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Nombre de lectures 25
Langue English


Centre for Peace Studies
Master’s in Peace & Conflict Transformation

SVF-3024 Conflict Resolution &
Conflict Transformation

Spring 2012

Course Organisation

Coordinator Percy Oware, CPS

Lecturers Tor Ivar Hanstad – Department of Philosophy, UiT
Jemima García-Godos – Norwegian Centre for Human Rights, UiO
Jo Jakobsen - Department of Political Science, NTNU
Kristin S. Scharffscher – Department of Engineering and Safety, UiT
Ida Hydle – NOVA
Birgit Brock-Utne – Institute for Educational Research, UiO
Stina Torjesen - SIGLA, Oslo,

The course seeks to provide contemporary insights into the inter-linked economic, political and
social dimensions of violent conflicts and peace-building. Its argument is that students should not
only develop practical knowledge of the strategies for conflict management, resolution and
transformation, but also the relevant analytical skills needed for critiquing these strategies. This
suggests the ability to draw on relevant theories to examine efforts at building sustainable peace
and human development in war torn societies. It thus draws upon many important case studies
from diverse conflict settings to demonstrate where strategies have been pursued and the specific
conditions that have influenced their outcomes.
1 Content

Peace-Building: Themes and Concepts

Just War Theory – Premises and Challenges
(01) The Space for Moral Reasoning about War
(02) War and justice: „Jus ad bellum‟& „Jus in bello‟
(03) Contemporary Applications and Challenges – Responsibility to Protect,
Cosmopolitan Strategies and Asymmetric War

Transitional justice after conflict and authoritarianism
(04) Introduction to Transitional Justice
(05) Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and reparation
(06) Land Restitution in Transitional Justice

The Economics of War, intra- and Interstate Conflict

(07) Introduction to the Economics of War
(08) The Economics of Interstate Conflict
(09) The Eccs of Intrastate Conflict

WORKSHOP: Gender, Armed Conflict and Peace-building
(10) Workshop - I
(11) Workshop - II

Restorative Justice
(12) Restorative Justice – An Introduction
(13) Street Mediation
(14) Role Play: Norwegian Restorative Justice Approaches

Peace Education
(15) Peace Education – An Introduction
(16) A Gender Perspective on Peace and Peace Education
(17) The Use of Language – Peace Journalism

Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR)
(18) Peace Processes and their Contexts: Understanding the Agendas, Agencies and
Instruments of Peace-building
(19) Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) – the creation
of a Peace-building Blueprint
(20) Peace Process: Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) of fighters in
2 Required Readings
Course texts

Refer to the various lecture themes for the specific required readings.

Readings are available through the following sources: (i) course packages/compendia (C), which
are available at the University Bookshop - Akademisk Kvarter; (ii) by direct download from the
web (E); and (iii) as an offprint provided to students in class (O).

Compendium – all readings marked *C*
Internet articles – all readings marked *E1, 2, 3, etc.*
Individual off prints – all readings marked *O*

Recommended Readings
Berdal, Mats (2009) Building Peace after War. London: The International Institute for
Strategic Studies
Berdal, Mats and David M. Malone (ed.)(2000) Greed & grievance: economic agendas in civil
wars. Boulder: Lynn Rienner Publishers
Binford, Leigh (1996) The El Mozote Massacre: Anthropology and Human Rights. Tucson:
University of Arizona Press
Conteh-Morgan, Earl (2004) Collective political violence: an introduction to the theories and
cases of violent conflicts. London: Routledge
Deutsch, Morton and Peter Coleman (ed.)(2006) The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory
and Practice. San Francisco: Jossey Bass
Del Castillo, Graciana (2008) Rebuilding War-torn States: The Challenge of Post Conflict
Economic Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Eron, Leonard, Jacqelyn Gentry and Peggy Schlegel (2002) Reasons to hope. A psychological
perspective on youth violence. Washington DC: American Psychological Association
Juergensmeyer, Mark (2005) Gandhi‟s Way: A Handbook of Conflict Resolution. Berkeley:
University of California Press
Keen, David (2008) Complex emergencies. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Keen, David (2005) The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars. London: Routledge.
Koonings, Kees and Dirk Kruijt (ed.)(2004) Armed Actors: Organised violence and State Failure
in Latin America. London: Zed Books
Martín-Baró, Ignacio (1994) Writings for a Liberation Psychology. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press
Miall, Hugh (2007) Emergent Conflict and Peaceful Social Change. London: Palgrave
Pugh, Michael (2008) Whose Peace? Critical Perspectives on the Political Economy of
Peace-building. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan
Skaar, Elin, Siri Gloppen and Astri Suhrke (ed.)(2005) Roads to Reconciliation. Oxford:
Lexington Books
Staub, Erving (1992) The Roots of Evil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Walzer, Michael (2004) Arguing About War. New Haven & London: Yale University Press
Wessells, Michael (2007) Child soldiers: from violence to protection. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press

NB: All books available at the University Library or bookshop - Akademisk Kvarter

I. Violent Conflict and Negotiation
This section focuses on the changing political role and practices for handling conflict at different
levels and in different contexts. Much of the literature chronicles the different ways in which
violence and/or oppression are institutionalised and, in so doing, draws attention to some key
impediments to the institutionalisation of peace. It also points to concrete strategies of handling
conflicts through communication and negotiation.

Just War Theory – Premises and Challenges

Tor Ivar Hanstad

(01) The space for moral reasoning about war

The first lecture focuses on the fundamental premise for just war theory, including the acceptance
of the thesis of double effect, the premise of state sovereignty and the inescapable influence from
both pacifism and political realism. The lecture will also address the question of how to
understand war in relation to politics and power.

Required Readings
Walzer, Michael (2000) „Against Realism‟ and „Law and Order in International Society‟ in Just
and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustration. New York: Basic
Books. pp. 3-20, , pp. 51-73 (41 pp.)
*C* Clausewitz, Carl von (1993) „What Is War?‟ in On War. London: Everyman‟s Library.
pp. 83-101 (18 pp.)
1*E * Reid, Julian (2003) „Foucault on Clausewitz: Conceptualizing the Relationship between
War and Power‟ in Alternatives 28. 1-28 (28 pp.).

Recommended Readings
Walzer, Michael (2000) „The Crime of War‟, „Anticipations‟ and „Afterword: Nonviolence and
the Theory of War‟ in Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical
Illustration. New York: Basic Books. pp. 21-33, pp. 51-85 and pp. 329-335 (55 pp.)

Walzer, Michael (2004) „The Triumph of Just War Theory (And the Dangers of success)‟ in
Arguing About War. New Haven & London: Yale University Press. pp. 3-22 (20 pp.)

(02) War and justice: „Jus ad bellum‟& „Jus in bello‟
The second lecture will focus on the traditional criteria for jus ad bellum and jus in bello. This
will include discussions of what jus ad bellum and jus in bello in traditional state versus state
wars, as well as reflections on whether the same criteria are adaptable to late-modern asymmetric
conflicts (including „war‟ on terrorists).

Required Readings
Walzer, Michael (2000) „War‟s Means and the Importance of Fighting Well‟„Non-combatant
Immunity and Military Necessity‟„Guerrilla War‟ and „Terrorism‟ in Just and Unjust
Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books. pp. 127-
159 and 176-206 (64 pp.)

*C* Johnson, James Turner (1999) Morality and Contemporary Warfare. London: Yale
University Press. pp. 8-40, (33 pp.)

Recommended Readings
Rodin, David (2006) „The Ethics of Asymmetric War‟ in Sorabji, Richard and David Rodin (ed.)
The Ethics of War. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing. pp. 153-168 (16 pp.)

(03) Contemporary applications and challenges – responsibility to protect, cosmopolitan
strategies and asymmetric war

The lecture will present some important contemporary issues that can be seen as a challenge to
traditional just war theory. These challenges include phenomena/concepts such as „humanitarian
interventions,‟ „Human Security‟ and „asymmetric warfare.‟ The basis for the presentation will be
the report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty, Responsibility
to Protect.

Required Readings
2*E * The International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (2001) The
Responsibility to Protect. Ch. 1-5, pp. 1-46 (46 pp.)
*C* Atack, Iain (2005) „Cosmopolitanism and Armed Conflict‟ in The Ethics of Peace and War.
Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 40-60 (21 pp.)

Recommended Readings
Walzer, Michael (2000) „Interventions‟ and „Supreme Emergency‟ in Just and Unjust Wars: A
Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations. New York: Basic Books. pp. 86-108 and
251-268 (41 pp.)

Transitional justice after conflict and authoritarianism
Jemima García-Godos

Post-conflict societies face many challenges, not only concerning the present and the future, but
also the past. The three lectures on transitional justice will discuss the different ways that
countries coming out of armed conflict and authoritarian rule address their violent pasts. Does
peace need justice and accountability to be sustainable? How to ensure accountability in post-
conflict societies? What mechanisms can be applied and what do they imply? The lectures aim to
provide students with a basic understanding of different transitional justice mechanisms, what
considerations to take when opting for their implementation, and why they are important. The
issue of land restitution as a form of victim reparations will also be addressed.

(16) Introduction to Transitional Justice

Required Readings
*C* De Greiff, Pablo (2009) „Articulating the links between transitional justice and development:
Justice and social integration‟ in De Greiff, Pablo and Roger Duthie (ed.) Transitional
justice and development: Making connections. New York: Social Science Research
Council. pp 28-75 (47 pp.)
*C* Elster, Jon (2004) „The structure of transitional justice‟ in Closing the Books. Transitional
Justice in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 79-135 (56

Recommended Readings
Barahona de Brito, Alexandra, Carmen Gonzalez Enriquez and Paloma Aguilar (ed.) (2001)
„Introduction‟ in The Politics of Memory: Transitional Justice in Democratizing Societies.
Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 1-39 (39 pp.)
Pantuliano, Sara (2009) Unchartered Territory: Land, Conflict and Humanitarian Action.
London: Overseas Development Institute.
Sherman, Lawrence and Heather Strang (2007) Restorative Justice: The Evidence. London: The
Smith Institute. pp. 1-96 (96 pp.)
Skaar, Elin, Siri Gloppen and Astri Suhrke (ed.)(2005) Roads to Reconciliation. New York,
Toronto, Oxford: Lexington Books
Teitel, Ruti G. (2000) Chapter 7: Toward a theory of transitional justice, and Epilogue
Transitional Justice. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 213-230 (17 pp.)
Wilson, Richard (2001) The Politics of Truth and Reconciliation in South Africa. Legitimizing
the Post-Apartheid State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1: Human
rights and nation-building, pp. 1-30, (29 pp.)

(17) Truth and Reconciliation Commissions and Victim Reparations

Required Readings
7 García-Godos, Jemima (2008) „Victim reparations in the Peruvian Truth Commission and the
challenge of historical interpretation.‟ in International Journal of Transitional Justice 2(1),
pp. 63-82 (19 pp.)

*E* García-Godos, Jemima (2008) „Victim Reparations in Transitional Justice – What is at Stake
and Why‟ in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 26(2) pp. 111-130 (19 pp.)
*C* Ross, Fiona (2001) „Speech and Silence, Women's testimony in the First Five Weeks of
Public Hearings of the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission‟ in Das,
Veena, et al. Remaking a World. Violence, Social Suffering and Recovery. Berkeley:
University of California Press. pp. 250 – 280 (30 pp.)
*E* Shaw, Rosalind (2005) Rethinking Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: Lessons from
Sierra Leone. Washington: United States Institute of Peace (12 pp.)

Recommended Readings
Arriaza, L. and N. Roht-Arriaza (2008) „Social Reconstruction as a Local Process‟ in
International Journal of Transitional Justice 2(2). pp. 152-172 (20 pp.)
García-Godos, Jemima and Knut Andreas O. Lid (2010) „Transitional Justice and Victims‟
Rights before the End of a Conflict: The Unusual Case of Colombia‟ in Journal of Latin
American Studie,, 42(3). pp. 487-516 (29 pp.)
Malan, Jannie (2008) „Understanding traditional justice in Africa‟ in Francis, David J. (Ed.)
Peace & Conflict in Africa. London: Zed Books. pp.133-147 (14 pp.)
Shelton, Dinah (2005) „The UN principles and guidelines on reparations: context and contents‟in
De Feyter Koen et al. (ed.) Out of the ashes: reparation for victims of gross and
systematic human rights violations. Antwerpen: Intersentia.

(18) Land restitution in Transitional Justice

Required readings
*E* Paglione, Giulia (2008) „Individual property restitution: from Deng to Pinheiro - and the
challenges ahead‟ in International Journal of Refugee Law, pp 391-412 (21 pp.)
*E* Williams, Rodri (2007) „The contemporary right to property restitution in the context of
transitional justice‟ Occasional Paper Series. New York: International Center for
Transitional Justice.
*C* Langford, Malcolm and Khulekani Moyo (2010) „Right, Remedy or Rhetoric? Land
Restitution in International Law‟ in Nordic Journal of Human Rights, 28(2) pp.144-177
(33 pp.)

Recommended Readings
Leckie, Scott (2008) „United Nations Peace Operations and Housing, Land and Property Rights
in Post-Conflict Settings: From Neglect to Tentative Embrace‟ in Leckie, Scott (ed.)
Housing, Land, and Property Rights in Post-Conflict United Nations and Other Peace
Operations: A Comparative Survey and Proposal for Reform. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, pp 3-16.
Bradley, M. (2007). „Refugees and the reparations movement: Reflections on some recent
literature‟ in Journal of Refugee Studies 20(4), pp.662-668 (6 pp.)


The Economics of War, intra- and interstate Conflict
Jo Jakobsen

In these three lectures, the focus will be on diverse economic practices during war. Rather than
solely examining the causes of conflict, the aim is to provide insights into the varying economic
issues shaping conflicts in time and space; how wars are sustained, from the ways in which
collective grievances are mobilised for individual economic gains, natural resource abuse, to
livelihood adaptations in war afflicted communities. The main emphasis is on how non-state
actors (such as rebel groups, militias, and warlords) finance their activities and establish specific
forms of socio-economic systems in conflict situations, as well as how other social actors (e.g.
children and women) affect and are affected by shadow war economies.

(07) Introduction to the Economics of war
The economic dimension of interstate conflict – an overview
The ecc dimension of intrastate conflict – an overview

(08) The Economics of Interstate Conflict
Economic interdependence and the capitalist peace
The economics and politics of arms transfers
The eccs of interstate conflict – case analyses

(09) The Economics of Intrastate Conflict
The financing of rebels
Natural resources and intrastate conflict
The economics of intrastate conflict – case analyses

*E* Collier, Paul, Lani Elliott, Håvard Hegre, Anke Hoeffler, Marta Reynal-Querol and Nicholas Sambanis
(2003). Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. Ch. 3: ‘What
Makes a Country Prone to Civil War?’ (53–92) [40].
*E* Collier, Paul, Anke Hoeffler and Dominic Rohner (2009). ‘Beyond Greed and Grievance: Feasibility
and Civil War.’ Oxford Economic Papers 61(1): 1–27 [27].
*E* Gartzke, Erik (2007). ‘The Capitalist Peace.’ American Journal of Political Science 51(1): 166–191 [26].
*E* Pollins, Brian M. (2008). ‘Globalization and Armed Conflict among Nations.’ Conflict Management
and Peace Science 25(3): 191–205 [15].
9 *E* Ross, Michael L. (2004). ‘How Do Natural Resources Influence Civil War? Evidence from Thirteen
Cases.’ International Organization 58(1): 35–67 [33].
*E* Weede, Erich (2010). ‘The Capitalist Peace and the Rise of China: Establishing Global Harmony by
Economic Interdependence.’ International Interactions 36(2): 206–213 [8].
Ballentine, Karen and Heiko Nitzschke (2005). The Political Economy of Civil War and Conflict
Transformation.’ Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management (1–24) [24].
Barbieri, Katherine (1996). ‘Economic Interdependence: A Path to Peace or a Source of Interstate
Conflict?’ Journal of Peace Research 33(1): 29–49 [21].
Bromley, Mark, Paul Holtom, Sam Perlo-Freeman and Pieter D. Wezeman (2009). ‘Recent Trends in the
Arms Trade.’ SIPRI Background Paper, April 2009. Stockholm International Peace Research
Institute (1–24) [24]
Copeland, Dale C. (1996). ‘Economic Interdependence and War: A Theory of Trade Expectations.’
International Security 20(4): 5–41 [37].
Jakobsen, Jo (2010). ‘Adding Fuel to the Flames? Multinational Companies Operating in Zones of
Conflict.’ In Tor G. Jakobsen (Ed.) War: An Introduction to Theories and Research on Collective
Violence. New York: Nova Science (207–224) [18].
Le Billon, Philippe (2001). ‘The Political Ecology of War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflicts.’ Political
Geography 20(5): 561–584 [24].
Richani, Nazih (2005). ‘Multinational Corporations, Rentier Capitalism, and the War System in Colombia.’
Latin American Politics and Society 47(3): 113–144 [32].