The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 14: 1568, part I
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English

The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 14: 1568, part I

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Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1568
Author: John Lothrop Motley
Release Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4815] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was first
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Edition: 10
Language: English
*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DUTCH REPUBLIC, 1568 ***
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The Project Gutenberg EBook Rise of the DutchRepublic, 1568 #15 in our series by John LothropMotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdho ennotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts****eBooks Readable By Both Humans and ByComputers, Since 1971*******These eBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1568
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4815] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on March 19, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*E*B* OSTOAK RTTH OE FD TUHTEC HP RROEJPEUCBTL IGC,U 1T5E6N8B *E**RGThis eBook was produced by David Widger<widger@cecomet.net>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]
OMFO TTLHEEY'S HISTORYENDEITTHIOENR,L VAONLDUS,M PE G15.THE RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLICBy John Lothrop Motley55811568 [CHAPTER II.]Orange, Count Louis, Hoogstraaten, andothers, cited before the Blood-Council—Charges against them—Letter of Orange inreply— Position and sentiments of the Prince—Seizure of Count de Buren— Details ofthat transaction—Petitions to the Councilfrom Louvain and other places—Sentence ofdeath against the whole population of theNetherlands pronounced by the SpanishInquisition and proclaimed by Philip—Cruelinventions against heretics—The WildBeggars— Preliminary proceedings of theCouncil against Egmont and Horn—Interrogatories addressed to them in prison
—Articles of accusation against them—Foreclosure of the cases—Pleas to thejurisdiction— Efforts by the CountessesEgmont and Horn, by many Knights of theFleece, and by the Emperor, in favor of theprisoners—Answers of Alva and of Philip—Obsequious behavior of Viglius—Difficultiesarising from the Golden Fleece statutes setaside—Particulars of the charges againstCount Horn and of his defence—Articles ofaccusation against Egmont—Sketch of hisreply—Reflections upon the two trials—Attitude of Orange—His published'Justification'—His secret combinations—Hiscommission to Count Louis—Large sums ofmoney subscribed by the Nassau family, byNetherland refugees, and others—Greatpersonal sacrifices made by the Prince—Quadruple scheme for invading theNetherlands—Defeat of the patriots underCocqueville—Defeat of Millers—Invasion ofFriesland by Count Louis—Measures of Alvato oppose him—Command of the royalistsentreated to Aremberg and Meghem—TheDuke's plan for the campaign— Skirmish atDam—Detention of Meghem—Count Louisat Heiliger—Lee— Nature of the ground—Advance of Aremberg—Disposition of thepatriot forces—Impatience of the Spanishtroops to engage—Battle of Heiliger-Lee—Defeat and death of Aremberg—Death ofAdolphus Nassau—Effects of the battle—Anger and severe measures of Alva—Eighteen nobles executed at Brussels—
Sentence of death pronounced upon Egmontand Horn—The Bishop of Ypres sent toEgmont—Fruitless intercession by theprelate and the Countess—Egmont's lastnight in prison—The "grande place" atBrussels—Details concerning the executionof Egmont and Horn—Observation upon thecharacters of the two nobles—Destitutecondition of Egmont's family.Late in October, the Duke of Alva made histriumphant entry into the new fortress. During hisabsence, which was to continue during theremainder of the year, he had ordered theSecretary Courteville and the Councillor del Rio tosuperintend the commission, which was thenactually engaged in collecting materials for theprosecutions to be instituted against the Prince ofOrange and the other nobles who had abandonedthe country. Accordingly, soon after his return, onthe 19th of January, 1568, the Prince, his brotherLouis of Nassau, his brother-in-law, Count Van denBerg, the Count Hoogstraaten, the CountCulemburg, and the Baron Montigny, weresummoned in the name of Alva to appear beforethe Blood- Council, within thrice fourteen days fromthe date of the proclamation, under pain ofperpetual banishment with confiscation of theirestates. It is needless to say that these seigniorsdid not obey the summons. They knew full well thattheir obedience would be rewarded only by death.Twhere ec dhraarwgen s uap giani ntestn  tahreti cPlreisn,c set aotf eOd,r acnhgieef,l y wahnicdh
briefly, that he had been, and was, the head andfront of the rebellion; that as soon as his Majestyhad left the Netherlands, he had begun hismachinations to make himself master of thecountry and to expel his sovereign by force, if heshould attempt to return to the provinces; that hehad seduced his Majesty's subjects by falsepretences that the Spanish inquisition was about tobe introduced; that he had been the secretencourager and director of Brederode and theconfederated nobles; and that when sent toAntwerp, in the name of the Regent, to put downthe rebellion, he had encouraged heresy andaccorded freedom of religion to the Reformers.The articles against Hoogstraaten and the othergentlemen mere of similar tenor. It certainly wasnot a slender proof of the calm effrontery of thegovernment thus to see Alva's proclamationcharging it as a crime upon Orange that he hadinveigled the lieges into revolt by a false assertionthat the inquisition was about to be established,when letters from the Duke to Philip, and fromGranvelle to Philip, dated upon nearly the sameday, advised the immediate restoration of theinquisition as soon as an adequate number ofexecutions had paved the way for the measure. Itwas also a sufficient indication of a recklessdespotism, that while the Duchess, who had madethe memorable Accord with the Religionists,received a flattering letter of thanks and a farewellpension of fourteen thousand ducats yearly, thosewho, by her orders, had acted upon that treaty asthe basis of their negotiations, were summoned to
lay down their heads upon the block.The Prince replied to this summons by a brief andsomewhat contemptuous plea to the jurisdiction.As a Knight of the Fleece, as a member of theGermanic Empire, as a sovereign prince in France,as a citizen of the Netherlands, he rejected theauthority of Alva and of his self- constitutedtribunal. His innocence he was willing to establishbefore competent courts and righteous judges. Asa Knight of the Fleece, he said he could be triedonly by his peers, the brethren of the Order, and,for that purpose, he could be summoned only bythe King as Head of the Chapter, with the sanctionof at least six of his fellow-knights. In conclusion,he offered to appear before his Imperial Majesty,the Electors, and other members of the Empire, orbefore the Knights of the Golden Fleece. In thelatter case, he claimed the right, under the statutesof that order, to be placed while the trial waspending, not in a solitary prison, as had been thefate of Egmont and of Horn, but under the friendlycharge and protection of the brethren themselves.The letter was addressed to the procurator-general, and a duplicate was forwarded to the.ekuDFrom the general tenor of the document, it isobvious both that the Prince was not yet ready tothrow down the gauntlet to his sovereign, nor toproclaim his adhesion to the new religion: Ofdeparting from the Netherlands in the spring, hehad said openly that he was still in possession ofsixty thousand florins yearly, and that he should
commence no hostilities against Philip, so long ashe did not disturb him in his honor or his estates.Far-seeing politician, if man ever were, he knewthe course whither matters were inevitably tending,but he knew how much strength was derived fromputting an adversary irretrievably in the wrong. Hestill maintained an attitude of dignified respecttowards the monarch, while he hurled back withdefiance the insolent summons of the viceroy.Moreover, the period had not yet arrived for him tobreak publicly with the ancient faith. Statesman,rather than religionist, at this epoch, he was notdisposed to affect a more complete conversionthan the one which he had experienced. He was, intruth, not for a new doctrine, but for liberty ofconscience. His mind was already expandingbeyond any dogmas of the age. The man whomhis enemies stigmatized as atheist and renegade,was really in favor of toleration, and therefore, themore deeply criminal in the eyes of all religiousparties.Events, personal to himself, were rapidly to placehim in a position from which he might enter thecombat with honor.His character had already been attacked, hisproperty threatened with confiscation. His closestties of family were now to be severed by the handof the tyrant. His eldest child, the Count de Buren,torn from his protection, was to be carried intoindefinite captivity in a foreign land. It was aremarkable oversight, for a person of his sagacity,that, upon his own departure from the provinces,
he should leave his son, then a boy of thirteenyears, to pursue his studies at the college ofLouvain. Thus exposed to the power of thegovernment, he was soon seized as a hostage forthe good behavior of the father. Granvelle appearsto have been the first to recommend the step in asecret letter to Philip, but Alva scarcely neededprompting. Accordingly, upon the 13th of February,1568, the Duke sent the Seignior de Chassy toLouvain, attended by four officers and by twelvearchers. He was furnished with a letter to theCount de Buren, in which that young noblemanwas requested to place implicit confidence in thebearer of the despatch, and was informed that thedesire which his Majesty had to see him educatedfor his service, was the cause of thecommunication which the Seignior de Chassy wasabout to make.That gentleman was, moreover, minutely instructedas to his method of proceeding in this memorablecase of kidnapping. He was to present the letter tothe young Count in presence of his tutor. He wasto invite him to Spain in the name of his Majesty.He was to assure him that his Majesty'scommands were solely with a view, to his owngood, and that he was not commissioned to arrest,but only to escort him. He was to allow the Countto be accompanied only by two valets, two pages,a cook, and a keeper of accounts. He was,however, to induce his tutor to accompany him, atleast to the Spanish frontier. He was to arrangethat the second day after his arrival at Louvain, theCount should set out for Antwerp, where he was to
lodge with Count Lodron, after which they were toproceed to Flushing, whence they were to embarkfor Spain. At that city he was to deliver the youngPrince to the person whom he would find there,commissioned for that purpose by the Duke. Assoon as he had made the first proposition atLouvain to the Count, he was, with the assistanceof his retinue, to keep the most strict watch overhim day and night, but without allowing thesupervision to be perceived.The plan was carried out admirably, and in strictaccordance with the program. It was fortunate,however, for the kidnappers, that the young Princeproved favorably disposed to the plan. Heaccepted the invitation of his captors with alacrity.He even wrote to thank the governor for hisfriendly offices in his behalf. He received withboyish gratification the festivities with which Lodronenlivened his brief sojourn at Antwerp, and he setforth without reluctance for that gloomy and terribleland of Spain, whence so rarely a Flemish travellerhad returned. A changeling, as it were, from hiscradle, he seemed completely transformed by hisSpanish tuition, for he was educated and notsacrificed by Philip. When he returned to theNetherlands, after a twenty years' residence inSpain, it was difficult to detect in his gloomy brow,saturnine character, and Jesuistical habits, a traceof the generous spirit which characterized that raceof heroes, the house of Orange-Nassau.cPohnilispe qhuaed necxepsr eosf stehids  scoampteu raen xuipetoyn  aths eto the
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