Leviathan

Leviathan

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Publié le 08 décembre 2010
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The Project Gutenberg EBook of Leviathan, by Thomas Hobbes
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or re-use it under the terms of the Project Gutenberg License included with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.org
Title: Leviathan
Author: Thomas Hobbes
Release Date: October 11, 2009 [EBook #3207]
Language: English
Character set encoding: ASCII
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK LEVIATHAN ***
Produced by Edward White, and David Widger
LEVIATHAN
By Thomas Hobbes
1651
LEVIATHAN OR THE MATTER, FORME, & POWER OF A COMMON-WEALTH ECCLESIASTICAL AND CIVILL
Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury
Printed for Andrew Crooke, at the Green Dragon in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1651.
TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES ON THE E-TEXT:
This E-text was prepared from the Pelican Classics edition of Leviathan, which in turn was prepared from the first edition. I have tried to follow as closely as possible the original, and to give the flavour of the text that Hobbes himself proof-read, but the following differences were unavoidable.
Hobbes used capitals and italics very extensively, for emphasis, for proper names, for quotations, and sometimes, it seems, just because.
The original has very extensive margin notes, which are used to show where he introduces the definitions of words and concepts, to give in short the subject that a paragraph or section is dealing with, and to give references to his quotations, largely but not exclusively biblical. To some degree, these margin notes seem to have been intended to serve in place of an index, the original having none. They are all in italics.
He also used italics for words in other languages than English, and there are a number of Greek words, in the Greek alphabet, in the text.
To deal with these within the limits of plain vanilla ASCII, I have done the following in this E-text.
I have restricted my use of full capitalization to those places where Hobbes used it, except in the chapter headings, which I have fully capitalized, where Hobbes used a mixture of full capitalization and italics.
Where it is clear that the italics are to indicate the text is quoting, I have introduced quotation marks. Within quotation marks I have retained the capitalization that Hobbes used.
Where italics seem to be used for emphasis, or for proper names, or just because, I have capitalized the initial letter of the words. This has the disadvantage that they are not then distinguished from those that Hobbes capitalized in plain text, but the extent of his italics would make the text very ugly if I was to use an underscore or slash.
Where the margin notes are either to introduce the paragraph subject, or to show where he introduces word definitions, I have included them as headers to the paragraph, again with all words having initial capitals, and on a shortened line.
For margin references to quotes, I have included them in the text, in brackets immediately next to the quotation. Where Hobbes included references in the main text, I have left them as he put them, except to change his square brackets to round.
For the Greek alphabet, I have simply substituted the nearest ordinary letters that I can, and I have used initial capitals for foreign language words.
Neither Thomas Hobbes nor his typesetters seem to have had many inhibitions about spelling and punctuation. I have tried to reproduce both exactly, with the exception of the introduction of quotation marks.
In preparing the text, I have found that it has much more meaning if I read it with sub-vocalization, or aloud, rather than trying to read silently. Hobbes' use of emphasis and his eccentric punctuation and construction seem then to work.
TO MY MOST HONOR'D FRIEND Mr. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN of GODOLPHIN
HONOR'D SIR.
Your most worthy Brother Mr SIDNEY GODOLPHIN, when he lived, was pleas'd to think my studies something, and otherwise to oblige me, as you know, with reall testimonies of his good opinion, great in themselves, and the greater for the worthinesse of his person. For there is not any vertue that disposeth a man, either to the service of God, or to the service of his Country, to Civill Society, or private Friendship, that did not manifestly appear in his conversation, not as acquired by necessity, or affected upon occasion, but inhaerent, and shining in a generous constitution of his nature. Therefore in honour and gratitude to him, and with devotion to your selfe, I humbly Dedicate unto you this my discourse of Common-wealth. I know not how the world will receive it, nor how it may reflect on those that shall seem to favour it. For in a way beset with those that contend on one side for too great Liberty, and on the other side for too much Authority, 'tis hard to passe between the points of both unwounded. But yet, me thinks, the endeavour to advance the Civill Power, should not be by the Civill Power condemned; nor private men, by
reprehending it, declare they think that Power too great. Besides, I speak not of the men, but (in the Abstract) of the Seat of Power, (like to those simple and unpartiall creatures in the Roman Capitol, that with their noyse defended those within it, not because they were they, but there) offending none, I think, but those without, or such within (if there be any such) as favour them. That which perhaps may most offend, are certain Texts of Holy Scripture, alledged by me to other purpose than ordinarily they use to be by others. But I have done it with due submission, and also (in order to my Subject) necessarily; for they are the Outworks of the Enemy, from whence they impugne the Civill Power. If notwithstanding this, you find my labour generally decryed, you may be pleased to excuse your selfe, and say that I am a man that love my own opinions, and think all true I say, that I honoured your Brother, and honour you, and have presum'd on that, to assume the Title (without your knowledge) of being, as I am,
Sir,
Your most humble, and most obedient servant, Thomas Hobbes.
Paris APRILL 15/25 1651.
THE INTRODUCTION
PART 1 OF MAN
CHAPTER I. OF SENSE
Contents
CHAPTER II. OF IMAGINATION
Memory
Dreams
Apparitions Or Visions
Understanding
CHAPTER III. OF THE CONSEQUENCE OR TRAYNE OF IMAGINATIONS
Trayne Of Thoughts Unguided
Trayne Of Thoughts Regulated
Remembrance
Prudence
Signes
Conjecture Of The Time Past
CHAPTER IV. OF SPEECH
Originall Of Speech
The Use Of Speech
Abuses Of Speech
Names Proper & Common Universall
Subject To Names
Use Of Names Positive
Negative Names With Their Uses
Words Insignificant
Understanding
Inconstant Names
CHAPTER V. OF REASON, AND SCIENCE.
Reason What It Is
Reason Defined
Right Reason Where
The Use Of Reason
Of Error And Absurdity
Causes Of Absurditie
Science
Prudence & Sapience, With Their Difference
Signes Of Science
CHAPTER VI. OF THE INTERIOUR BEGINNINGS OF VOLUNTARY MOTIONS
Motion Vitall And Animal
Endeavour; Appetite; Desire; Hunger; Thirst; Aversion
Contempt
Good Evill
Pulchrum Turpe; Delightfull Profitable; Unpleasant Unprofitable
Delight Displeasure
Pleasure Offence
Pleasures Of Sense; Pleasures Of The Mind; Joy Paine Griefe
The Will
Formes Of Speech, In Passion
Good And Evill Apparent
Felicity
Praise Magnification
CHAPTER VII. OF THE ENDS OR RESOLUTIONS OF DISCOURSE
Judgement, or Sentence Final; Doubt
Science Opinion Conscience
Beliefe Faith
CHAPTER VIII. OF THE VERTUES COMMONLY CALLED INTELLECTUAL;
Intellectuall Vertue Defined
Wit, Naturall, Or Acquired
Good Wit, Or Fancy; Good Judgement; Discretion
Prudence
Craft
Acquired Wit
Giddinesse Madnesse
Rage
Melancholy
Insignificant Speech
CHAPTER IX. OF THE SEVERALL SUBJECTS OF KNOWLEDGE
CHAPTER X. OF POWER, WORTH, DIGNITY, HONOUR AND WORTHINESS
Power
Worth
Dignity
To Honour and Dishonour
Titles of Honour
Worthinesse Fitnesse
CHAPTER XI. OF THE DIFFERENCE OF MANNERS
What Is Here Meant By Manners
A Restlesse Desire Of Power, In All Men
Love Of Contention From Competition
Civil Obedience From Love Of Ease
From Feare Of Death Or Wounds
And From Love Of Arts
Love Of Vertue, From Love Of Praise
Hate, From Difficulty Of Requiting Great Benefits
And From Conscience Of Deserving To Be Hated
Promptnesse To Hurt, From Fear
And From Distrust Of Their Own Wit
Vain Undertaking From Vain-glory
Ambition, From Opinion Of Sufficiency
Irresolution, From Too Great Valuing Of Small Matters
And From The Ignorance Of Naturall Causes
And From Want Of Understanding
Credulity From Ignorance Of Nature
Curiosity To Know, From Care Of Future Time
Naturall Religion, From The Same
CHAPTER XII. OF RELIGION
Religion, In Man Onely
First, From His Desire Of Knowing Causes
From The Consideration Of The Beginning Of Things
From His Observation Of The Sequell Of Things
Which Makes Them Fear The Power Of Invisible Things
And Suppose Them Incorporeall
But Know Not The Way How They Effect Anything
But Honour Them As They Honour Men
And Attribute To Them All Extraordinary Events
Foure Things, Naturall Seeds Of Religion
Made Different By Culture
The Absurd Opinion Of Gentilisme
The Causes Of Change In Religion
Injoyning Beleefe Of Impossibilities
Doing Contrary To The Religion They Establish
Want Of The Testimony Of Miracles
CHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND,
From Equality Proceeds Diffidence
From Diffidence Warre
Out Of Civil States,
The Incommodites Of Such A War
In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust
The Passions That Incline Men To Peace
CHAPTER XIV. OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTS
Right Of Nature What
Liberty What
A Law Of Nature What
Naturally Every Man Has Right To Everything
The Fundamental Law Of Nature
The Second Law Of Nature
What it is to lay down a Right
Renouncing (or) Transferring Right What; Obligation Duty Justice
Not All Rights Are Alienable
Contract What
Covenant What
Free-gift
Signes Of Contract Expresse
Signes Of Contract By Inference
Free Gift Passeth By Words Of The Present Or Past
Merit What
Covenants Of Mutuall Trust, When Invalid
Right To The End, Containeth Right To The Means
No Covenant With Beasts
Nor With God Without Speciall Revelation
No Covenant, But Of Possible And Future
Covenants How Made Voyd
Covenants Extorted By Feare Are Valide
The Former Covenant To One, Makes Voyd The Later To Another
A Mans Covenant Not To Defend Himselfe, Is Voyd
No Man Obliged To Accuse Himselfe
The End Of An Oath; The Forme Of As Oath
No Oath, But By God
An Oath Addes Nothing To The Obligation
CHAPTER XV. OF OTHER LAWES OF NATURE
The Third Law Of Nature, Justice
Justice And Injustice What
Justice Not Contrary To Reason
Covenants Not Discharged By The Vice Of The Person To Whom Made
Justice Of Men, And Justice Of Actions What
Justice Of Manners, And Justice Of Actions
Nothing Done To A Man, By His Own Consent Can Be Injury
Justice Commutative, And Distributive
The Fourth Law Of Nature, Gratitude
The Fifth, Mutuall accommodation, or Compleasance
The Sixth, Facility To Pardon
The Seventh, That In Revenges, Men Respect Onely The Future Good
The Eighth, Against Contumely
The Ninth, Against Pride
The Tenth Against Arrogance
The Eleventh Equity
The Twelfth, Equall Use Of Things Common
The Thirteenth, Of Lot
The Fourteenth, Of Primogeniture, And First Seising
The Fifteenth, Of Mediators
The Sixteenth, Of Submission To Arbitrement
The Seventeenth, No Man Is His Own Judge
The Eighteenth, No Man To Be Judge, That Has In Him Cause Of Partiality
The Nineteenth, Of Witnesse
A Rule, By Which The Laws Of Nature May Easily Be Examined
The Lawes Of Nature Oblige In Conscience Alwayes,
The Laws Of Nature Are Eternal;
And Yet Easie
The Science Of These Lawes, Is The True Morall Philosophy
CHAPTER XVI. OF PERSONS, AUTHORS, AND THINGS PERSONATED
Person Naturall, And Artificiall
The Word Person, Whence
Actor, Author; Authority
Covenants By Authority, Bind The Author
But Not The Actor
The Authority Is To Be Shewne
Things Personated, Inanimate
Irrational
False Gods
The True God
A Multitude Of Men, How One Person
Every One Is Author
An Actor May Be Many Men Made One By Plurality Of Voyces
Representatives, When The Number Is Even, Unprofitable
Negative Voyce
PART II. OF COMMON-WEALTH
CHAPTER XVII. OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITION OF A
The End Of Common-wealth, Particular Security
Which Is Not To Be Had From The Law Of Nature:
Nor From The Conjunction Of A Few Men Or Familyes
Nor From A Great Multitude, Unlesse Directed By One Judgement
And That Continually
Why Certain Creatures Without Reason, Or Speech,
Do Neverthelesse Live In Society, Without Any Coercive Power
The Generation Of A Common-wealth
The Definition Of A Common-wealth
Soveraigne, And Subject, What
CHAPTER XVIII. OF THE RIGHTS OF SOVERAIGNES BY INSTITUTION
The Act Of Instituting A Common-wealth, What
The Consequences To Such Institution, Are
I. The Subjects Cannot Change The Forme Of Government
From this Institution of a Common-wealth are derived all the Rights, and
2. Soveraigne Power Cannot Be Forfeited
3. No Man Can Without Injustice Protest Against The
4. The Soveraigns Actions Cannot Be Justly Accused By The Subject
5. What Soever The Soveraigne Doth, Is Unpunishable By The Subject
6. The Soveraigne Is Judge Of What Is Necessary For The Peace
And Judge Of What Doctrines Are Fit To Be Taught Them
7. The Right Of Making Rules, Whereby The Subject May
8. To Him Also Belongeth The Right Of All Judicature
9. And Of Making War, And Peace, As He Shall Think Best:
10. And Of Choosing All Counsellours, And Ministers,
11. And Of Rewarding, And Punishing, And That (Where No
12. And Of Honour And Order
These Rights Are Indivisible
And Can By No Grant Passe Away Without Direct
The Power And Honour Of Subjects Vanisheth In The Presence
Soveraigne Power Not Hurtfull As The Want Of It,