29 pages
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# IPE - MATHEMATICS II-A ( ) ( ) (

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29 pages
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IPE - MATHEMATICS II-A VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS 01. Form quadratic equation whose roots are : ( ),p q p q p q p q p q  − + − ≠ ± + −  02. Find the nature of the roots of the following equation without finding the roots. 29 30 25 0x x− + = 03. If ,α β are the roots of the equation 2 0,ax bx c+ + = find the values of the following expression in terms of a, b, c.
• following composition of balls
• fractions into partial fractions
• random from a lot of 50 screws
• roots
• sum of the infinite series
• binomial theorem
• probability
• equation

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 Publié par aproe Nombre de lectures 55 Langue English

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GCSE ENGLISH LITERATURE UNIT 3
GCSE ENGLISH UNIT 3

If entered for English Literature the Shakespeare/Poetry linked task is marked out of
40 and worth 25% of the subject award. If entered for English it is marked out of 20
and worth 10% of the subject award. The mark given for each of the examples
provided is supported by comments related to the criteria given in the specifications.
Each of mark bands 2-5 is notionally expected to cover two GCSE grades (e.g. Band
5 notionally = A* and A), though in practice grade boundaries are determined at the
Award following internal standardising and external moderation.

In the interest of legibility, spelling and punctuation have been corrected in these
essays since these aspects are not assessed in this part of the folder.

1

Look at the way conflict is investigated in Romeo and Juliet and in poems
chosen from the selection.

Throughout Shakespeare's play 'Romeo and Juliet', one of the main themes is
conflict and conflict gradually escalates as the play reaches its tragic climax.

From the start of the play, in the prologue, we are told of the futility of conflict as
suggested by „ancient grudge‟. The word 'ancient' suggests that the 'grudge' started
long ago, meaning the real reason for it is long since forgotten, and therefore, the
'grudge' is petty though the resulting conflict is not. Additionally, the word 'grudge'
suggests the consequences of the conflict are long lasting.

We are also told how contagious conflict and the 'ancient grudge' can be, „civil blood
makes civil hands unclean‟. The choice of the word 'civil' shows that the 'grudge' has
gone beyond private and spread into society, highlighting how infectious it can be.
Moreover, the word 'blood' implies death, proving the dangerous consequences of
conflict both physically and mentally. Furthermore, the word „unclean‟ reminds the
audience of blood stains which yet again remind us of the deadly consequences of
conflict, and also the long term effects of conflict, like the scars and the lingering
guilt.

The prologue inevitably ends with a Shakespearean rhyming couplet just as the
tragedy will always end in the deaths of Romeo and Juliet, 'Death-marks of love'.
The juxtaposition of the words 'death' and 'love', shows Shakespeare's beliefs that
love isn't just a sweet thing, but also a deadly one.

At the start of Act 3 scene 1, we are informed that it's set in a public place and are
immediately reminded of the Prince's warning, 'if ever you disturb our streets again,
your lives shall pay the forfeit of the peace'. This immediately creates a tense
atmosphere as the audience anticipate conflict. Throughout the play, the Prince is
used as a voice of reason.

The first character to speak is Benvolio. His name is derived from the word
„benevolent‟, so it is not surprising his character acts in the role of the peacemaker.
Nevertheless, this creates further tension, as when he gives a warning, it‟s normally
because conflict is approaching: 'let's retire: The day is hot... these hot days is the
mad blood stirring'. This use reflects some beliefs in Shakespeare's time, that when
the days were hot, people would get hot headed, becoming animalistic and slipping
down the hierarchy of being. This mirrors Shakespeare's beliefs that conflict is
degrading. The use of personification creates a number of effects. Firstly, the word
'mad' further highlights the beliefs that when it was hot, you could lose your mind.
Additionally, it suggests how insane conflict is and how 'mad' it is to shed blood
because of a petty grudge. It also suggests loss of control, of both mind and body,
showing how easy it is to get carried away by conflict.

therefore indicating that dangerous conflict is on its way.

When Tybalt arrives, the atmosphere immediately changes, becoming much tenser,
because of his dangerous reputation, yet he remains polite to Mercutio as Mercutio is
not his real target. Mercutio's name is derived from the word „mercury‟, a fiery
unpredictable element, mirroring Mercutio's fiery unpredictable personality, "by my
2 heel I care not." The line shows how Mercutio acts with his heart, making him a
loveable character but his personality is conflicting to that of Benvolio's, "by my

When Mercutio is stabbed, he is outraged that it's the result of such a petty 'grudge'
and comments 'a plague a' both houses'. The word 'plague‟ links to the infectious
and long lasting effects of conflict. It also shows that Mercutio wants their suffering
to be long and painful, just like the 'ancient grudge' and relates to how deadly
something so petty can be. The word 'both' shows that Mercutio blames the grudge
for his death and wants all involved to suffer, linking to the inevitability of the tragedy
and Romeo and Juliet's deaths.

We are informed once more of this inevitability, 'this day‟s black fate on more days
doth depend; this but begins woe others must end'. The rhyming couplet inevitably
suggests importance, highlighting how pivotal this scene is. Moreover, the word
„black‟ is pessimistic, highlighting the negative effects of conflict. It also suggests the
Black Death, a deadly, fearful, and contagious plague linking to how scary and fatal
conflict is, as well as how fast it spreads. Additionally, the words 'black fate' show
the inevitability of death, and the pessimistic word 'black' shows what a bad thing
conflict is to have to die for.

Mercutio's death makes the audience want revenge, as Mercutio was the most 'alive'
character. This displays how easy it is for a conflict so petty to become so
dangerous. Romeo is banished and narrowly escapes a death sentence. The
conflict, based as it is on a flimsy and forgotten pretext, has ruined many lives and
resulted in two deaths. Shakespeare seems to suggest that the characters‟ narrow-
minded and childish desire for revenge leads to conflict out of all proportion to the
reason for it.

Wilfred Owen in his poem „Dulce et Decorum Est‟ conveys the futility of conflict on a
bigger scale. He was writing during the First World War and had direct experience of
the terrible suffering of the troops in the front line. He begins his poems with a
comment on the soldiers returning from battle who look „like old beggars under
sacks.‟ The word „old‟ portrays the fact that even though the people who signed up
to become soldiers were young, they experienced enough to last them a life time and
their youth was swiftly stolen from them unfairly. Moreover, the simile uses the word,
„beggars‟, showing how even though men signed up believing they would gain
honour and glory, they lost their lives, in very unheroic surroundings and miserable
ways, therefore making them poor like beggars. Additionally, the word also shows
how desperate the men were, initially for glory, but in the end just to survive.

The word „under‟ suggests being weighed down, as a result indicating, both the
physical and psychological burdens conflict can bring. It also suggests how
overwhelming the experience must have been, and suggests being dragged down -
possibly with the guilt conflict brings.

Similarly, in Owen's poem, „The Send Off‟ we are told of the negativity of conflict. The
men go to battle „Down the close darkening lanes‟. The words „down‟ and
„darkening‟ are pessimistic and create a gloomy atmosphere. Additionally, they
suggest the effects of conflict worsening and becoming more and more serious. It
also creates a sense of the inevitability of death as a consequence of war and
conflict as the words suggest that the men are going into night, perhaps a permanent
one.

3 Throughout „Dulce et Decorum Est‟ we are also told of the serious effects of conflict:
„all went lame; all blind‟. The repetition of the word „all‟ shows the inevitability that
everyone involved in conflict will feel its consequences. More over, the word 'all'
demonstrates how throughout the traumas of conflict and war, the men were united,
creating a poignant comment on their likely fate.

The iambic pentameter highlights the unity, and orderly conduct of the men as it
creates a rhythm similar to that of men marching obediently. However, it also shows
their lack of independence and how the soldiers rely on each other, and follow orders
without question.

In the second stanza, the iambic pentameter breaks, creating a sense of disorder
and chaos: „Gas! Gas! Quick, boys!‟. The use of caesura, along with varied
punctuation highlights the panic and breakdown of order. Repetition of the word,
„Gas!‟ emphasises how serious and deadly war can be. This is a danger which must
be taken seriously. Moreover, the word, „Quick‟ creates an even greater sense of

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