Lessons By: Rob Harbison

Lessons By: Rob Harbison


10 pages
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  • exposé - matière potentielle : unchangeable truth
  • exposé
  • leçon - matière potentielle : with a different translation
PROVERBS “The proverbs of Solomon the son of David, king of Israel; to know wisdom and instruction, to perceive the words of understanding, to receive the instruction of wisdom, justice, judgment and equity; to give prudence to the simple, to the young man knowledge and discretion.” (Proverbs 1:1-4) Lessons By: Rob Harbison
  • character of human nature
  • wisdom guarantee
  • fool
  • proverbs
  • i. companions of pride a. haughtiness
  • human heart—pride
  • wisdom
  • god
  • solomon
  • book



Publié par
Nombre de lectures 51
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo
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Natural Horn Models
Engelbert Schmid
Waldhörner Engelbert Schmid GmbH,Bellerweg 3, D86513 Mindelzell Telefon(08282) 890412, Fax (08282) 890512 Email:EngelbertSchmidHorns@tonline.de
Engelbert Schmid
Natural Horn Models
What in the beginning was considered as a fashion, in the meantime has become a firm part of the music world: often supported by the idealism of the performers, ensembles last which play on original instruments or their copies. In the same way as this music practice often trains the sound sensibility of the musicians, I as a hornmaker had to recall historic measures, material thicknesses and manufacturing methods. By the way, this also influenced the production method of our modern valve horn bells.
Let me introduce you to the result of an intensive labour of development, which has spared no expense for material or tool costs, in total4 Natural horn models:
1. "Corno da caccia". at the same time "Corno da tirarsi”
I do not want to join in the discussion which baroque works shall or can be performed by hornplayers and which by trumpetplayers, but I would rather call on both sides to realize the baroque soundworld. There simply is no baroque horn on which all baroque parts can be interpreted authentically. However there was a vast palette of instrument types, which offered an interesting and seamless transition from the trumpet to the huntinghorn with big bell. My "Corno da caccia" version meets the brighter side of the soundpalette.
"Corno da caccia", "Corno da tirarsi" Engelbert Schmid
Original instrument, about 1730, Friedrich Ehe in Nurenberg, in high D, with Ccrook and 2 intonation pieces, out of the museum Caroline Augusteum, Salzburg
Description of my "Corno da caccia" and at the same time "Corno da tirarsi"version:
Mouthpiece receiver:
Historic Model:
Parts for "Corno da caccia", "Corno da tirarsi", "Lituus”
From High D to low C (with A=415Hz), crooks.
Normally for a shaft for horn mouthpiece. The adaptation of the shaft for a trumpet mouthpiece is acoustically no problem. With a conical mouthpipe which tapers off towards a shaft for horn mouthpiece, the instrument tunes very well in all levels and keys. The depth of the cup must be adapted to the tuning, that means the shorter the instrument, the shallower the cup. The historic normal case was a trumpet mouthpiece.
As a general principal handhammered, with wreath, thin wall thickness. Diameter of the bell 18,0 cm.
After Friedrich Ehe in Nurenberg, about 1730, Museum Caroline Augusteum, Salzburg.
Cylindrical measure part such as the original 10,6 mm.
By computerized calculations the tapered measure has been improved to a better intonation.
Tuning slide in the center:
Naturally a spontaneous topic of discussion. But clear and logical reasons argue in favour of this double tuning slide: a) During the baroque era there were already double slides at the trombones. b) The "Tromba da tirarsi" and the "Corno da tirarsi" had an extensible leadpipe. The mouthpipe was held with one hand and with the other hand the whole rest of the instrument was moved to clear up some harmonics and to reach intermediate tones. But this practice of extension was ergonomically very disadvantageous. c) In the baroque age the tuning slide was usually lockable at the leadpipe or between the crook and the corpus. In this manner the distance between the mouthpiece and the corpus varies a lot, which ergonomically was disadvantageous, too. d) I suppose that in those days simply nobody had the idea to place a double tuning slide in the middle of the corpus, and that this idea would have been adopted with gratitude, as it happened some decades later. Acoustically and what refers to its sound it remains a "Corno da caccia", though. Using "trombona superslick" this tuning slide is easily slided and thus the intonation of the socalled impure harmonics as well as the required intermediate tones can be mastered without problems. The slide is twice 17,5 cm long, thus the extension range is of 30 cm. At this model there are no finger holes.
700g with crook:
Resonance curve "Corno da caccia":
Even without hand in the bell my "Corno da caccia" speaks very clearly in the high range.
2. Baroque "Corno”
Beside the brighter "Corno da caccia" and "Corno da tirarsi" in the baroque age there were also several darker versions as the "Corno", the "Corne du chasse" and the "Corne parforce", with bell diameters of up to 30 cm. Either they had fixed, narrow leadpipes, or crooks which were built too wide to be well in tune.
My Baroque"Corno" covers the darker range of the baroque horns. Possibly some "Corno da caccia" parts were also supposed for hunting horns with a narrow leadpipe. For example the original F. Ehe "Corno da caccia" speaks poorly and tunes badly if it is cylindrically elongated to F which is imperative with a shaft for trumpet mouthpiece. But with a narrow conical leadpipe, both of my baroque versions have very good acoustic characteristics, even in the darker keys. In the opinion of many, J.S. Bach's Brandenburgisches Konzert Nr. 1 should be performed on an instrument like my Baroque"Corno".
Baroque  “Corno”, Engelbert Schmid
Historic model:
Description of my Baroque  "Corno"  Version:
Tuning slide in the middle:
Compensation of intonation:
Parts for "Corno", "Corne du Chasse", "Corne parforce", also some "Corno da caccia"parts.
From high D to low C (with A=415 Hz), same crooks as with the “Corno da caccia".
Medium shallow to shallow horn mouthpiece is recommended. The depth of the cup should be adapted to the length of the instrument
As a general principal handhammered with wreath, thin wall thickness. Diameter of the bell 25 cm.
A synthesis of J. Fr. Schwabe from Leipzig, J. H. Eichentopf from Leipzig and J. Leichamschneider from Vienna, cylindrical part of measure 10,6 mm.
The same arguments as for the "Corno da caccia" are valid for the Baroque"Corno", but with the slide moving toughly like normally.
By computerized calculations the entire taper has been refined to a better intonation.
No finger holes, as they are a very problematical solution. In the first place they are not historic and in the second place they ought to have another position for each crook (from high D to low C!). It is also not enough to correct the two tones f" and a". There are also intermediate tones in the baroque parts. A hand in the bell is a great help for a clear speaking and sound volume in the high range. If it is employed with caution and combined with lip technique, the sound quality is very wellbalanced and the intonation unobjectionable.
850g with F crook.
Resonance curve Baroque  "Corno" without hand
The curve of the bell flare of a horn is too smooth to speak clearly in the high register without hand.
Resonance curve Baroque  “Corno” with hand
With a hand in the bell the high register speaks very clearly.
3. Hand horn according to Ignaz Lorenz from Linz:
Linz is also the home town of Ignaz Leitgeb, who played for the first time the Mozart concerts. The comparison of Ignaz Lorenz original horns from about 1830 and Lorenz follower horns turned out very differently, with terrible acoustic errors in the cylindrical part. But what fascinated me was the basic sound of the bell. Somehow I always got the impression that this was the real horn sound.
H a n d h o r n a c c o r d i n g t o I g n a z L o r e n z b y E n g e l b e r t Schmid
Description of my Ignaz Lorenz copy:
Measure Cylindrical part:
Intonation, response:
From Joseph Haydn to Robert Schumann, ideal for Vienna Classic.
From high C to low Bb (with A=443 Hz, A=430 Hz and A=415 Hz), crooks, two types of tuning slides
Handhammered with wreath, or spinned bell with wreath, thin wall thickness. Diameter of the bell 28 cm. 11,2 mm
The correction of the intonation imperfections and the measure leaps was no problem. The result is an impressive clear response and pure intonation,well to be moduled with the hand.
I recommend all 4 models of natural horns here presented with the beautiful historic patina which can be obtained by the special method of "smoking".
1000 g with Ebcrook.
4. Cor Solo:
The performance of the Haydn (?) Double Concerto for 2 natural horns and (in this case modern) orchestra was a key experience for me. About 50 % of the notes of the 1. natural horn soloist were actually not to be heard, but at the most to be guessed. Although this was due in part to the musician and to the conductor, it is nevertheless an example for the fact that in cooperation with modern intruments or also as a soloist in front of an modern or historic orchestra, the historic measure of about 11 mm is often too narrow. The solution to this problem is my Cor Solo, which is no copy of an historic model but contains many improvements of it's own.
Cor solo, Engelbert Schmid Description of my Cor Solo Version:
Construction Type:
Intonation, response:
Weight: Esthetics:
Concerning the timbre similar to the historic instruments, but distinctly bigger in volume.
Similar to the Lorenz copy, handhammered with wreath, or spinned bell with wreath, thin wall thickness. Diameter of the bell: 28 cm. Fixed leadpipe, crooks in the middle. With just 5 crooks you can obtain all keys from high Bb to low Bb with A=443 Hz, A=430 Hz and A=415 Hz. Moreover by insertion of a machine, it can be transformed within seconds into a 3valve Bbhorn or Fhorn.
12,0 mm in the cylindrical part, fixed leadpipe for all keys. Thus you have a feel to it similar to the modern valve horn, less readjustment problems and still largely the sound of the natural horn. Without problems in all keys. Similar to the Lorenzcopy the flare of the bell is very suitable for hand stopping. 1.100g with Ebcrook. From the artisanal point of view and what concerns the shaping all 4 natural horn models here presented are a feast for the eyes, as all Engelbert Schmid horns.
What follows is a list of the Scores for horn by J. S. Bach according to Gisela Csiba y Jozsef Csiba in "The brass instruments in the pieces of J. S. Bach"
Corno da Caccia(bell diameter 120180 mm)
in High D: in High C: in High Bb: in G: in F:
BWV 232* BWV 16/107 BWV 143 BWV 174 BWV 213/248/1046/1071
Corno da tirarsi(bell diameter 120180 mm)
in High C, Bb and A: BWV 46/67/162
Lituus(bell diameter 120180 mm)
in High Bb: BWV 118
Corne du Chasse(bell diameter 200240 mm)
in High C: in Low C:
BWV 65 BWV 109
Corno(bell diameter 220300 mm)
in High D: BWV 88/205/218 in High Bb: BWV 14 in A: BWV 136 in G: BWV 79/91/100/112/128/195/212/250/251/252 in F: BWV 1/14/40/52/83/208 in Eb: BWV 140 in Low D: BWV 60 in Low C: BWV 3/8/26/27/40/62/68/73/78/83/89/95/96/99/105/114/115/116/124/125/136
*Peter Damm's statement, that the "Quoniam" in the Bminor Mass should be in low D, seems more logical to me. Nevertheless my baroque horns are tunable from high D to low C, that means both versions can be performed.
Waldhörner Engelbert Schmid GmbH,Bellerweg 3, D86513 Mindelzell Telefon(08282) 890412, Fax (08282) 890512 Email:EngelbertSchmidHorns@tonline.de