOB) Volume
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 1,706,971,417 15.54% 1,037,364 21.26%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 59,854,499 0.54% 62,892 1.29%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 356,917,599 3.25% 387,244 7.94%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 134,366,507 1.22% 99,307 2.04%
SITC 5: Chemical products 2,392,616,804 21.78% 1,072,827 21.99%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 2,896,494,883 26.37% 1,860,978 38.14%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 1,465,711,641 13.34% 192,325 3.94%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 1,968,738,160 17.92% 166,734 3.42%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 2,179,264 0.02% 1 0.00%
Total 10,983,850,774 100% 4,879,672 100%
Figure 6
Colombia: OUTGOING FLOWS BY COMMODITY GROUP BOUND FOR INSIDE LAC
VALUE (FOB) VOLUME
Not Classified (SITC Not Classified (SITC
100% 100%9) and Not Declared 9) and Not Declared
90% 90%
80% 80%
Manufactured Goods Manufactured Goods70% 70%
(SITC 5 to 8 - 68) (SITC 5 to 8 - 68)
60% 60%
50% 50%
40% All Food Items (SITC 0 40% All Food Items (SITC
30% + 1 + 22 + 4) 0 + 1 + 22 + 4)30%
20% 20%
10% 10%Agricultural & Raw Agricultural & Raw
0% 0%Materials (SITC 2 - Materials (SITC 2 -
Colombia Colombia(22,27,28)) (22,27,28))
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 6UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 7
Colombia: MODAL SPLIT OF INCOMING FLOWS FROM OUTSIDE LAC
VolumeValue (FOB)
(current USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
Airborne 7,032,110,353 28.30% 102,312 0.83%
Deep Draft Vessel 16,306,588,242 65.61% 11,941,496 96.63%
Other 520,214,600 2.09% 89,445 0.72%
Postal 1,576,954 0.01% 209 0.00%
Rail 7,017,746 0.03% 139 0.00%
Shallow Draft Vessel River 303,264 0.00% 81 0.00%
Truck 984,343,933 3.96% 224,093 1.81%
Total 24,852,155,092 100% 12,357,774 100%
Figure 7
Colombia: MODAL SPLIT OF INCOMING FLOWS FROM OUTSIDE LAC
VALUE (FOB, current USD) VOLUME (Metric Tons)
100% 100%
90% 90% WaterborneWaterborne
80% 80%
70% 70%
Truck & Rail Truck & Rail
60% 60%
50% 50%
40% 40% Other modesOther modes
30% 30%
20% 20%
Airborne Airborne
10% 10%
0% 0%
Colombia Colombia
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 7UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 8
Colombia: MODAL SPLIT OF OUTGOING FLOWS
BOUND FOR OUTSIDE LAC
Value (FOB) Volume
(Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)(current USD)
Airborne 2,954,877,540 31.62% 240,884 4.88%
Deep Draft Vessel 5,843,272,928 62.53% 4,489,658 90.91%
Rail 3 0.00% 1 0.00%
Shallow Draft Vessel River 26,536 0.00% 4 0.00%
Truck 546,376,398 5.85% 208,285 4.22%
Total 9,344,553,405 100% 4,938,832 100%
Figure 8
Colombia: MODAL SPLIT OF OUTGOING FLOWS BOUND FOR OUTSIDE LAC
VALUE (FOB, current USD) VOLUME (Metric Tons)
100%100%
90%
Waterborne Waterborne
80% 80%
70%
60% 60%
Truck & Rail Truck & Rail50%
40% 40%
30%
20% 20%Airborne Airborne
10%
0% 0%
Colombia Colombia
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 8UNECLAC - Latin America - Modal Split in International Transport - year 2008
Table 9
Colombia: MODAL SPLIT OF INCOMING FLOWS
SITC ONE-DIGIT COMMODITY GROUP FROM OUTSIDE LAC
Mode of Transport / Value (FOB) Volume
One-Digit Commodity (USD) (Percent) (Metric Tons) (Percent)
Airborne
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 17,302,636 0.25% 2,310 2.28%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 383,671 0.01% 46 0.05%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 26,976,416 0.38% 1,185 1.17%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 902,940 0.01% 135 0.13%
SITC 5: Chemical products 979,178,124 13.93% 12,485 12.30%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 278,419,658 3.96% 14,635 14.41%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 4,624,271,045 65.78% 53,219 52.42%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 1,102,654,256 15.68% 17,518 17.25%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 21,214 0.00% 0 0.00%
Summary for Airborne
Total 7,030,109,960 100.00% 101,534 100.00%
Percent of Imports* from outside LAC 28.30% 0.82%
Deep Draft Vessel
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 1,619,245,534 9.93% 4,931,510 41.32%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 47,455,436 0.29% 16,451 0.14%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 431,457,561 2.65% 795,148 6.66%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 125,210,185 0.77% 99,059 0.83%
SITC 5: Chemical products 3,905,738,516 23.96% 3,244,801 27.19%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 3,017,744,015 18.51% 1,952,552 16.36%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 6,150,459,649 37.73% 737,161 6.18%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 1,002,686,781 6.15% 159,250 1.33%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 6,152 0.00% 0 0.00%
Summary for Deep Draft Vessel
100.00% 100.00%Total 16,300,003,829 11,935,933
Percent of Imports* from outside LAC 65.61% 96.64%
Other
SITC 0: Food & Live Animals 13,814,287 2.66% 1,716 1.92%
SITC 1: Beverages & tobacco 875,535 0.17% 554 0.62%
SITC 2: Crude Materials exc. Fuel 2,134,898 0.41% 1,336 1.50%
SITC 4: Animal & Vegetable Oils etc. 908,063 0.17% 167 0.19%
SITC 5: Chemical products 35,615,518 6.85% 7,704 8.62%
SITC 6: Classified Manufactures 49,039,172 9.43% 18,035 20.18%
SITC 7: Machinery & transport equip. 329,610,400 63.38% 43,772 48.98%
SITC 8: Other manufactured articles 88,044,718 16.93% 16,074 17.99%
SITC 9: No clas. goods & operations 715 0.00% 0 0.00%
Summary for Other
Total 520,043,306 100.00% 89,359 100.00%
Percent of Imports* from outside LAC 2.09% 0.72%
Sánchez, R., Wilmsmeier, G., Medina, O. and Hesse, M. (2010) 9