Self-Study Assignment

Self-Study Assignment

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Self-Study Assignment You will have a QUIZ on the attached pages on _____________________ . Your assignment is: READ the pages attached. WORK the examples in the lesson. Complete the pages as homework. To work the examples, • use a sheet of paper to cover below the * * * * * line, • try the problem on your paper, • then check your answer below the * * * * * line.
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Lessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
Secret Stories:
Exploring the
Elements of
Folktales and Fables
Grades 1–3
Using AIT Products
Letter TV I, programs 3 and 5, “The Letter D” and “The Letter G”
Letter TV III, programs 3 and 13, “When Two Vowels Go Walking” #1, and “Long and Short
Vowels”
16 Tales, program 3 (from Spain), “The Flea”
16 Tales, program 6 (from West Africa), “Ananse’s Visitor Turtle”
In this lesson students will be introduced to theOverview
genres of folktale and fable through the gentle
The study of folktales as a genre has long been ®humor of the Letter TV characters, whom we
accepted as a means to encourage students to meet in three AIT series created by Destiny
explore the elements of literature, develop their Images, Inc. After exploring the characteristics
own unique writing styles, and embrace diver- and elements of folktales and fables through
sity. Although a formal study of genre is part of these programs, students will examine tradi-
the curriculum of higher grades, younger stu- tional stories from other cultures through pro-
dents benefit from the exploration with stories grams from the AIT series 16 Tales, and then
presented in a simpler format. As the ERIC
1Clearinghouse’s Carl B. Smith puts it, “Just by
reading several sample folktales and by analyz-
ing their characteristics in discussions, even
young children can arrive at a reasonable list of
the characteristics of the folktale.”
1 “Helping Children Understand Literary Genres.” Digest 90 is EDO- “Readers are plentiful;
CS-94-03 and was published in April 1994 by the ERIC Clearinghouse
on Reading, English, and Communication, 2805 E 10th Street,
Bloomington, IN 47408-2698, Telephone (812) 855-5847 or (800) 759- thinkers are rare.”
4723. ERIC Digests are in the public domain and may be freely repro-
duced. Additional copies may be ordered by contacting the ERIC
—Harriet MartineauDocument Reproduction Service at (800) 443-3742.
Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net 1
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work in groups and independently to role play • Poster, The Letter TV Cast (see Appendix A)
and explore the elements of folktales and fables.
• Tag board, or recycled file folders (see
Planning Notes for amounts)
Objectives
• Patterns for Letter TV Cast Headbands,• Describe the characteristics of simple genres
enlarged, colored, and cut out (see Planningincluding fables and folktales.
Notes and Appendix B)
• Comprehend the elements of folktales and
• 5 “microphones” (See Planning Notes for cre-fables from around the world.
ating microphones from craft materials)
• Identify and analyze settings and characters
• Large paper grocery sacks (one for each stu-of folktales and fables.
dent)
• Compare and contrast stories to determine
• Assorted arts and crafts supplies to decoratehow they are alike and different.
grocery sacks (markers, crayons, beads, but-
tons, feathers, lightweight toys, trim, scrap
Vocabulary fabric and fun fur, etc.)
character
• Assorted natural objects to decorate groceryfable
sacks (grass, sand, small pebbles, etc.)folktale
moral
• Colored construction papersetting
• Scissors
Preparation
• Glue, tape, staples
Materials Needed
• Worksheet, Story Elements (see Appendix C:
• AIT video programs:
Assessment), one for each student
Letter TV I, program 3, “The Letter D”
(about 5 minutes in length)
• 20 to 30 Index cards
Letter TV III, Program 3, “When Two Vowels
Go Walking” #1 (about 5 minutes in length)
Letter TV III, Program 13, “Long and Short Planning Notes
Vowels” (about 5 minutes in length)
• Before beginning the lesson, create a set of Letter TV I, program 5, “The Letter G”
five Letter TV (LTV) headbands. For each(about 5 minutes in length)
headband: 16 Tales, program 3 (from Spain), “The
1. Cut five 2" x 22" strips of tag board (or recy-Flea” (CUE the tape to approximate time
1 cled file folders).code 02:54—about 92 minutes in length)
2. Enlarge, copy, color, and cut out each of the 16 Tales, program 6, (from West Africa)
LTV character heads from Appendix B. They“Ananse’s Visitor Turtle” (CUE the video to
should ideally fit lengthwise on standardtime code 07:36—about 5 minutes in
1
82" x 11" copy paper.length)
2 Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.netLessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
3. Cut another strip of tag board the length of each character?” Take students through the char-
the character’s head/hair. Staple, glue, or acters one-by-one, writing their names on the
tape the strip to the back side of the head, board while sharing the following information
to provide stability. about each.
4. Attach one head to the center of each 2" x
22" tag board strip. Place the staples at the 1. Peri Od, whose head is a period. Peri is the
character’s mouth, leaving most of the head calmest of the LTV characters (his look and
sticking up from the band. sound are modeled after Walter Cronkite), and
5. Staple or tape the strip into a loop (You often is the voice of reason when his co-work-
may want to measure the loop on a stu- ers get too excited. He usually opens his
dent’s head to make sure it fits comfort- reports with the word “Bon jour!”—but with-
ably.) out the French accent.
6. Save the headbands for the group activity
on Day Three. 2. May Point, whose head is an exclamation
point. May is the co-anchor of Letter TV
• On Day Three, students will role-play Letter News, sometimes pairing with Comma and
TV reporters interviewing other students other times with Peri. Her favorite line is
about story elements. You can create simple “Have a good day.”
mock microphones from toilet paper rolls,
wadded-up aluminum foil, and black electri- 3. Comma Commentator, whose head is a
cian’s tape. Glue each aluminum ball onto the comma. Comma often jumps to wrong con-
end of a toilet paper tube, then cover the tube clusions and has to rely on his friends to
halfway up the aluminum ball with black understand some things. He gets a little
electrician’s tape. excited sometimes, and has a tendency to fall
down—a lot. Comma is often heard saying,
Time “Leaping Linguini!”
This project will take about three class periods,
plus time set aside for the Extension Activity and 4. Co-Co Lynn, whose head is a colon. Co-Co
Assessments. reports on many human-interest stories for
Letter TV. Coco is smart and curious, and she
always has a good idea about how to
Procedure—Day 1 approach an investigation. Her giggles are
contagious!
Lesson Opener: Introducing Letter TV
5. Mark Question, whose head is a questionDisplay or pass around the poster of the
® mark. Mark is the most playful of the charac-Destoons characters found in Appendix A.
ters and is usually in the middle of trouble,Explain that this lesson will focus on videos fea-
either because of his curiosity or because heturing these characters. They’re called the
® doesn’t always understand what is going on.Destoons , and they are the stars of several pro-
Mark loves slugs, and is fond of saying, “You’regrams about letters and letter sounds. The shows
SUPER COOL!”are based around a fictional TV station, and the
characters go out into the world, investigating
To introduce your students to these charactersnews, telling stories, or acting in skits that are
and the Letter TV setting, share the five-minutebased on a letter theme.
video from the original LTV series, “The Letter
D,” in which the gang reports on a day ofAsk, “What do you notice about the characters’
disasters.heads? Who can name the punctuation mark for
Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net 3Lessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
• The stories are short enough to be told aloudIntroduce Topic: Folktales
in one sitting, with the plot moving along at a
Explain to students about the genre of folktales fast pace.
by telling them that folktales are stories that
come from all over the world. Folktales have no • One or more of the characters usually learns a
one specific author—they are handed down lesson.
through storytellers in various cultures. Many
have been collected and published by people Previewing Activity
whose names are then associated with them, Write “The Three Little Pigs” on the board. Have
2such as the Brothers Grimm . They’re usually students identify the folktale elements from this
about ordinary characters in their ordinary lives story. These should include:
and tell about something extraordinary that hap-
pens to those characters. There are lots of varia- • Begins with “Once upon a time ... .”
tions on folktales, but many of them share some
common features, such as the following. • Things come in threes.
• They have no specific time frame but are con- • Has a “monster” (the wolf).
sidered to have happened in the distant past
(“Once upon a time,” “Long, long ago,” etc.). • All of the animals talk and act like humans.
• The first characters are unsuccessful because • The first two pigs are foolish and are eaten (or
they are foolish or unkind, while the final chased away, depending on your version of
character is smart or loving and is successful. the story), but the third is smarter and defeats
the wolf.
• May involve magic of some kind—wishes are
granted, magic objects are found, etc. • The third pig uses trickery.
(Folktales with magic are called “fairy tales.”)
• It is short enough to tell in one sitting.
• Animals, plants, and sometimes even
machines have many human characteristics, • In the less-violent version, the first two pigs
such as the ability to think and talk. learn a lesson.
• Folktales often feature a monster or an evil Point out that there is no magic in “The Three
character that the hero(es) must overcome. Little Pigs,” so it isn’t considered a fairy tale.
• The characters often use trickery to defeat the Videos
monster or complete a quest (task). Prepare students for watching the AIT video
from Letter TV III, “When Two Vowels Go
• Many things occur in threes (three main char- Walking” #1, by explaining that in this series the
acters, three magic objects, three tasks to Letter TV gang stars in animated folktales similar
complete, and so on). to stories told around the world. Explain that
this story may remind them of other stories
they’ve heard.
2 NOTE: You might want to point out to students that Hans Christian
Andersen stories, such as “The Little Mermaid,” are not folktales
because Andersen didn’t collect them from storytellers—he wrote
them himself.
4 Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.netLessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
the story, stopping the tape at the black screen at
1
time code 12:20 (Total length: about 92 minutes).
Label the other circle in the Venn diagram “The
Flea” and list the elements of the folktale there.
Then, as a class, examine the elements from
“We can keep from a child each story that are similar, and move those into
the overlapped section of the diagram. (For
all knowledge of earlier example: both stories have talking animals, and
both are short enough to be told in one sitting.)
Point out that, although folktales share somemyths, but we cannot take
similar features, each story is different in some
ways, too. (For example: only “The Boat, Goat,from him the need for
and Train” involves the number three.) Those
features stay in the separated sections of themythology.”
diagram.
—Carl Gustav Jung
Independent Work:
PLAY the video “When Two Vowels Go Walking” Secret Story Vests
#1. Because this program is only five minutes in
Ask students to brainstorm famous folktales, list-length, the entire video can be shown.
ing the story titles on the board. Some good
examples of folktales are the fairy tales collectedDraw the two circles of a large Venn diagram on
by the Brothers Grimm, the Ananse stories fromthe board, and label one circle “The Boat, Goat,
Africa, or the Native American Coyote tales. Beand Train.” List the elements of the folktale pre-
sure to include any folktales from your classsented in the LTV story in the correct circle.
read-aloud time or those found in your reading(This folktale is about a race between the three
textbook.characters. The goat couldn’t win any races
against the faster boat and train until he got the
In addition, select some titles of famous fables,idea to have a leaf-eating contest.) Point out that
the genre students will be studying in the nextthis folktale has another purpose: to help teach
class period. List stories from Aesop, such asstudents about letters. What is the letter lesson
“The Ant and the Grasshopper” or the African-taught in this program? What rule does it teach?
American folklore found in the Uncle Remus(NOTE: You may wish to discuss the Reading
tales compiled by Joel Chandler Harris, such asRules and Letter Music segments featuring the
“Br’er Rabbit and the Tar Baby” (also available inphonics rule if you have the time, but phonics is
the 16 Tales series from AIT).not the focus of this lesson and won’t be covered
here.)
Now write the word “character” on the board.
Explain that characters are the “stars” of theNow explain that students will see another
story. They can be people, animals, or evenexample of a folktale. This story, called “The
machines, as seen in the two videos. Ask volun-Flea,” is a folktale from Spain, and it is also
teers to name the main characters in the storiesabout a contest. CUE the tape to approximate
listed on the board, and tell if they are human,time code 02:54, after the storyteller says, “Listen
animal, or something else.to the tale of the flea.” PLAY through the end of
Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net 5Lessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
Explain that good stories help the reader to 3. Cut a hole in the center of the sack bottom,
understand something about the characters— large enough to fit around the student’s neck.
whether they are kind or selfish, funny or seri-
ous, well behaved or mischievous, and so on. 4. In each narrow side, carefully cut a circle near
Ask students to list some of the character traits the sack’s bottom for arm holes.
of the Letter TV characters, and then repeat the
activity with characters from some of the folk- 5. Have each student write his or her name on
tales and fables listed on the board. Encourage the inside of the vest.
them to brainstorm descriptive adjectives, and
begin a list of these words that students can refer After the vests have been created, allow students
to as they decorate their vests (brave, kind, cruel, to begin decorating only the front of their vests
sneaky, foolish, stupid, smart, clever, clumsy, with pictures, words, and objects that help to
graceful, good-hearted, selfish, and so on). describe only one character from the story they
selected. They should NOT include the charac-
Now tell students to each select a story, but keep ter’s name, but descriptions only. (NOTE:
it a secret. Explain that their job will be to create Teachers may wish to create a story vest of their
a “story vest.” This vest is going to be decorated own to model the activity. Select a story and
with pictures, words, and objects that will give “talk” through the selection of a character and
people clues to the story. After they’ve com- decorations, to allow students to understand the
pleted the vests, the class will play a guessing thought processes involved.)
game to try to discover the stories, so students
shouldn’t tell anyone what story they’ve selected. Students can use bright markers or crayons to
scatter words from the adjective list that apply.
Give a paper grocery sack to each student, and They can add feathers, fun fur, or material to
have them follow these steps in beginning the represent birds, animals, or people. Ask them to
project: think about special objects associated with a
character (e.g., an apple for the witch in “Snow
1. Lay the grocery sack flat on the desktop. White,” a tambourine for “The Flea,” a spinning
wheel for “Rumpelstiltskin” or “Sleeping Beauty,”
2. Carefully cut through one layer only of the etc.), and draw those objects on the front of the
large side of the sack—from the “top” edge up vests.
through the crease into the “bottom” of the
sack. (See Figure 1.) When time expires, collect the vests and save
them for the next class period. Students will be
decorating the backs of the vests to represent the
story’s setting and plot at that time.
Homework
Ask students to share the secret story they’ve
chosen with their families, and ask their parents
for suggestions on other things they can use to
decorate their vests. They can bring items from
home to add to their decorations during the next
class period.
Figure 1.
6 Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.netLessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
moral on the board: “IT IS EASY TO DESPISEProcedure—Day 2
WHAT YOU CANNOT GET.” Explain that this
story is where we get the expression “sour
Review/Reflection grapes.” Have students discuss how the expres-
Ask students to review the elements of a folktale, sion fits the story and when we might use it in
using the Venn diagram of the two stories shown real life. What lesson did they learn?
in the last class period. If students seem to be
unclear of the concepts, go through another Videos
well-known folktale with them, identifying the Prepare students for watching the AIT video
elements. from Letter TV III, “Long and Short Vowels,” by
explaining that in this program May Point from
Introduce New Topic: Fables Letter TV shares a fable. Tell them that, while
Explain that there is another type of folktale that they’re watching, they should try to imagine
is a bit different from the stories explored in the what the moral of the story should be. (This
last class. Write the word “fables” on the board. story is about a bat with a pail of bait that won’t
Explain that fables have also been shared by sto- be a pal and share.) You might want to point out
rytellers, and they come from many different the other purpose of this video, to illustrate the
countries, but there is one difference: fables are difference between words with long and short
told to teach the listeners, not just a character in vowel sounds.
the story, a valuable lesson. Each story ends with
a “moral” (write the word on the board). PLAY the video “Long and Short Vowels.”
Because this program is only five minutes in
Previewing Activity length, the entire video can be shown.
Read the following Aesop’s Fable, “The Fox and
3the Grapes” : Write the three morals suggested by different
characters at the end of the program on the
ONE hot summer’s day a Fox was strolling board:
through an orchard till he came to a bunch of
Grapes just ripening on a vine which had • May Point: “WE SHOULD APPRECIATE WHAT
been trained over a lofty branch. “Just the WE HAVE INSTEAD OF TAKING SOMETHING
things to quench my thirst,” quoth he. THAT ISN’T OURS.”
Drawing back a few paces, he took a run and a
jump, and just missed the bunch. Turning • Todd the Turtle: “IT IS BETTER TO SHARE
round again with a One, Two, Three, he THAN BE GREEDY.”
jumped up, but with no greater success. Again
and again he tried after the tempting morsel, • The Duck: “THE DUCK WITH THE SHINY
but at last had to give it up, and walked away PAN ALWAYS GETS THE BAIT.”
with his nose in the air, saying: “I am sure they
are sour.” Ask students to vote for the moral that they think
best fits the story, or to suggest better morals.
Ask students what they think might be the Then PLAY the second video, this one from the
moral, or lesson, a listener should learn from first Letter TV series, “The Letter G.” Again
this story. Allow students to offer and discuss encourage students to think of the moral that
some suggestions, and then write the actual best fits the story. Ask students to tell how these
3 two stories are alike and how they are different.Æsop. Fables, retold by Joseph Jacobs. Vol. XVII, Part 1. The Harvard
Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909–14; Bartleby.com, 2001.
www.bartleby.com/17/1/.
Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net 7Lessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
Allow students to work on their vests, collectingIndependent Work:
them when time is up and saving them for theComplete Secret Story Vests
next class.Write the word “setting” on the board. Explain
that the setting of the story tells both where and
Homeworkwhen the story takes place (write those words on
Again, suggest that students look at home forthe board with “setting”).
additional items they can add to their secret
story vests. What are some objects that mightSometimes it’s very easy to tell where a story
give clues to the setting of the story?takes place, because the story tells you. Where
did the story in “The Letter G” take place?
(Germany—it was mentioned in the first sen-
Procedure—Day 3
tence.)
In other stories the reader or listener has to fig- Review/Reflection
ure out where the story takes place from clues in Review with students the differences between
the story. Where did the story of the bat and the folktales and fables. Ask volunteers to explain
bait take place? (Students should be able to infer what the setting of a story is. Explain that they
that the story occurred in a city or town. Ask stu- will be watching two more videos and they
dents to explain what clues help them discover should look for all of these things.
the setting.)
Videos
Can you tell when each of the stories took place? Prepare students for watching the AIT video
(Make sure students understand that “when” can from 16 Tales, “Ananse’s Visitor Turtle,” by
refer to a general feeling of past, present, or explaining that this story comes from West Africa
future, or it can be as simple as time of day or and features a spider named Ananse. The West
season. In other stories the time period is obvi- Africans have many stories about Ananse the
ous, such as stories that took place during the Spider. Sometimes the character of is
American Revolution.) very clever, and sometimes he’s foolish. Students
should pay close attention to see how Ananse
Pass back the Secret Story Vests students began acts in this story, and they should look for clues
in the last class, and explain that today they will to the setting as well.
be decorating the back of their vests with clues
about the setting of their secret stories. They CUE the video to time code 07:36, at the black
should write words, draw pictures, or attach screen between the two stories. (NOTE: This
objects that go with the settings of the story. story begins with the line “Many months
later .. .” because it is the second tale read by
For example, if the story takes place on a farm, this storyteller. If time allows, you might want to
they might draw a barn or farm animals, or glue share the first tale of Ananse the Spider with the
some grass to the vest. If it happens in a town, class as well.) PLAY through the end of the story,
they might draw shops or tall buildings. They to approximate time code 12:27, again at a black
can show time of day or seasons by adding a sun screen.
or symbols for the weather. Or if the story takes
place in the present they might add items we Review the elements of folktales and fables with
have now that they didn’t have long ago, like students. Explain that the Ananse stories are
tape a lightweight plastic toy car to the vest. considered fables, but listeners are expected to
discover the moral for themselves. Ask students
8 Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.netLessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
to suggest the lessons that can be learned from Assessment
this story. Have students describe the characters
and the setting of this story.
1. Individual Assessment
Pass out a copy of the Story Elements worksheetGroup Work
(see Appendix C), and then show studentsGive students just a few more minutes to finish
another program from Letter TV III or 16 Tales,their Secret Story Vests, adding anything they
or if you prefer, read a folktale of your choice.brought in from home. When they’re finished,
(See Resources for some online collections ofhave them put on their vests, and divide the
folktales.) Have students fill out the worksheet,class into five groups. Place one Letter TV head-
checking off the appropriate elements, identify-band and one microphone on the table for each
ing the setting, and writing adjectives to describegroup. Explain that students in each group will
two or more characters from the story. NOTE:take turns playing a Letter TV reporter. That stu-
Younger students may dictate their answers todent will wear the LTV headband and hold the
an adult or older student.microphone.
2. Group AssignmentThe reporter will then “interview” another stu-
Evaluate each group’s work in conducting inter-dent, asking him or her questions about the
views and participating in the guessing game.character and setting of the secret story. The
Their assessment should reflect evidence ofother students in the group will then guess the
effective participation as well as the ability tostory, based on the clues about the characters
take turns and listen politely.and setting. When one story has been guessed,
another student becomes the reporter, inter-
As a further check on understanding and coop-viewing a different student from the group, until
eration, have group members work together toeveryone in the group has shared his or her story
create a secret story poster. Watch their ability tovest.
work together in selecting a story, identifying
character traits and settings, and sharing theNOTE: For younger students, you may want to
work of designing the poster to illustrate the ele-model this activity first, wearing one of the
ments. Use the posters in a “Secret Story” inter-headbands and interviewing a selected student
active bulletin board by providing small scrapsabout the clues on his or her vest. Be sure to fin-
of paper and envelopes for students to writeish the interview with the LTV character’s catch
their guesses. After about a week, take out thephrase or giggle!
guesses and discuss each poster with the class.
Extension Activity
Have older students write their own fables, fol-
lowing this procedure:
“Great culture is often
• Write several characters’ names on separate
index cards and place the cards in a sack orbetokened by great
bag.
simplicity.” • Write settings, including both time and place,
on several more index cards and place in
—Dorothee DeLuzy another sack or bag.
Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net 9Lessons ALIVE: Engaging Learners with Video
• List seven to ten morals on the board. (You Native American Lore Index
might use morals from Aesop’s Fables; see http://www.ilhawaii.net/~stony/loreindx.html
Resources, or create your own.)
Tales of Wonder: Folk and Fairy Tales from
• Students draw two character cards and one Around the World
setting card, and write down the information. http://www.darsie.net/talesofwonder
They should return the cards to the sack.
Shake up the sacks before allowing the next Andrew Lang’s Fairy Tale Collections
student to select cards. www.classicreader.com/author.php/aut.151/
• Have students select one moral from the list, Fairy Tales by the Grimm Brothers
and, using the characters and setting they www.fln.vcu.edu/grimm/grimm_menu.html
drew, write a short, one- or two-paragraph
fable based on those elements. Aesop’s Fables
http://www.bartleby.com/17/1/
Resources Ananse Tales
www.lehigh.edu/~tqr0/ghanaweb/anansetales.htmlAppLit’s Annotated Index of Appalachian
Folktales (with parallel tales from other
Tips for Teachers: How to Access AIT Materialstraditions)
without Spending Your Own Nickel(s)www.ferrum.edu/applit/bibs/tales/index.htm
www.ait.net/technos/e-zine/tech_notes/
grants.php
10 Agency for Instructional Technology • www.ait.net