FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS TABLE OF CONTENTS
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FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS TABLE OF CONTENTS

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VIRTUAL SPORTS (#37) Block a variety of 'virtual' soccer balls as they come in, or pick ..... http://www.bowfin.org/ftp/bowfin_labs/form_drag/form_drag_lab.html ...

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 FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL TEACHERS  
    TABLE OF CONTENTS  TABLE OF CONTENTS MAP THE EXHIBITS RELATED NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION CONTENT STANDARDS CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS CONTENT INFORMATION GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING HEALTH / PHYSIOLOGY PERSONAL HEALTH PHYSIOLOGY PHYSICAL SCIENCE CENTER OF MASS DRAG FORCES MOMENTUM CONSERVATION EXHIBITS BY SPORT / ACTIVITY             
 
  Elaine Catz Education Division Carnegie Science Center
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© 2002, 2003 Carnegie Science Center. Educators and educational institutions may reproduce portions of this document for nonprofit purposes, with proper attribution to Carnegie Science Center. No portion of the document may be used for any commercial applications without express permission from Carnegie Science Center. Please direct inquiries to Education Division, Carnegie Science Center, One Allegheny Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15212.  
The Carnegie Science Center Education Division welcomes YOU to UPMC SportsWorks at Carnegie Science Center!!!  UPMC SportsWorks at Carnegie Science Center is located across the street from our main building. Open since August 2001, UPMC SportsWorks features over 40 exhibits offering 70+ interactive experiences designed to test your skills in virtual games and sporting events.  We believe that all educators can use our exhibits to further enhance their students understanding of concepts studied in the classroom. We hope that the information and activities included in this brochure will help you to do just that.    Please note: 1)  Some exhibits have height requirements. See the exhibit descriptions on the following pages. 2)  While the Carnegie Science Center staff make every effort to keep all of the exhibits in working order, exhibits are occasionally removed from the building for maintenance. If you are especially interested in studying a specific exhibit, please call ahead to verify that it will be fully functional.    
 
MAP
UPMC SportsWorks at Carnegie Science Center is made possible through the generous support of UPMC Health System.
THE EXHIBITS Note: (#s) refer to UPMC SportsWorks Map on previous page.  BALANCE BEAM (#9) A balance beam and a mirror allow you to test your balance and agility. The BIG Idea : For an object to remain stabile and upright, its center of mass must be located above its supporting base.  BASEBALL (#13) Test your speed and accuracy in a major league-sized pitching cage. Exhibits containing baseball equipment and information regarding pitching, grips, batting and reaction time surround the pitching cage. The BIG Idea : Baseball players make use of aerodynamics, leverage and physical conditioning every time they throw or hit a ball.  BE THE JUDGE (#16) Watch an Olympic event play, and then make the call. The BIG Idea : A person judging a sport needs to pay attention to detail, to observe carefully and maintain concentration, and must have in-depth knowledge regarding the activity.  BOUNCE (#5) Get fastened into a bungee harness, then bounce up to 20 feet on a trampoline. The BIG Idea : When a bungee cord is stretched, it gains potential energy. This energy can then be converted into kinetic energy.  BROADCAST TRUCK (#11) Give directing a try, and switch back and forth from live images around the exhibit. The BIG Idea : In order to broadcast a sporting event, the broadcast team must pay attention to detail, observe carefully, maintain concentration, and must be able to communicate effectively.  CLIMBING WALL  (#1) Get strapped into a climbing harness and try a 25-foot vertical climb, or try an equipment-free horizontal climb. The BIG Idea : In order to safely climb a rock wall, a climber must be a good problem solver, be properly trained to use specialized gear, and be in good physical condition.  DESIGN A COASTER (#3) You program the coaster, then enter a 2-seat, full-motion ride simulator with 360-degree motion! Or ride Kennywoods legendary Steel Phantom. The BIG Idea : The human brain may interpret sensory input incorrectly. HEIGHT REQUIREMENT: In order to ride the virtual coaster, the visitor must be at least 48 tall.  DRUGS IN SPORTS (#32) Learn how drugs allow injured athletes to recover faster. The BIG Idea : Maintaining balanced diets and staying away from performance-enhancing drugs keeps athletes healthy.  ENERGY RACE (#34) Pedal your bike, generating the energy to power your car around a miniature racetrack. The BIG Idea : Energy can be converted from one form to another.  FOOTWORK (#30) Observe your gait from a unique, ground level rear angle. The BIG Idea : Walking is good exercise. Each persons gait is unique.  FORE! (#15) Take a swing from our tee and see where on the virtual green you would land. The BIG Idea : The trajectory of a moving object can be calculated based on its initial conditions.  HANG GLIDING (#36) Coordinate your movement with the image of the Grand Canyon as you pilot your craft. The BIG Idea : The position of an object in space can be determined by controlling its pitch, roll and yaw.  HANG TIME (#23) Do a chin-up as the length of your endurance is counted. The BIG Idea : Strength and endurance are not the same.
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THE EXHIBITS  HIGH CYCLE (#6) Pedal a unicycle on a one-inch steel beam 15 feet overhead, kept upright by a counterweight. The BIG Idea : If the center of mass of an object is located below its base of support, the object cannot tip over.  HOCKEY (#10) This oversized hockey table allows 12 visitors to play together. GOAL! The BIG Idea : In order to be successful, teammates must be able to accurately communicate and work together.  HOOPS VISION (#27) Three mini-basketball hoops have goggles that distort your vision. Can your brain compensate? The BIG Idea : The human brain has the ability to compensate and readjust to new circumstances.  IMPACT! (#26) Leap onto a sensor pad while a computer shows the impact pattern of your jump. The BIG Idea : Bones bear weight and distribute stress over a framework of supports.  INJURIES (#31) Be a sports medicine surgeon! The BIG Idea : Many injuries in sports can be prevented when athletes are well conditioned, learn proper techniques and use safety equipment correctly. For those who do become injured, newer, less-invasive surgical techniques may help correct problems while requiring shorter recovery times than ever before.  MINI-GOLF MATH (#41)  ELLIPSE GREEN Putt the ball in any direction and in most cases, you get a hole in one. The BIG Idea : The sum of the distances from the edge of an ellipse to each of its focal points is a constant.  GEAR RATIO / PROBABILITY GREEN Putting through gear powered doors takes your ball to the top of a bell curve demonstration. The BIG Ideas : Gears are simple machines that can transmit motion and force. A Bell Curve often arises as the result of a series of many independent random events.  GRAVITY WELL GREEN The ball enters a gravity well to the center hole, then comes out a tube on the lower green. The BIG Idea : An object maintains an elliptical orbit when it balances the gravitational pull arising from another object with its own momentum.  OPTICAL ILLUSION GREEN A seemingly straight putt misses the mark. The BIG Idea : The human brain may interpret sensory input incorrectly.  OLYMPIC SPRINT (#17) Step into a 40-foot, 4-lane Olympic track to race against a world class virtual sprinter. The BIG Idea : Running is an excellent way to achieve and maintain fitness.  ORBITRON (#2) You are strapped into the center of a gyroscope-like contraption, where you control your spin on three axes. The BIG Idea : The position of an object in space can be determined by controlling its roll, pitch and yaw. HEIGHT REQUIREMENT: In order to ride the Orbitron, the visitor must be at least 48 tall.  PARACHUTE DROP (#19) Engineer your own parachute, then drop it from 20 feet to test your design. The BIG Idea : Air resistance slows a parachute and results in drift.  REACTION TIME (#22) Two different exhibits test your reaction time  .
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THE EXHIBITS The BIG Idea : Signals cannot travel from the brain to other body parts instantaneously.  ROTATION (#21) Step on the disk and spin. Lean in or out to control the speed, like an Olympic skater. The BIG Idea : The rate at which a spinning object rotates about an axis depends not only on its mass, but also on the distribution of that mass. Angular momentum is conserved.  SIMULATOR XTREME (#40) This full motion simulator sends you down ski slopes, around a racetrack, and more. The BIG Idea : The human brain may interpret sensory input incorrectly.  SKATEBOARDING (#25) Balance on a skateboard while an LED display counts every second. The BIG Idea : Lowering the center of mass of an object helps it to become more stabile.  SNOW SPORTS (#8) A collection of sports equipment and exhibitry depicts ways that athletes attempt to reduce air drag while competing. The BIG Ideas : The human brain may interpret sensory input incorrectly (Bobsled simulator). Skiers, ski jumpers, lugers, and speed skaters use physical technique, bodysuits, and equipment to minimize air drag while competing in their sports. Gravitational potential energy is position dependent (Sledding).  SNOWBOARDING (#35) Try your skills at snowboarding down a virtual mountain. The BIG Idea : Lowering the center of mass of an object helps it to become more stabile.  SPORTS GEAR (#28) This exhibit is a collection of equipment used in numerous sports. The BIG Idea : Advances in materials and design have greatly improved the performance of athletes in many sports including cycling, golf, hockey and tennis.  SPORTS GEAR (#29) This exhibit is a collection of equipment and protective safety devices used in numerous sports. The BIG Idea : Advances in materials and in the design of uniforms and equipment have helped to better protect athletes in many sports.  TARGET (#14) Test your skill as you shoot hockey pucks at a virtual goalie or play quarterback in a live pro football game. The BIG Idea : The trajectory of a moving object can be calculated based on its initial conditions.  TRAJECTORY (#18) Change the tilt and change the arc pattern of a pinballs path. The BIG Idea : The trajectory of a moving object depends on its initial conditions.  TRICK SHOT (#20) Line your pool cue up and make a perfectly executed trick shot! The BIG Idea : The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.  VERTICAL JUMP (#24) Touch the highest button while standing, then jump and touch the highest button to hear your vertical jump distance. The BIG Idea : When you bend your knees, you gain potential energy. When you jump, this energy is converted into kinetic energy.  VIRTUAL SPORTS (#37) Block a variety of virtual soccer balls as they come in, or pick up and shoot a virtual basketball. The BIG Idea : The trajectory of a moving object can be calculated based on its initial conditions.  VOLLEYBALL (#38) Your group competes in a 5-point virtual volleyball match. The BIG Idea : The trajectory of a moving object can be calculated based on its initial conditions.  
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THE EXHIBITS WHEELCHAIR RACE (#12) You and another visitor race each other around a one-mile track, shown on an LED panel. The BIG Idea : Spinal cord injuries may result in impaired movement of the body. Athletes in wheelchairs are as competitive, strong and well trained as able-bodied athletes.  WOMEN IN SPORTS (#33) Follow the experiences of a record-breaking female Olympic high jumper. The BIG Idea : Womens athletic opportunities have greatly increased over the past century.   RELATED NATIONAL SCIENCE CONTENT STANDARDS Grades 5-8 B: Physical Science C: Life Science D: Earth and F: Science in Personal and Social Space Science Perspectives National Science Content Motions and Transfer of Structure and Earth in the Personal health Risks and Standards forces energy function in solar system Benefits living systems Balance Beam x Baseball x Bounce x  Climbing Wall  x Drugs in Sports  x x Energy Race  x Footwork  x Hang Time  x   High Cycle x  Hoops Vision       Impact!  x x Injuries  x Mini Golf Math: Gravit  x Well Green Olympic Sprint  x Orbitron x Parachute Drop x Reaction Time  x Skateboarding     x Snow Sports x Snowboarding x Vertical Jump x  Wheelchair Race  x x Women in Sports  x
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 Perception and Illusion
CURRICULUM CONNECTIONS TOPIC RELATED EXHIBITS GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING Be the Judge Broadcast Truck Climbing Wall Hockey HEALTH / PHYSIOLOGY   Personal Health (Exercise, Drugs in Sports Nutrition, Risks) Hang Time Impact! Injuries Olympic Sprint Women in Sports   Physiology (Structure and Function) Footwork Impact! Reaction Time Wheelchair Race Design a Coaster Hoops Vision Mini-Golf Math: Optical Illusion Green Simulator Xtreme Snow Sports (Bobsled simulator)  Hang Gliding Orbitron Tra ector Mini-Golf Math: Ellipse Green  Rotation Balance Beam High Cycle Orbitron Skateboarding  Snowboardin Baseball Parachute Drop Snow S orts Bounce Vertical Jum Mini-Golf Math: Gear Ratio /Probability Green S orts Gear Trick Shot Fore! Target Trajectory Virtual Sports Volleyball
MATHEMATICS   Coordinates: Pitch, roll and yaw  Geometry: Ellipses PHYSICAL SCIENCE  An ular Momentum  Center of Mass
 Drag Forces  Energy: Potential and Kinetic  Gears  Material Pro erties  Momentum Conservation  Trajectory 
 
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GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING
Topic Focus:  Problem solving is a skill that encompasses the following abilities: to ask relevant questions, to observe, to strategize, to make decisions based on available information and to effectively communicate. Background Information: According to the National Science Education Standards, students need to develop abilities and understanding of all aspects of the inquiry process.  From Kindergarten on, students should develop questioning, observation, problem solving and communication skills. In order to develop these abilities, students need opportunities to practice applying these skills in everyday life. Try these at school:  Observation / Communication Practice: What do you hear? Objective: Students will learn that listening is another way to observe. Materials: pencils, paper, watch or clock Procedure:  If possible, take the students outside or open the classroom windows.  Have the students take a piece of paper and a pencil and find a space to sit down as far apart from one another as possible.  Give the students five minutes to write down a list of all of the sounds that they can hear. During this time, they are not allowed to speak. Questions: What kinds of sounds did the students hear? How many of these sounds have they really noticed before? Did they learn anything from the sounds that they heard? What sounds could give them clues about their location? (e.g. Could they tell that they were near an airport, railroad track, or construction site? If they were able to identify birdcalls, what might this tell them about their geographic location?) Why is being able to listen carefully an important observation skill?  Problem Solving Practice: Build a Paper Tower Objective: Students attempt to build the tallest freestanding structure possible with the materials provided. Materials: paper (8.5 x 11), cellophane tape, watch or clock, yard or meter-stick/ measuring tape Procedure:  Divide the class up into teams of four students each.  Give each team ONE sheet of 8.5 x 11 paper and ONE piece of tape that is 25 cm long.  The paper may be torn, rolled or folded, but only one piece will be given to each team. The students have 20 minutes to create a freestanding tower using their materials.   The tower is freestanding if it remains self-supporting for at least 10 seconds.  Height is measured from the floor to the highest point on the tower above the floor.  Once 20 minutes have passed, the students may no longer have any physical contact with the towers.  Measure and record the height of each tower. Questions:
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GENERAL PROBLEM SOLVING
Did the teams discuss the problem before beginning or did they jump right in? What were the best strategies employed by the students? What roles did communication and teamwork play in this activity? If the students could try this activity again, what would they do differently?
Visit Suggestions:   Pay close attention to details and develop your observation skills at the BE THE JUDGE exhibit (#16).  Hone your concentration, observation and decision-making skills, as you scan the UPMC SportsWorks for the most interesting action in the BROADCAST TRUCK exhibit (#11).  Climbing and conquering a rock wall requires strategic planning and good decision-making skills. Test your skills at the CLIMBING WALL (#1).  Teamwork is just as important in science as it is in sports. The ability to accurately communicate can make or break a team. Work together to win as you play a game of HOCKEY (#10).  Observe people at the HOCKEY exhibit (#10). What kinds of strategies are the teams using? Are the players working together? Are they communicating effectively?  
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PERSONAL HEALTH HEALTH / PHYSIOLOGY
Topic Focus:  Each person must take some responsibility for his / her own health and safety. It is important to understand the benefits of exercising regularly and eating properly and the negative effects of abusing substances and engaging in risky behavior. Background Information: The National Science Education Standards include Section F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives for all grades K-12. Each grade range includes a subdivision of this standard entitled Personal Health. Personal Health topics that are addressed by UPMC SportsWorks activities are listed below:   Importance of regular exercise  Injury and accident prevention  Risks of tobacco use  Alcohol and other substance abuse  Nutritional requirements Visit Suggestions:  Stretch as you follow the warm up instructions before trying out the activities at these exhibits: BOUNCE (#5), BASEBALL (#13) and OLYMPIC SPRINT (#17).  At the DRUGS IN SPORTS exhibit (#32) learn how to improve your athletic performance with good nutritional practices rather than via supplements or steroids.  Take a hike on the FOOTWORK exhibit (#30) treadmill and learn about the exercise benefits that can be derived from walking.  Learn about muscle strength and endurance as you hold yourself up at the HANG TIME exhibit (#23). How long can you hang out?  Jump off the platform at the IMPACT!  exhibit (#26) and land as softly as you can. When playing games that require a lot of jumping, what can you do to minimize stress on your joints? At the INJURIES exhibit (#31) learn about common sports injuries and what you  can do to lessen the likelihood that youll suffer one.  Calculate your resting heart rate and compare it with your pulse after you race against Jackie Joyner Kersee at the OLYMPIC SPRINT (#17). Read about how running helps to strengthen your heart.  At the WOMEN IN SPORTS exhibit (#33) read about the importance of proper nutrition for women athletes, and about injuries more likely to affect women than men.  
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PHYSIOLOGY HEALTH / PHYSIOLOGY
Topic Focus:  The human body consists of multiple systems, each which performs a specialized function. Background Information: Structure and function in living systems is a topic addressed by The National Science Education Standards in Section C: Life Science (grades 5-8). Specifically, the Standards highlight the following topics:   Specialized cells perform specialized functions in multicellular organisms. Groups of specialized cells cooperate to form tissue, such as a muscle. Different tissues are in turn grouped together to form larger functional units, called organs. Each type of cell, tissue and organ has a distinct structure and set of functions that serve the organism as a whole.  The human organism has systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, control and coordination, and for protection from disease. These systems interact with one another.  These topics are addressed by many activities at UPMC SportsWorks. Visit Suggestions:  How do your ears keep you from falling over? Find out at the BALANCE BEAM  (exhibit #9). Whats going on in your head as you stand like a stork or walk on the beam?  As you watch yourself walk at the FOOTWORK exhibit (#30), learn about your unique gait. Are you a pronator or a supinator? Appreciate your own feet while you view the bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons that make up our model foot.  Jump off the platform at the IMPACT!  exhibit (#26) and land as softly as you can. How do your bones withstand the stress of the landing?  Test your REACTION TIME (exhibit #22) and find out how fast your nervous system works. Can you improve your results?  See how fast you can go at the WHEELCHAIR RACE (exhibit #12). Could you keep up with a professional wheelchair athlete? Learn about spinal cord injuries and how they may affect a persons mobility.
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