PUBLICATION STYLE GUIDELINES - PULP

PUBLICATION STYLE GUIDELINES - PULP

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  • dissertation
PUBLICATION STYLE GUIDELINES
  • full stops
  • footnotes
  • african human
  • headings headings
  • secretary secretary
  • provide full
  • footnotes 
  • italics should
  • south africa

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PUBLICATION STYLE GUIDELINES
A. REFERENCING TO SOURCES REFERENCE TO BOOKS footnotes (first reference): CH Heyns In Human rights law in Africa (2004) 333 (Note: title not in initial caps; author’s name not given, only initials; no space between initials)  In footnotes (subsequent references): Heyns (n 2 above) 350 (no initial) bibliography: Donelly, J (1993) In International human rightsPress: Westview Boulder  Two authors: CH Heyns & F Viljoen; in bibliography Heyns, CH & Viljoen, F than two authors: in text CH Heyns et al; in bibliography Heyns, CH; More Viljoen, F & Murray, R referring to When translatedsource: WD Ross (ed)The works of Aristotletrans DW Thompson (1910) REFERENCE TO JOURNAL ARTICLES footnotes (first reference): E BondzieSimpson ‘A critique of the African In Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ (1998) 31Harvard Law Journal643  In footnotes (subsequent references): BondzieSimpson (n 3 above) 644 above for two or more authors See  In bibliography: BondzieSimpson, E ‘A critique of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ (1998) 31Harvard Law Journal643 REFERENCE TO CHAPTERS IN BOOKS footnotes (first reference): D Hendrych ‘Constitutionalism in the Czech In Republic’ in J Priban & J Young (eds)The rule of law in Central Europe(1999) 222  In footnotes (subsequent references): D Brown ‘A critique of the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights’ in Priban & Young (n 3 above) 350 bibliography: Hendrych, D ‘Constitutionalism in the Czech Republic’ in In Priban, J and Young, J (eds) (1999)The rule of law in Central EuropeAldenshot: Dartmouth REFERENCE TO THESES AND DISSERTATIONS Unpublished: CH Heyns ‘Civil disobedience in South Africa …’ unpublished PhD thesis, University of the Witwatersrand, 1992 169 REFERENCE TO NEWSPAPER ARTICLES ‘The ordeal of children’The Star29 September 2000 3 REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL TREATIES  First reference (in text): name in full  International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) (notICESR); subsequent references in text: CESCR (nottheCESCR)  ButICCPR  First reference (in text): UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Committee on ESCR); subsequent references in text: Committee on ESCR 1
 First reference (in text): Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Universal Declaration) (notUDHR) Comment General No14 REFERENCE TO LEGISLATION Act 13 of 1992 (not No), thereafter ‘the Act’ Industrial Relations Act 8 of 2000 secs 12(1) & (3), 14(2) & 15(1) REPORTS/PAPERS The title of a freestanding report, paper or statement should be enclosed in quotation marks, not italicised. The same goes for the title of a webpage. However, the name of an interactive online database – like the UN Population Division’sWorld population prospects: 2004 revision population database– is more analogous to a book title and should be italicised. REFERENCE TO EMAILS Email messages and telephone calls should be cited as below:  Email from B Xhosa on 28 July 2006.  Telephone communication with B Xhosa on 28 July 2006. REFERENCE TO SOUTH AFRICAN CASE LAW S v Makwanyane and Another1995 3 SA 391 (CC) (not1995(3)) The Government of the Republic of South Africa & Others v Grootboom & Others2000 11 BCLR 1169 (CC) (not2000(11)) REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL CASE LAW African Commission: If reported inAfrican Human Rights Law Reports: Modise v Botswana(2000) AHRLR 30 (ACHPR 2000) If not reported in AHRLR: Communication 101/93,Civil Liberties Organisation v Nigeria, Thirteenth Annual Activity Report InterAmerican Commission: Yahom v Colombia, InterAmerican Commission of Human Rights, IAm Comm of HR (26 June 1992), OAE/Ser L/V/II6 Doc 10 Rev 1 InterAmerican Court: VR v HIACHR (26 September 1986) Ser L/ Doc 8 Rev 1 European Court: Sramek v AustriaECHR (22 October 1984) Ser A 17 OR, if not in Series A S v Austria(1998) EHRR 598 ICJ judgments: Case … v IranICJ (24 May 1980) (1980) ICJ Reports 3
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United Nations human rights treaty bodies: Communication 135/94,Bloomings v Italy, UNHR Committee (26 June 1996), UN Doc CCPR/C/OP/1 (1984) REFERENCE TO FOREIGN CASE LAW (examples) Canada: th Eldridge v British Colombia(1997) 151 DLR (4th) 577 (not 4 ) USA: Goldberg v Kelly397 US 235 (1970) S v K(2002) 292 F 3d 597 REFERENCE TO WEBSITES http://www.chr.up.ac.za (accessed 31 January 2005) When an author or article is cited, provide full information, eg Human Rights Watch ‘The death penalty debate’ 21 February http://................. (accessed 31 March 2007). B. CROSSREFERENCING Footnotes referring to earlier footnotes should lead with the author’s surname (not her initials and surname as in the first reference) or the abbreviated name of a case or authorless policy document: Viljoen (n 16 above) 1213.Grootboom(n 17 above) para 99. In order to avoid redundancy, an exception to this rule should be made when the sentence to which the footnote attaches includes a reference to the author, case, or document. In such cases, the format below should be used:  n 16 above, 1213.  n 17 above, para 99. Note that a comma should set off the page or paragraph reference in this last format but not in the format above. SUBSEQUENT REFERENCE TO CASES First reference in text: In the wellknown case ofGrootboom v Minister of Housing(Grootboomcase) Thereafter: TheGrootboomcase C. OTHER STYLE GUIDELINES ABBREVIATIONS  Abbreviations are generally not used in the text. (Exceptions: Madala J, Chaskalson P)
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abbreviated form – write term in full the first time, eg United Nations Acronyms, (UN) (no‘ … ’, or ‘hereafter’ or ‘later cited as’)  ‘for example’ (in text); use ‘eg’ only in footnotes  Use para and paras in footnotes, full out in text  Use sec and secs, art and arts in footnotes, full out in text abbreviations in footnotes such as ‘eg’ Use CAPITALISATION capital letters; only use for proper names and specifics, such as England, Avoid Constitutional Court  Reference to a specific court: High Court, Constitutional Court: TheCourt held … (butcourts will not interfere …) to a specific Reference Constitution (the South AfricanConstitution; the Constitution of Nigeria); but genericconstitutions  Reference to a specificBill ofRights (the Bill of Rights in the South African Constitution), but thebills ofrights contained in African constitutions  Reference to a specificProtocol – as above  After a colon (:) Capital letter if a new full sentence is introduced; decap if it is merely a list of items  Reference to books: CH HeynsHumanrightslaw inAfrica  Reference to journals:AfricanHumanRightsLawJournal;articles in journals: ‘The human rights dimension of conflict’ (NOT caps)  WordsNOTcapitalised: anglophone apartheid (not italics) commissioners (butCommissioner Badawi) court (unless specific court) francophone government interim/final Constitution member state ordinary session (of Commission) parliament (but PanAfricanParliament) state state party twentieth century  Words capitalised: Chairperson Cold War Preamble/Postamble Protocol (specific) Rules of Procedure Secretariat Secretary SecretaryGeneral Shari’a Southern Africa ViceChairperson West Africa World War II South, East, North, West 4
DATE FORMAT 31 January 2005 (notJanuary 31st, 2005; 31 January,2005) FOOTNOTES  Full stops after footnotes line of footnote is indented; other lines aligned left First  Noibid,supra, etc start with capitals, Footnotes exceptif they start with ‘n’ (note) eg ‘n 17 above’ far as possible, use abbreviations (without full stops) eg para, paras, sec, As secs, art, arts, ch, etc  If more than one source is cited in a footnote, list them chronologically (unless no dates, then alphabetically); separate sources with ‘;’  No ‘paragraphs’ in footnotes  Use ‘&’ when referring to articles and authors (arts 1&De Waal 2; & Currie; Grootboom&Others v Minister …); use ‘and’ in full sentences are not abbreviated – provide full title, eg Journals notJAC, butJournal of African Law No ‘at’ or ‘page’ – eg (2005) 1African Human Rights Law Journal375 380  Authors: two authors, both names in full (&) with initials; more than two authors, useet alreferring to earlier footnote reference, When noinitial (Heyns n 2 above)  Use ‘as above’ only when reference is exactly as in preceding footnote; otherwise ‘n 33 above, 45’. HEADINGS Headings – do not use initial capital letters HEADING LEVELS 1 Introduction(bold; font 14 pitch) 1.1 The South African experience(bold; font 12 pitch) 1.1.1 The position in Nigeria(bold; font 12 pitch) Subsequent subheadings: no numbering, italics NUMERALS – 10 written out (one, ten); above 10: figures (14, 32) 1 except at start of sentence (Fortyfive soldiers were killed …)  Ordinals: In text: first, second, twentyninth, etc,butsession of Commission, 29th 2nd session of Commission th In footnotes: 1st, 2nd, 29th (no superscript, eg 29 ) 25 000 (not 25,000 – space, not comma) Thousands:  Numbers should be separated by a hyphen and a space placed on each side of the hyphen:  150 000  290 000, not150 000–290 000 or150 000 – 290 000
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 15  49, not 1549,15–49 or15 – 4921.2  45.3%, not 21.245.3%, 21.2–45.3% or 21.2 – 45.3% PUNCTUATION  Avoid punctuation marks where possible full stop after Mr, Prof, Dr, etc No 2003 During ,the United Nations ….  Quotations: ‘ … ’ in South Africa …’ (no full stop after ’) 6 reference in text: … in South Africa Footnote .(footnote numberafterfull stop 6 or comma); also when quote ends: … in South Africa. Avoid /, rather use ‘or’  Bullets: If followed by full sentences, initial capital and full stop after each; if not full sentences, no initial cap and ‘;’ after each. PARENTHESIS Parenthetical text should be set off by dashes as below: infringements that would simply not be capable of justification in terms of Certain section 36(1) – infringements that occur in terms of simple state conduct, for example, unrelated to any law of general application – can be justified in terms of the reasonableness test that applies to the qualified rights. Each of the following examples is incorrect:infringements that would simply not be capable of justification in terms of Certain section 36(1)  infringements that occur in terms of simple state conduct, for example, unrelated to any law of general application  can be justified in terms of the reasonableness test that applies to the qualified rights. infringements that would simply not be capable of justification in terms of Certain section 36(1)—infringements that occur in terms of simple state conduct, for example, unrelated to any law of general application—can be justified in terms of the reasonableness test that applies to the qualified rights. infringements that would simply not be capable of justification in terms of Certain section 36(1) — infringements that occur in terms of simple state conduct, for example, unrelated to any law of general application — can be justified in terms of the reasonableness test that applies to the qualified rights. PARAGRAPHING The first paragraph starts aligned. Subsequent paragraphs are indented. Paragraphs under indented quotes are also aligned. Top of page remains indented if paragraph should ordinarily be indented QUOTATIONS Quotes longer than30words must be indented (on left hand side, not on right hand side), for example: The challenge of building one nation and one economy in which all South Africans may participate and from which all may benefit remains a major challenge for the short, medium and perhaps even long term.
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For indented quotes, use font 10 pitch. Indented quotes do not have quotation marks. The footnote sign should usually precede the indented quote, unless the indented quote forms part of a sentence, which ends at the end of the quote; then the footnote sign comes at the end of the quotation. In quoted text, American spelling should notbe changed to British spelling. The same goes for the title of a cited work. However, the name of an organisation should be spelled according to British norms regardless of how the organisation chooses to spell its own name. Thus, World Health Organization should be changed to World Health Organisation. QUOTATION MARKS Always use single quotes, unless it is a quote within a quote (then double quotes). SPACING Article 27(2)  no space before (2) SPELLING OF SPECIFIC WORDS UK English – ‘s’ instead of ‘z’ – organisation, not organization acknowledgment (not acknowledgement) cooperation healthcare (not health care) judge judgment (not judgement) licence licensing practice (noun) practise (verb) Shari’a state party/parties (not states parties) USE OF BRACKETS Rather use commas that brackets for parenthesis. USE OF BOLD Avoid. USE OF FOREIGN TERMS to avoid – replace with modern English term, instead of Try suprause rather ‘above’  If used, use italics: eginter alia, status quoUSE OF HYPHENS antiretroviral bilateral (not bilateral)
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caselaw clawback clauses cooperation Dar es Salaam decision making (but decisionmaking process) extrajudicial HIV positive (but HIVpositive status) intergovernmental mothertochildtransmission multilateral (not multilateral) SecretaryGeneral subregion/subregional subsection ViceChairperson USE OF ITALICS  Always use italics for:  titles of journals, books, newspaper names, cases  foreign words, unless acknowledged as part of English, and unless part of or in a quotation  emphasis ( … opinions on thecompatibility of domestic laws …) – add ‘my emphasis’ or ‘our emphasis’ in footnote (use sparingly) should not be used for legislation and treaties. Italics
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