The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 29: 1578, part III
79 pages
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The Rise of the Dutch Republic — Volume 29: 1578, part III

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79 pages
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The Project Gutenberg EBook The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1578 #31 in our series by John Lothrop MotleyCopyright laws are changing all over the world. Be sure to check the copyright laws for your country before downloadingor redistributing this or any other Project Gutenberg eBook.This header should be the first thing seen when viewing this Project Gutenberg file. Please do not remove it. Do notchange or edit the header without written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and other information about the eBook and Project Gutenberg at the bottom of thisfile. Included is important information about your specific rights and restrictions in how the file may be used. You can alsofind out about how to make a donation to Project Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain Vanilla Electronic Texts****EBooks Readable By Both Humans and By Computers, Since 1971*******These EBooks Were Prepared By Thousands of Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1578Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4831] [Yes, we are more than one year ahead of schedule] [This file was firstposted on March 26, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*** START OF THE PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE DUTCH REPUBLIC, 1578 ***This eBook was produced by David Widger [NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, or pointers, at the end of the file for those who may wish to sample the author'sideas before ...

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The Project Gutenberg EBook The Rise of theDutch Republic, 1578 #31 in our series by JohnLothrop MotleysCuorpey triog chth leacwk st haer ec ocphyarniggihnt gl aawll so fvoerr  ytohue r wcooruldn.t rByebefore downloading or redistributing this or anyother Project Gutenberg eBook.vTiheiws inhge atdhiesr  Psrhoojeulcdt  bGeu ttehne bfierrsgt  tfihlien. gP lseeaesne  wdho ennotremove it. Do not change or edit the headerwithout written permission.Please read the "legal small print," and otherinformation about the eBook and ProjectGutenberg at the bottom of this file. Included isimportant information about your specific rights andrestrictions in how the file may be used. You canalso find out about how to make a donation toProject Gutenberg, and how to get involved.**Welcome To The World of Free Plain VanillaElectronic Texts***C*oEmBopoutkesr sR, eSaidnacbel e1 9B7y1 *B*oth Humans and By*****These EBooks Were Prepared By Thousandsof Volunteers*****Title: The Rise of the Dutch Republic, 1578
Author: John Lothrop MotleyRelease Date: January, 2004 [EBook #4831] [Yes,we are more than one year ahead of schedule][This file was first posted on March 26, 2002]Edition: 10Language: English*E*B* OSTOAK RTT HOE FD TUHTEC HP RROEJPEUCBTL IGC,U 1T5E7N8B *E**RGThis eBook was produced by David Widger<widger@cecomet.net>[NOTE: There is a short list of bookmarks, orpwiosinht teor ss, aamt tphlee  tehned  aouft thhoer' sfi lied efoars  tbheofsoer ew hmoa kminagyan entire meal of them. D.W.]PMrOojTeLctE YG'uSt eHnIbSeTrOg REYd itiOoFn , TVHoEl.  N31ETHERLANDS,THE RISE OF THE DUTCH REPUBLIC, 1578
By John 5581toLrhpo Mtoyel
PART VI.ALEXANDER OF PARMA1578-1584.CHAPTER I.Birth, education, marriage, and youthfulcharacter of Alexander Farnese—His privateadventures—Exploits at Lepanto and atGemblours—He succeeds to the government—Personal appearance and characteristics—Aspect of affairs—Internal dissensions—Anjou at Mons—John Casimir's intrigues atGhent—Anjou disbands his soldiers—TheNetherlands ravaged by various foreigntroops—Anarchy and confusion in Ghent—Imbize and Ryhove—Fate of Hessels andVisch—New Pacification drawn up by Orange—Representations of Queen Elizabeth—Remonstrance of Brussels Riots and image-breaking in Ghent—Displeasure of Orange—His presence implored at Ghent, where heestablishes a Religious Peace—Painfulsituation of John Casimir —Sharp rebukes ofElizabeth—He takes his departure—Histroops apply to Farnese, who allows them toleave the country—Anjou's departure and
manifesto—Elizabeth's letters to the states-general with regard to him—Complimentaryaddresses by the Estates to the Duke—Death of Bossu—Calumnies against Orange—Venality of the malcontent grandees—LaMotte's treason—Intrigues of the Prior ofRenty—Saint Aldegonde at Arras—The Priorof St. Vaast's exertions —Opposition of theclergy in the Walloon provinces to thetaxation of the general government—Triangular contest—Municipal revolution inArras led by Gosson and others—Counter-revolution—Rapid trials and executions—"Reconciliation" of the malcontentchieftains— Secret treaty of Mount St. Eloi:Mischief made by the Prior of Renty—Hisaccusations against the reconciled lords—Vengeance taken upon him—Countermovement by the liberal party—Union ofUtrecht— The Act analyzed andcharacterized.A fifth governor now stood in the place which hadbeen successively vacated by Margaret of Parma,by Alva, by the Grand Commander, and by DonJohn of Austria. Of all the eminent personages towhom Philip had confided the reins of that mostdifficult and dangerous administration, the manwho was now to rule was by far the ablest and thebest fitted for his post. If there were livingcharioteer skilful enough to guide the wheels ofstate, whirling now more dizzily than ever through"confusum chaos," Alexander Farnese was thecharioteer to guide—his hand the only one which
could control.He was now in his thirty-third year—his uncle DonJohn, his cousin Don Carlos, and himself, havingall been born within a few months of each other.His father was Ottavio Farnese, the faithfullieutenant of Charles the Fifth, and grandson ofPope Paul the Third; his mother was Margaret ofParma, first Regent of the Netherlands after thedeparture of Philip from the provinces. He was oneof the twins by which the reunion of Margaret andher youthful husband had been blessed, and theonly one that survived. His great-grandfather, Paul,whose secular name of Alexander he had received,had placed his hand upon the new-born infant'shead, and prophesied that he would grow up tobecome a mighty warrior. The boy, from hisearliest years, seemed destined to verify theprediction. Though apt enough at his studies, heturned with impatience from his literary tutors tomilitary exercises and the hardiest sports. The dinof arms surrounded his cradle. The trophies ofOttavio, returning victorious from beyond the Alps,had dazzled the eyes of his infancy, and when butsix years of age he had witnessed the siege of hisnative Parma, and its vigorous defence by hismartial father. When Philip was in the Netherlands—in the years immediately succeeding theabdication of the Emperor—he had received theboy from his parents as a hostage for theirfriendship. Although but eleven years of age,Alexander had begged earnestly to be allowed toserve as a volunteer on the memorable day ofSaint Quentin, and had wept bitterly when the
amazed monarch refused his request.—Hiseducation had been, completed at Alcala, and atMadrid, under the immediate supervision of hisroyal uncle, and in the companionship of theInfante Carlos and the brilliant Don John. Theimperial bastard was alone able to surpass, oreven to equal the Italian prince in all martial andmanly pursuits. Both were equally devoted to thechase and to the tournay; both longed impatientlyfor the period when the irksome routine of monkishpedantry, and the fictitious combats which formedtheir main recreation, should be exchanged for thesubstantial delights of war. At the age of twenty hehad been affianced to Maria of Portugal; daughterof Prince Edward, granddaughter of King Emanuel,and his nuptials with that peerless princess were;as we have seen, celebrated soon afterwards withmuch pomp in Brussels. Sons and daughters wereborn to him in due time, during his subsequentresidence in Parma. Here, however, the fiery andimpatient spirit of the future illustrious commanderwas doomed for a time to fret under restraint, andto corrode in distasteful repose. His father, still inthe vigor of his years, governing the family duchiesof Parma and Piacenza, Alexander had nooccupation in the brief period of peace which thenexisted. The martial spirit, pining for a wide andlofty sphere of action, in which alone its energiescould be fitly exercised, now sought delight in thepursuits of the duellist and gladiator. Nightly did thehereditary prince of the land perambulate thestreets of his capital, disguised, well armed, alone,or with a single confidential attendant. Everychance passenger of martial aspect whom he
encountered in the midnight streets was forced tostand and measure swords with an unknown,almost unseen but most redoubtable foe, andmany were the single combats which he thusenjoyed, so long as his incognito was preserved.Especially, it was his wont to seek and defy everygentleman whose skill or bravery had ever beencommended in his hearing: At last, upon oneoccasion it was his fortune to encounter a certainCount Torelli, whose reputation as a swordsmanand duellist was well established in Parma. Theblades were joined, and the fierce combat hadalready been engaged in the darkness, when thetorch of an accidental passenger gashed full in theface of Alexander. Torelli, recognising thussuddenly his antagonist, dropped his sword andimplored forgiveness, for the wily Italian was tookeen not to perceive that even if the death ofneither combatant should be the result of the fray,his own position was, in every event, a false one.Victory would ensure him the hatred, defeat thecontempt of his future sovereign. Theunsatisfactory issue and subsequent notoriety ofthis encounter put a termination to these midnightjoys of Alexander, and for a season he felt obligedto assume more pacific habits, and to solacehimself with the society of that "phoenix ofPortugal," who had so long sat brooding on hisdomestic hearth.lAats tl acsrt utshaed he oplyr olcelaagiumee dw, ahsi sf ournmcleed ,a tnhde  bnoeswo mandtfrrioeonpds  aopf pRoionmteed,  tSop tahine,  caonmd mVaennidc eo.f  tHhee  cuonuitled dno
longer be restrained. Disdaining the pleadings ofhis mother and of his spouse, he extortedpermission from Philip, and flew to the seat of warin the Levant. Don John received him with openarms, just before the famous action of Lepanto,and gave him an, excellent position in the veryfront of the battle, with the command of severalGenoese galleys. Alexander's exploits on thateventful day seemed those of a fabulous hero ofromance. He laid his galley alongside of thetreasure-ship of the Turkish fleet, a vessel, onaccount of its importance, doubly manned andarmed. Impatient that the Crescent was notlowered, after a few broadsides, he sprang onboard the enemy alone, waving an immense two-handed sword—his usual weapon—and mowing apassage right and left through the hostile ranks forthe warriors who tardily followed the footsteps oftheir vehement chief. Mustapha Bey, the treasurerand commander of the ship, fell before his sword,besides many others, whom he hardly saw orcounted. The galley was soon his own, as well asanother, which came to the rescue of the treasure-ship only to share its defeat. The booty whichAlexander's crew secured was prodigious,individual soldiers obtaining two and threethousand ducats each. Don John received hisnephew after the battle with commendations, not,however, unmingled with censure. The successfulresult alone had justified such insane anddesperate conduct, for had he been slain orovercome, said the commander-in-chief, therewould have been few to applaud his temerity.Alexander gaily replied by assuring his uncle that
he had felt sustained by a more than mortalconfidence, the prayers which his saintly wife wasincessantly offering in his behalf since he went tothe wars being a sufficient support and shield ineven greater danger than he had yet confronted.This was Alexander's first campaign, nor was hepermitted to reap any more glory for a fewsucceeding years. At last, Philip was disposed tosend both his mother and himself to theNetherlands; removing Don John from the rackwhere he had been enduring such slow torture.Granvelle's intercession proved fruitless with theDuchess, but Alexander was all eagerness to gowhere blows were passing current, and he gladlyled the reinforcements which were sent to DonJohn at the close of the year 1577. He hadreached Luxemburg, on the 18th of December ofthat year, in time, as we have seen, to participate,and, in fact, to take the lead in the signal victory ofGemblours. He had been struck with the fatalchange which disappointment and anxiety hadwrought upon the beautiful and haughty features ofhis illustrious kinsman. He had since closed hiseyes in the camp, and erected a marble tablet overhis heart in the little church. He now governed inhis stead.His personal appearance corresponded with hischaracter. He had the head of a gladiator, round;compact, combative, with something alert andsnake-like in its movements. The black, closely-shorn hair was erect and bristling. The foreheadwas lofty and narrow. The features were,
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