Illustrated Science for Boys and Girls
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Illustrated Science for Boys and Girls


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The Project Gutenberg eBook, Illustrated Science forBoys and Girls, by AnonymousThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Illustrated Science for Boys and GirlsAuthor: AnonymousRelease Date: June 17, 2008 [eBook #25822]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK ILLUSTRATED SCIENCE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS*** E-text prepared by Roger Frankand the Project Gutenberg Online Distributed Proofreading Team( FROM DR. FRANKLIN’S BROOM-CORN SEED. See Page 223.ILLUSTRATED SCIENCEFORBOYS AND GIRLS.BOSTON:D. LOTHROP & COMPANY,FRANKLIN STREET.Copyright, 1881,By D. Lothrop & Company.TABLE OF CONTENTS. PageHow Newspapers are made. 11Umbrellas. 38Paul and the Comb-makers. 54In the Gas-works. 69Racing a Thunder-storm. 86August’s “’Speriment.” 103The Birds Of Winter. 125Something About Light-houses. 141“Buy a Broom! Buy a Broom!” 158Talking by Signals. 171Jennie finds out how Dishes are made. 183Archery For Boys. 192Dolly’s Shoes. 202A Glimpse of some Montana Beavers. 208How Logs go to Mill. 211LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.PageFrontispiece The N. Y. Tribune Building at Night. 13A Contributor to the Waste-Paper Basket. 16Office of the Editor-In-Chief. 17Regular ...



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Publié le 08 décembre 2010
Nombre de lectures 42
Langue English
The Project GutenbergeBook, IllustratedScience for Boys andGirls, by AnonymousThis eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at nocost and withalmost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it,give it away orre-use it under the terms of the Project GutenbergLicense includedwith this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.orgTitle: Illustrated Science for Boys and GirlsAuthor: AnonymousRelease Date: June 17, 2008 [eBook #25822]Language: EnglishCharacter set encoding: ISO-8859-1***START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOKILLUSTRATED SCIENCE FOR BOYS AND GIRLS*** 
E-text prepared by Roger Frankand the Project Gutenberg OnlineDistributed Proofreading Team(  FROM DR. FRANKLIN’S BROOM-CORN SEED. SeePage 223.ILLUSTRATED SCIENCEFORBOYS AND GIRLS.BOSTON:D. LOTHROP & COMPANY,FRANKLIN STREET.Copyright, 1881,
By D. Lothrop & Company.TABLE OF CONTENTS. How Newspapers are made. Umbrellas. Paul and the Comb-makers. In the Gas-works. Racing a Thunder-storm. August’s “’Speriment.” The Birds Of Winter. Something About Light-houses. “Buy a Broom! Buy a Broom!” Talking by Signals. Jennie finds out how Dishes are made.  Archery For Boys. Dolly’s Shoes. A Glimpse of some Montana Beavers.  How Logs go to Mill. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.FrontispieceThe N. Y. Tribune Building at Night.Page1138546986103125141158171183192202208211Page 13
A Contributor to the Waste-Paper Basket.Office of the Editor-In-Chief.Regular ContributorsHow Some of the News is GatheredType-Setter’s Case In Pi.Type-Setters’ Room.Taking “Proofs.”In the Stereotypers’ Room.Finishing the Plate.Printing Presses of the Past and PresentA News-Dealer.A Bad Morning for the News-Boys.“Any Answers come for Me?”The First Umbrella.What Jonas saw adown the Future.Lord of the Twenty-Four Umbrellas.A “Duck’s Back” Umbrella.An Umbrella Handle Au Naturel.Cutting the Covers.Finishing the Handle.Sewing “Pudding-Bag” Seams.Completing the UmbrellaMaster Paul did not feel Happy.My Lady’s Toilet.The New Circle CombAncient or Modern—Which?“In Some Remote Corner Of Spain.”161719222223242527303336373839424446475051535558616265
A Retort.Kitty in the Gas-Works.The Metre.The Gasometre.Inflating the “Buffalo.”A Plucky Dog.Our Balloon Camp.The Professor’s Dilemma.The Wreck of the “Buffalo.”The Incubator.How the Chicken is Packed.How the Shell is Cracked.The Artificial Mother.The Chickadee.The Black Snow-Bird.The Snow Bunting.The Brown Creeper.Nuthatches.The Downy Woodpecker.Fourth Order Light-House.A Modern Light-HouseLight-House on Mt. Desert.Light-House at “The Thimble Shoal”First Class Light-Ship.The Blind Broom-Maker of Barnstable.A Gay Cavalcade.The Comedy of Brooms.Up in the Attic.Plant the Broom!7277778387919499101105117118120126129133134136138141144147151154159160163164166
The Tragedy of Brooms.In Obedience to the Signals.The Potter’s Wheel.The Kiln and Saggers.Mould for a cup.Handle Mould.-Making a SugarBowl.Rest for flat Dishes.The Target.Dolly’s ShoesA Maine Wood-Chopper.A River-Driver.“The Liberated Logs came sailing along.Through the Sluice.ILLUSTRATED SCIENCE FORBOYS AND GIRLS.169177184186188188189191201204211214216218HOW NEWSPAPERS ARE MADE.We will suppose that it is a great newspaper, in agreat city, printing daily 25,000, or more, copies. Hereit is, with wide columns, with small, compact type, withvery little space wasted in head lines, eight largepages of it, something like 100,000 words printed uponit, and sold for four cents—25,000 words for a cent. Itis a great institution—a power greater than a hundredbanking-houses, than a hundred politicians, than ahundred clergymen. It collects and scatters news; it
instructs and entertains with valuable and sprightlyarticles; it forms and concentrates public opinion; it inone way or another, brings its influence to bear uponmillions of people, in its own, and other lands. Whowould not like to know something about it?And there is Tom, first of all, who declares that he isgoing to be a business man, and who already has abank-book with a good many dollars entered on itscredit side—there is Tom, I say, asking first of all:“How much does it cost? and where does the moneycome from? and is it a paying concern?” Tom shall nothave his questions expressly answered; for it isn’texactly his business; but here are some points fromwhich he may figure:How much does it cost?” Well, there is the publishingdepartment, with an eminent business man at itshead, with two or three good business men for hisassistants, and with several excellent clerks and otheremployès. Then there is the Editor-in-Chief, and theManaging Editor, and the City Editor, and a corps ofeditors of different departments, besides reporters—thirty or forty men in all, each with some specialliterary gift. Then there are thirty or forty men settingtype; a half-dozen proof-readers; a half-dozenstereotypers; the engineer and foreman andassistants below stairs, who do the printing; andseveral men employed in the mailing department.Then there are tons and tons of paper to be boughteach week; ink, new type, heavy bills for postage;many hundreds of dollars a week for telegraphicdispatches; and the interest on the money invested inan expensive building; expensive machinery, and an
expensive stock of printers’ materials—nothing beingsaid of the pay of correspondents of the paper at theState Capitol, at Washington, at London, at Paris, etc.Tom is enough of a business man, already, I know, tofigure up the weekly expenses of such anestablishment at several thousands of dollars—a goodmany hundreds at each issue of the paper.THE N. Y. TRIBUNE BUILDING AT NIGHT.And where does the money come from?” Partly fromthe sale of papers. Only four cents apiece, and only apart of that goes to the paper; but, then, 25,000 times,say two-and-a-half cents, is $625, which it must beconfessed, is quite a respectable sum for quarter-dimes to pile up in a single day. But the greater part ofthe money comes from advertisements. Nearly half ofthe paper is taken up with them. If you take a half-dozen lines to the advertising clerk, he will charge youtwo or three dollars; and there are several hundredtimes as much as your small advertisement in eachpaper. So you may guess what an income theadvertising yields. And the larger, the more popular,and the more widely read the paper, the better will bethe prices which advertisers will pay, and the more willbe the advertisements. And so the publisher tries tosell as many papers as he can, partly because of themoney which he gets for them, but more, because themore he sells the more advertising will he get, and thebetter rates will he charge for it. So, Tom, if you everbecome the publisher of a newspaper, you must setyour heart on getting an editor who will make a paper
that will sell—whatever else he does or does not do.And is it a paying concern?” Well, I don’t think theeditors think they get very large pay, nor thecorrespondents, nor the reporters, nor the printers,nor the pressmen. They work incessantly; it is anintense sort of work; the hours are long and late; thechances of premature death are multiplied. I think theywill all say: “We aren’t in this business for the moneythat is in it; we are in it for the influence of it, for theart of it, for the love of it; but then, we are very glad toget our checks all the same.” As to whether the paperpays the men who own it—which was Tom’s question:I think that that “depends” a great deal on the state oftrade, on the state of politics, and on the degree towhich the paper will, or will not, scruple to do meanthings. A great many papers would pay better, if theywere meaner. It would be a great deal easier to makea good paper, if you did not have to sell it. When,then, Jonathan shall have become a minister, hedoesn’t want to bear down too hard on a “venal press”in his Fast Day and Thanksgiving sermons. Perhaps,by that time, Tom will be able to explain why.How, now, is this paper made?” “But,” interruptsJonathan, “before they make it, I should like to knowwhere they get the 100,000 words to put into it; I havebeen cudgeling my brains for now two weeks to getwords enough to fill a four page composition—say 200words, coarse.”The words which are put into it are, besides theadvertisements, chiefly: 1. News; 2. Letters andarticles on various subjects; 3. Editorial articles,
reviews, and notes; 4. Odds and ends.The “letters and articles on various subjects” comefrom all sorts of people: some from great writers whoget large pay for even a brief communication; somefrom paid correspondents in various parts of the world;some from all sorts of people who wish to proclaim tothe world some grievance of theirs, or to enlighten theworld with some brilliant idea of theirs—whichgenerally loses its luster the day the article is printed.A large proportion of letters and articles from this lastclass of people get sold for waste-paper before theprinter sees them. This is one considerable source ofincome to the paper, of which I neglected to tell Tom.A CONTRIBUTOR TO THE WASTE-PAPER BASKET.As for the “odds and ends”—extracts from otherpapers, jokes, and various other scraps tucked in hereand there—a man with shears and paste-pot has agood deal to do with the making of them. If you shouldsee him at work, you would want to laugh at him—as ifhe were, for all the world, only little Nell cutting andpasting from old papers, a “frieze” for her doll’s house.But when his “odds and ends,” tastefully scatteredhere and there through the paper, come under thereader’s eye, they make, I am bound to say, a greatdeal of very hearty laughter which is not that laughterof ridicule which the sight of him at his work mightexcite.