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ReviewAutumn 2007
Employment policy
Target audience: Specialised/Technical

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ISSN 1725-5376
European Employment Observatory
Review: Autumn 2007
European CommissionEUROPEAN COMMISSION Romania: Cătălin Ghinăraru Hungary: Tibor Bors Borbély, Ministry of
Egbert Holthuis (DG EMPL D/2) National Labour Research Institute Employment and Labour
Susana Pratt (DG EMPL D/2) Bucharest Oliver Demkó, Public Employment Service
Slovenia: Miroljub Ignjatović Malta: Edwin Camilleri, Ministry of Education,
University of Ljubljana Youth and Employment
SYSDEM Network Ljubljana Netherlands: Martin Blomsma, Ministerie van
Belgium: Luc Sels Slovakia: Luboš Vagač Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid
Steunpunt Werk en Sociale Economie, K.U. Center for Economic Development Theo Keulen, Central Organisation for Work
Leuven Bratislava and Income
Leuven Finland: Hannu Kaseva Austria: Tanja Jandl, Ministry of Economy and
Bulgaria: Pobeda Loukanova The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy Labour
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (ETLA) Gudrun Nachtschatt, Arbeitsmarktservice
Sofia Helsinki Österreich
Czech Republic: Daniel Münich Sweden: Dominique Anxo Poland: Beata Chromińska, Ministry of
CERGE-EI CELMS - Centre for European Labour Market Economy, Labour and Social Policy
Prague Studies Marcin Dygoń, Voivodship Labour Office in
Denmark: Per Kongshøj Madsen Gothenburg Rzeszów
CARMA, Aalborg University United Kingdom: Eleanor Breen Portugal: Pedro Bogalho, Ministerio do
Aalborg Breen and Partners Trabalho e da Solidariedade
Germany: Kurt Vogler Ludwig London Angela Costa, Employment and Vocational
ECONOMIX Research & Consulting Croatia: Predrag Bejaković Training Institute
Munich Institute of Public Finance Romania: Cristina Mereuta, Employment
Estonia: Reelika Leetmaa Zagreb Department (MLSS)
PRAXIS Center for Policy Studies Turkey: Hakan Ercan Sonia Diaconescu, National Employment
Tallinn Middle East Technical University Agency
Ireland: Jerry Sexton Ankara Slovenia: Damjana Kosir, Ministry of Labour,
Dublin Norway: Knut Larsen Family and Social Affairs
Greece: Dimitris Karantinos ECON Analyse AS Alenka Rumbak, Employment Service of
National Centre of Social Research Oslo Slovenia
Athens Slovakia: Roman Brunovsky, Ministry of
Spain: Elvira González Gago Labour, Social Affairs and Family of the Slovak
Centro de Estudios Económicos Tomillo, S.L. MISEP Network Republic
Madrid Belgium: Joseph Remy, Ministère de l’Emploi Finland: Marja-Riitta Pihlman / Marjukka
France: Sandrine Gineste et du Travail Piiparinen, Ministry of Labour
Bernard Brunhes Consultants Bulgaria: Todor Krastev, Ministry of Labour Sweden: Pontus Ringborg, Ministry of
Paris and Social Policy Industry, Employment and Communications
Italy: Giuseppe Ciccarone Boyka Gyosheva, Employment Agency Bengt Härshammar, Swedish National Labour
Fondazione G. Brodolini Czech Republic: Miloš Tichý / Stanislav Market Board (AMS)
Rome Beneš, Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs United Kingdom: Satish Parmar, Department
Cyprus: Louis N. Christofides Denmark: Leif Christian Hansen / Tayyiba for Work and Pensions
University of Cyprus Ahmad, National Labour Market Authority Peter Sydserff, Jobcentre Plus
Nicosia Germany: Arnold Hemmann,
Latvia: Alfreds Vanags Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales
Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Wolfgang Müller, Bundesagentur für Arbeit Croatia: Marina Gašpar-Lukić, Ministry of
Studies Estonia: Nele Labi / Ülle Marksoo, Ministry of Labour and Entrepreneurship
Riga Social Affairs Turkey: Ali Ercan Su, Ministry of Labour and
Lithuania: Boguslavas Gruževskis Ireland: Marie Dempsey, Department of Social Security
Institute of Labour and Social Research Enterprise, Trade and Employment Berrin Karabüber, Turkish Employment
Vilnius Kevin Quinn, FÁS Organisation
Luxembourg: Roland Maas Greece: Eirini Kalavrou, Ministry of Labour Iceland: Frank Fridriksson, Directorate of
CEPS / INSTEAD Kleoniki Fotiadou, OAED Labour
Differdange Spain: Elvira Gonzalez Santamarta / Marina Norway: Ola Ribe, Ministry of Labour and
Hungary: Almos Telegdy Garcia Lopez, Ministero de Trabajo y Asuntos Government Administration
CEU - Central European University / Institute Sociales
of Economics of the Hungarian Academy of France: Caroline Méchin, DGEFP,
Sciences Département synthèses, Ministère de l’emploi EEO NETWORK SERVICES
Budapest Régine O’Neill, Agence Nationale pour GHK Consulting Limited
Malta: Manwel Debono l’Emploi (ANPE) 30 St Paul’s Square
Centre for Labour Studies, University of Malta Italy: Antonella Buonopane / Pietro Birmingham B3 1QZ, United Kingdom
Msida Tagliatesta, Ministero del lavoro
Netherlands: Joop Schippers Cyprus: Eleni Kalava, Ministry of Labour and Tel: +44 121 233 8900
VanDoorneHuiskes en Partners Social Insurance Fax: +44 121 212 0308
Utrecht Savvas Procopides, Human Resource E-mail: eeo@ghkint.com
Austria: Ferdinand Lechner Development Agency
Lechner, Reiter & Riesenfelder OEG Latvia: Imants Lipskis, Ministry of Welfare, Director: Gill Whitting
Vienna Labour Department Manager: Caroline Lambert
Poland: Elżbieta Kryńska Grieta Tentere, State Employment Service Editors: Inga Pavlovaite, Michelle Harrison,
IPiSS - Institute of Labour and Social Studies Lithuania: Rasa Malaiškienė, Ministry of Social Fiona Dearling
Warsaw Security and Labour
Portugal: Reinhard Naumann Inga Buckaite, National Labour Exchange This publication is based on articles provided
DINAMIA Luxembourg: Jean Hoffmann, by the SYSDEM correspondents. National
Lisbon Administration de l’Emploi articles are the sole responsibility of the
author(s).European Employment Observatory
Review: Autumn 2007
European Commission
Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities
Unit D.2
Manuscript completed in March 2008Neither the European Commission nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission may be held responsible for the use that may be made of
the information contained in this publication.
1. © Carl Cordonnier/Dailylife
2. © 123RF
3. © Carl 1 2
3
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P - P P
er a rfe einhocrl white on inrtedTable of contents
Overview of SYSDEM experts’ national articles on lifelong learning and skills development:
a review of trends and policies with a particular focus on gender and age .............................. 5
National Articles on learning and skills development: ticular focus on gender and age 21
Member States
Belgium ......................................................................................................................... 23
Bulgaria ........................................................................................................................ 27
Czech Republic .............................................................................................................. 31
Denmark ....................................................................................................................... 35
Germany 41
Estonia .......................................................................................................................... 47
Ireland 51
Greece 57
Spain ............................................................................................................................ 61
France 67
Italy .............................................................................................................................. 73
Cyprus 79
Latvia 83
Lithuania ....................................................................................................................... 87
Luxembourg ................................................................................................................... 91
Hungary........................................................................................................................ 97
Malta ........................................................................................................................... 101
The Netherlands ............................................................................................................ 105
Austria .......................................................................................................................... 1 13
Poland 1 17
Portugal 123
Romania 129
Slovenia 137
Slovakia 143
Finland 151
Sweden ......................................................................................................................... 157
United Kingdom ............................................................................................................. 163
Candidate countries
Croatia 171
Turkey ........................................................................................................................... 175
EEA country
Norway ........................................................................................................................ 181
European Employment Observatory — Review: Autumn 2007 3Overview of SYSDEM experts’
national articles on lifelong
learning and skills development:
a review of trends and policies
with a particular focus on gender and ageOverview of SYSDEM experts’ national articles on lifelong learning and skills development
ACRONYMS
ALMP – Active Labour Market Policies
CVT – Continuing Vocational Training
EES – European Employment Strategy
ESF – European Social Fund
EU – European Union
ISCED - International Standard Classification of Education
LFS – Labour Force Survey
LLL – Lifelong Learning
NGO – Non-governmental Organisations
NRP – National Reform Programme
OP – Operational Programme
SMEs – Small Medium Enterprises
UNDP – United Nations Development Programme
European Employment Observatory — Review: Autumn 20076Overview of SYSDEM experts’ national articles on lifelong learning and skills development
1 Introduction 2 Trends in the
This executive summary from the European Employment participation of adults Observatory provides an overview of trends and policies of
lifelong learning (LLL) and skills development, with a particular (25+) in lifelong focus on gender and age across the 30 European countries
covered by the Observatory (27 European Union (EU) Member learning, taking account States plus Norway, Croatia and Turkey). It is based on articles
written by the SYSDEM network of national experts from each
country. of age and gender
The executive summary provides an overview of the following Table 1 shows that, in 2006, 9.6% of the population aged 25-64
issues: participated in LLL over the four weeks prior to the survey in
the EU-27 countries. Differences between countries are very
• trends in the participation of adults (25+) in LLL, taking significant, ranging from the participation rate of 32.1% in
1account of age and gender; Sweden to 1.3% in Bulgaria and Romania. Only seven countries
have reached the target of 12.5% participation rate, to be
• obstacles and issues preventing further adult participation reached by 2010.
in LLL and skills development;
The overall LLL participation rate for the EU-27 shows a positive
• quality and impact of training; and trend, having increased by 35% since 2000. It is significant that
the participation rates have increased in most countries covered
• national strategies and measures which demonstrate by the EEO over the last ten years. The increases have been very
promising practice. substantial in some countries, e.g. Luxembourg, Cyprus, Belgium,
Spain, and Slovenia. However, the participation rates in these
countries were extremely low in the 1990s. The participation
2rate has fallen in the past years in Latvia and Bulgaria. However,
it is important to emphasise that in some countries (e.g. Spain)
there has been an important methodological break in the series,
which might have affected the trends.
Table 1 also shows that on average, for the EU-27 in 2006, there
are more women than men taking part in LLL (10.4% of women
aged 25+ took part in LLL, compared to 8.8% of adult men). Only
in three countries (Germany, Greece and Turkey) were there
more men participating in training, compared to women.
1( ) However, national data available in Romania show a higher rate of participation in LLL, see the national Romanian article.
2( ) Participation has also fallen in Slovakia over the 2002-2006 period. However, the abrupt drop in the participation from 8.5% in 2002 (the earliest
year available) to 3.7% in 2003 is difficult to account for. If data for 2002 is discounted, a moderate increase in LLL participation is reported, from 3.7%
in 2003 to 4.3% in 2006.
European Employment Observatory — Review: Autumn 2007 7Overview of SYSDEM experts’ national articles on lifelong learning and skills development
Table 1: Participation in lifelong learning, proportion of population aged 25-64,
by sex, comparing 2006 figures with figures for 1995
TOTAL FEMALE MALE
Change Change Change 3 4 5 2006 1995 2006 1995 2006 1995
2006-1995, % 2006-1995, % 2006-1995, %
EU-27 9.6 7.1 35% 10.4 7. 5 39% 8.8 6.7 31%
Belgium 7. 5 2.8 168% 7. 6 2.3 230% 7. 4 3.3 124%
Bulgaria 1.3 1.4 -7% 1.3 1.4 -7% 1.3 1.3 0%
Czech Republic 5.6 5.6 0% 5.9 5.4 9% 5.4 5.8 -7%
Denmark 29.2 16.8 74% 33.8 18.9 79% 24.6 14.8 66%
Germany 7. 5 5.7 32% 7. 3 4.8 52% 7. 8 6.4 22%
Estonia 6.5 4.3 51% 8.6 5.7 51% 4.2 2.7 56%
Ireland 7. 5 4.3 74% 8.9 4.3 107% 6.1 4.4 39%
Greece 1.9 0.9 111% 1.8 0.9 100% 2 1 100%
Spain 10.4 4.3 142% 11. 5 4.8 140% 9.3 3.8 145%
France 7. 5 2.9 159 % 7. 8 3 160% 7. 2 2.8 157%
Italy 6.1 3.8 61% 6.5 3.6 81% 5.7 4 43%
Cyprus 7.1 2.6 173% 7. 8 2.2 255% 6.5 3.1 110 %
Latvia 6.9 7. 3 -5% 9.3 9.2 1% 4.1 5.1 -20%
Lithuania 4.9 3.9 26% 6.6 5.3 25% 2.9 2.4 21%
Luxembourg 8.2 2.9 183% 8.7 2.3 278% 7. 6 3.5 117 %
Hungary 3.8 2.9 31% 4.4 3 47% 3.1 2.7 15%
Malta 5.5 4.5 22% 5.6 3.5 60% 5.5 5.6 -2%
Netherlands 15.6 13.1 19 % 15.9 12. 2 30% 15. 3 13.9 10%
6 13.1 7. 7 70% 14 6.3 122% 12. 2 9.2 33%Austria
Poland 4.7 4.3 9% 5.1 4.9 4% 4.3 3.7 16%
Portugal 3.8 3.3 15% 4 3.5 14% 3.7 3 23%
Romania 1.3 0.9 44% 1.3 0.8 63% 1.3 1.1 18%
Slovenia 15 7. 3 105% 16.3 7. 9 106% 13. 8 6.7 106%
Slovakia 4.3 8.5 -49% 4.6 8.8 -48% 4 8.2 -51%
Finland 23.1 16.3 42% 27 17. 5 54% 19.3 15. 2 27%
Sweden 32.1 26.5 21% 36.5 28.4 29% 2 7. 9 24.7 13%
UK 26.6 19. 2 39% 31.2 22.3 40% 22 16.3 35%
Croatia 2.1 1.9 11% 2.1 1.9 11% 2 2 0%
Turkey 2 1 100% 1.6 0.8 100% 2.4 1.2 100%
Norway 18.7 16.5 13% 20.2 16.7 21% 17. 2 16.3 6%
Source: Eurostat, LFS.
3( ) UK=1999, Slovenia=2003, EU-27=2000, Germany=1996, Cyprus=1999, Latvia=2002, Estonia=1997, Czech Republic=2002, Malta=2000,
Lithuania=1999, Poland=2001, Slovakia=2002, Hungary=1997, Bulgaria=2001, Romania=1997, Sweden=2005.
4( ) Sweden=1996, UK=1999, Finland=1996, Slovenia=2001, EU-27=2000, Germany=1996, Cyprus=1999, Latvia=2002, Estonia=1997, Czech
Republic=2002, Malta=2000, Lithuania=1999, Poland=2001, Slovakia=2002, Hungary=1997, Bulgaria=2001, Romania=1997.
5( ) EU-27=2000, Bulgaria=2001, Czech Republic=2002, Germany=1996, Estonia=1997, Cyprus=1999, Latvia=2002, Lithuania=1999, Hungary=1997,
Malta=2000, Poland=2001, Romania=1997, Slovenia=2001, Slovakia=2002, Finland=1996, Sweden=1996, UK=1999.
6( ) However, national data available in Austria paint a different picture of participation in LLL, as described in the national Austrian article.
European Employment Observatory — Review: Autumn 20078