The Great War: A Literary Perspective
16 pages
English

The Great War: A Literary Perspective

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16 pages
English
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  • cours - matière potentielle : boys
  • revision
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The Great War: A Literary Perspective HENRY G. GOLE @ 1987 Henry G. Gole H istorian Raymond Sontag's book about the interwar period from 1919 to 1939 has a graphic title, A Broken World (1971). In the preface to his book, Sontag tells us he borrowed his title from Gabriel Marcel's play of 1933, Le monde casse, a play in which Marcel's heroine seems to say we live in an age when the values that once gave meaning to life no longer animate us.
  • war secretary kitch­
  • war of material
  • war of movement
  • war with the clinical ef­ ficiency
  • soldiers as individuals
  • western front
  • soldiers
  • literature
  • war
  • time

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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 18
Langue English
Poids de l'ouvrage 1 Mo

Exrait

WWhat arehat are
CCosmic Rays?!osmic Rays?!
By Hayanon
Translated by Y. Noda and Y. Kamide
Supervised by Y. Muraki>
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Have you ever had an X-ray examination Scientists identified three types
at the hospital? In 1896, a German of radiation: positively-charged alpha
physicist, W. C. Röntgen, astonished people particles, negatively-charged beta particles,
with an image of bones captured through and uncharged gamma rays. In 1903, M.
the use of X-rays. He had just discovered Curie along with her husband, P. Curie, and
the new type of rays emitted by a discharge Becquerel, won the Nobel prize in physics.
device. He named them X-rays. Because Furthermore, M. Curie was awarded the
of their high penetration ability, they are Nobel prize in chemistry in 1911.
able to pass through flesh. Soon after, it Certain types of radiation including
was found that excessive use of X-rays can X-rays are now used for many medical
cause harm to bodies. purposes including examining inside the
In that same year, a French scientist, body, treating cancer, and more. Radiation,
A. H. Becquerel, found that a uranium however, could be harmful unless the
compound also gave off mysterious rays. amount of radiation exposure is strictly
To his surprise, they could penetrate controlled.
wrapping paper and expose a photographic The work with radium by M. Curie later
film generating an image of the uranium led to the breakthrough discovery of
compound. The uranium rays had similar the radiation coming from space. These
characteristics as those of X-rays, but were cosmic rays were discovered by an Austrian
determined to be different from them. physicist, V. F. Hess. Although cosmic
The emission of rays was also found rays have high-penetration ability, they
in thorium by G. C. Schmidt in Germany do not affect humans because the Earth‛s
and M. Curie in France in 1898. The term atmosphere makes them harmless.
“radioactivity” was given to this mysterious Outside the atmosphere, however,
phenomenon. M. Curie made the spectacular cosmic rays become a threat to astronauts!
discovery of radium. Radium began to be They have to be protected from the
used for radiation research because of its harmful effects.
intense radiation. It was found to be a Now, what are cosmic rays? In this
few tens of thousands times stronger than booklet, you will find the answer with the
uranium. help of your friends Mol and Mirubo.
Sources: Sun, Earth - NASA; Crab Nebula - Hale Observatories; Jets from Active Galactic Nucleus, Active
Galactic Nucleus - National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Supernova Remnant - ISAS/JAXATiny mysterious Tiny mysterious
parparticles articles are coming e coming
all the way thrall the way throough ugh
sspace to Earpace to Eartth.h.
TThey arhey aree
cosmic raycosmic rayss!!
Hooray, What are you
I got it! looking at,
Mirubo?
Robotic
dog, Mirubo.
Cosmic
rays!
Mol, science-
loving girl.
1he-he-
he- he-
he- he-
he he
yoicks!
Cosmic rays?? No way! I am a
That sounds exciting! beginning space
pilot. SpaceAre we going to
travel is a little outer space this
too advanced.time?
I am glad you asked.
A cosmic ray particleOK, then
is very tiny.
what are It is 1 trillionth of
1 millimeter.cosmic rays?
They are too small to
be visible to mere Oh, he is
human eyes, Mol. making fun
Of course I can see of me again!
with my super-
duper eyes.
giggle
That's not HowHere come
fair, Mirubo!! cosmic rays! frustrating!And hereI too want
too.
to see cosmic hum
humrays.
Now, I will go
to ask Sensei.
2
clap!
whiwhirrrrrrrrrr
Gnash!Plastic Wrap
k
n
a
-
Sensei,
You want toI need your
see cosmichelp!
rays? Yes, by all
means.
The cosmic ray Let‛s try an experiment
particles are with a cloud chamber.
A cloudeven smaller It can be a cosmic
chamber???... with ourthan viruses ray detector.
naked eyes, butand cannot
be seen ... I have an idea.
The materials
needed are ethanol,
dry ice, a beaker,
absorbent cotton,
and plastic wrap.
Wowie!
I knew you could do it.
First, soak the
absorbent cotton
with ethanol and
place it over the
mouth of the beaker.
Cover the top with
... tightly seal usingplastic wrap and ...
a rubber band.
Place the beaker on
the dry ice to cool
it down.
CAUTION: Dry ice must be handled with care. Do not touch it directly.
3
k
l
n
i
c
l
csspparkark
Darken the room and
shine a flashlight on
the vapor cloud in the Wow!
beaker. Observe the
cloud carefully, then There is
you will see ...
a flash!!
Ummmm
...?
Yipes! That was the track
of a cosmic ray,What made
which passed throughthat flash?!
the beaker.
Creation of a cloud
Whoopee! chamber was the original
idea of a ScottishI saw a
physicist C. T. R. Wilson,cosmic ray ...
who was awarded the
Nobel Prize in 1927.
I mean
its track. The design is
simple and well-
constructed.
4
wwo oo-
hho oo
v signs!As many as 140
What are cosmicUgh, iscosmic ray particles
rays all about?that true?!fall onto your desk
per second.
I can see
clearly.
There are two types
of cosmic rays: solar
cosmic rays and
galactic cosmic rays.
Solar cosmic rays
come to Earth a few
hours after being
On the other hand,formed.
galactic cosmic rays
are formed in the area
of a supernova ...
... and travel for more
than 10 million years
to reach Earth.
They hit the Earth
at nearly the speed
of light.
5You should
have known
that!
Don‛t
scare me.
I know!
We can see more
tracks of cosmic
rays if we try the
experiment outside,
can‛t we?
It does not make
a difference. Oops, isThey pass through
Cosmic rays get that so?!ground, cement, and I haven‛tinto a building. even our bodies. noticed it.
No need to worry.I remember that
They are not harmful
cosmic rays are to life as long as we
radiation. are on Earth.
What a relief.Really?!
6Primary cosmicWhat do cosmic
rays, the cosmicrays consist of?
rays coming fromWhat particles
outer space, arePdo they have?
mostly protons.
primary
cosmic rays
They collide with
the Earth‛s
atmosphere and
piondecay into secondary
gammacosmic rays. ray
secondary
cosmic rays
muon
electron
I have got it!
Cosmic rays on the
Earth‛s surface are
tiny particles produced
by energetic protons.
7Let‛s take a familiar
Exactly. They are tiny
example, a fluorescent
but have exceedingly How high
light commonly seen at
high energy! is that?
school and home, ...
... to compare its
energy to that of
cosmic ray particles.
Inside a fluorescent tube,
atoms in a high-energy state The energy is
return to the ground state equal to 2
by emitting the extra energy electron volts
in the form of light. (eV).
Now, an
individual cosmic ...
ray particle has
the energy of... 1 billion eV!!!
Wait! I haveAiiieee!!
never heard Why doesn‛t
If we were anyone careof these
hit by those about them?dangerous
particles, ... particles.
... we would
get a huge
shock!
8
!

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