Uciam noriaci enatio et L
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Uciam noriaci enatio et L

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Recreation, Tourism and Countryside Sports ...................................37. 7 ..... http://www.ukcip.org.uk/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=41&Itemid=142 ...

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Publié par
Nombre de lectures 63
Langue Français
Poids de l'ouvrage 2 Mo

Land Use Strategy
Strategic Environmental Assessment
Screening and Scoping Report

Published: March 2010

Table of Contents
1

Introduction.........................................................................................2

2

Agriculture...........................................................................................5

3

Forestry.............................................................................................13

4

Renewable Energy............................................................................23

5

Nature Conservation.........................................................................30

6

Recreation, Tourism and Countryside Sports...................................37

7

Cultural Landscapes and Communities............................................42

8

Natural Resource Use and Infrastructure..........................................48

9

Key Environmental Issues................................................................55

10

Assessment Methodology.................................................................65

11

Bibliography......................................................................................71

Appendix 1 Screening Report...................................................................77

Appendix 2 Maps......................................................................................81

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1

.1 11.1.1

1.1.2
1.1.3
1.1.4

1.1.5

Introduction

Introduction
The Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 requires Scottish Ministers to lay a
Land Use Strategy (LUS) before the Scottish Parliament by 31 March 2011.
The LUS should set out Scottish Ministers objectives for achieving sustainable
land use; their proposals and policies for meeting those objectives; and,
relevant timescales. The climate change targets specified by the 2009 Act form
an important part of the context for the Strategy. The Act requires publication
of a draft strategy and public consultation to be undertaken prior to finalising its
content and submitting it to Parliament. The LUS is to be reviewed at least
every five years.
The LUS falls under the Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005. As it
has the potential to generate significant environmental effects, a Strategic
Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the LUS is being undertaken. This report
includes our screening determination that confirms this in
Appendix 1
.
Consultation Authority views on this opinion are now being sought, in parallel
with the SEA scoping.
Although the LUS is a requirement of the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009
its focus will not be limited to climate change considerations alone. The LUS
will cover sustainable land use in the broadest sense and will need to
demonstrate how sustainable land use policies support multiple objectives.
In preparing the evidence base for the LUS, the range of the relevant land uses
has been considered. Relevant information has been compiled by the following
four workstreams:

Natural Capital (biodiversity, landscape, ecosystem services, landscape,
water, soils, land capability);

Land Based Industries (agriculture, forestry, energy, minerals, waste,
defence);

People, Culture and Communities (culture, access, recreation, crofting,
historic environment assets, tourism, communities);

Development Planning (urbanisation, physical development, transport,
infrastructure, interface with development planning system);
The LUS will establish broad principles for sustainable land use. Its scope will
extend to all land use. The main aims of the Strategy will be to:

improve the joining up of existing policies on land use;

2

03/03/2010

1.1.6
1.1.7
1.1.8


ensure that our polices are as effective as possible in contributing to
Scotlands national purpose;

assist in delivering long-term sustainable economic and social well-being;
dna•
underpin the Governments climate change targets
This SEA Scoping Report seeks to identify the environmental issues that need
to be taken into consideration during the production of the LUS. Furthermore it
seeks the views of the Consultation Authorities on the scope of the information
to be included within the environmental assessment of the LUS.
Given the nature and content of the LUS, the scoping stage has sought to
provide relevant environmental baseline and contextual information associated
with different land uses. This has given the Scottish Government an
opportunity to gather this information early within the LUS development
process, and therefore frontload environmental issues into the decision making
process.
This Scoping Report therefore sets out the environmental context, baseline and
key issues under each of the following major land use types:

Agriculture;

Forestry;

Renewable Energy;

Nature Conservation;

Recreation, Tourism and Countryside Sports;

Cultural Landscape and Communities; and

Natural Resource Use and Infrastructure.
This list may not be exhaustive, and it is recognised that land uses often
overlap and are not mutually exclusive. This structure, has, however, provide a
framework in which land use issues can be usefully brought together and
presented. For example Renewable Energy includes information relevant to
wind, hydro and bioenergy, and Cultural Landscape and Communities
includes information on landscape designations, historic and cultural, local
distinctiveness and community activities.
1.1.10 Each section sets out baseline environmental information and issues under the
SEA topics
1
then draws the issues together to identify key environmental
issues for each of the major land uses.

1.1.9



1 As set out in Schedule 3 of the
Environmental Assessment (Scotland) Act 2005

3

03/03/2010

1.1.11 The Scoping Report discusses the environmental opportunities and challenges
which are shared across all of the land uses. This provides an insight into the
environmental issues which will be of particular relevance when identifying the
significant environmental effects arising from the LUS as a whole. These
issues will also be taken into account within the development of the LUS.
Methods for integrating the assessment and the policy development and other
methodological proposals, are explained in the final section of this report.
1.1.12 This is quite a lengthy Scoping Report, providing a larger volume of information
than might usually be expected. However, in this case, a relatively thorough
approach to scoping has been used to allow the relevant environmental
information to be front-loaded into the development of the LUS. It is hoped that
this will lead to a more focused and concise Environmental Report at the next
stage of the process.

Table 1.1 Key facts about the LUS
Responsible The Scottish Government
Authority
Title of PPS Land Use Strategy
Purpose of PPS Sets out proposals and policies for sustainable land use
What prompted the The Strategy is a requirement of Section 57 of the Climate
PPS Change (Scotland) Act 2009
Subject (e.g. Land use
Transport)
Period covered by 2011 2016 in detail, with consideration of issues to 2050
SPPFrequency of 5 years
Updates
Area covered by PPS Scotland
Summary of The LUS will include proposals that will seek to ensure land
nature/content of use is sustainable and responsive to climate change
PPS pressures. This will cover measures to mitigate climate
change by contributing to the emission reduction targets as set
by the Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 and measures that
aim to adapt to future climate change. The LUS will seek to
ensure that Scotlands land can be better used for everyones
benefit in the long term.
Are there any Objectives have not been defined at this stage
proposed PPS
objectives
Copy of objectives N/A
attached
Date 2 March 2010

4

03/03/2010

2 Agriculture

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.1 Context and relevant environmental objectives
2.1.1 Agriculture is Scotlands dominant land use, accounting for 55-60%
2
of all land,
and upland farming accounting for the largest area. In 2006, the Forward
Strategy for Scottish Agriculture
3
set out a vision for an agricultural sector that
is prosperous and sustainable, focused on food production and supportive of
rural communities. The Strategy emphasised the importance of agriculture in
protecting and enhancing the environment, and contributing to animal and
human health and well-being. It also stated that agriculture should embrace
change and market opportunities, and recognised the diversity within the
sector.
Agricultural land use is dynamic, generating constant change. The 2009
Agricultural Census results
4
showed that, compared with the previous year, the
number of beef and dairy cattle and sheep fell by 2-3%, and there was a more
substantial reduction in pig numbers (around 10%). There was a concurrent
increase in employment in the sector (2.5%). In terms of land use, the census
shows that crops fallow and set aside land, the area of cereal crops, oilseed
rape, and rough grazing declined, and that there was a particularly substantial
increase in the area of grassland between 2008 and 2009.
Key environmental objectives relating to agriculture include the following:

Long established recognition of the broad role of agriculture in
environmental protection and enhancement.

More recent work to promote farming practices which reduce greenhouse
gas emissions, including commitments within the Climate Change
Delivery Plan
5
as detailed below, and work under the Farming for a
Better Climate Initiative. The latter identifies four key action areas for
tackling climate change: sustainable use of resources, cost effective
action, minimising waste, and developing new business opportunities.
Practical measures for achieving these aims have been identified.

A growing emphasis on food security and sustainable food production, in
anticipation of climate change impacts and to support wider policy aims
including health.
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Ongoing objectives to sustain and enhance the contribution of agriculture
to landscape quality and biodiversity.

2.2 Current state of the environment
Climate Change
2.2.1 The Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
6
, showed that agriculture
emissions totalled 7.7 Mt CO
2
e in 2007, 20.6% lowers than 1990. In broader
terms, primary production in the UK accounts for a third of the UK food chains
greenhouse gas footprint. This is predominantly methane and nitrous oxide
emissions from agriculture, with a small amount associated with the fuel used
by our fishing fleet.
7
The Climate Change Delivery Plan
8
notes that a large
share of agricultural emissions are unavoidable, arising from natural biological
processes associated with livestock production. This raises a dilemma: whilst
de-stocking could reduce emissions, it could also lead to an increase in
imported food which in turn would generate transport borne emissions. Other
agricultural initiatives to reduce emissions focus on land management practices
including the application of fertilisers, carbon sequestration through tree
planting and changes to transport activities and energy consumption.
The Climate Change Delivery Plan states that to meet the 2020 target of 42%
emissions reduction, there is a need to improve livestock productivity, manure
and slurry management, and nutrient management systems, to develop
anaerobic digestion, to protect high carbon soils and increase afforestation
rates.
As well as changing farming practices to contribute to climate change
mitigation, agriculture will need to adapt to the impacts of climate change.
9

The 2009 UK Climate Projections (UKCP09)
10
detailed expected climate
change for Scotland and the UK. When a high emissions scenario is
considered, average summer and winter temperatures in 2080 may be 4.3°C
and 3.1°C higher, respectively. Precipitation is expected to become greater in
winter months, whilst summers are expected to be drier than at present.
Changes in seasonality, cloud cover, humidity, wind speeds and soil moisture
are also expected. It is expected that these effects will vary across Scotland.
For example, a 15% decrease in summer rainfall is expected, except in the
north. Similarly, Western Scotland is likely to witness a significantly higher rise
in winter rainfall in relation to the west. Simply expressed, Central Scotland
6


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tats/foodpocketstats/FoodPocketbook2009.pdf

98
DSEcFotRtiAs h( 2G0o0v9e) rnUmK eCnlti, mCaltiem Iamtep aCchtsa nPgreo gDraelimvemrey, PAlvaani,l aobpl.e caitt.
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2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4

6

03/03/2010

2.2.5

2.2.6

2.2.7

2.2.8

would experience a climate with the characteristics of southern Britain by 2050s
and of central France by the 2080s.
11

Like forestry (see Section 3), agriculture is expected to experience mixed
impacts as a result of climate change. A warming climate, longer growing
seasons and northward expansion of the biological limit
12
are expected to
increase crop yields. However, the milder winters may reduce vernalisation in
some species, and reduced summer precipitation could adversely affect yields
of some crop varieties.
13

Population and Human Health
The Forward Strategy
14
recognises that in some parts of the country,
agriculture is the biggest employer after the public and service sectors,
providing jobs directly and indirectly through food companies, suppliers,
haulage firms and others. It contributes some £2,000 million to Scotlands
Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and is particularly important to the GDP of
areas including the Orkney Islands, Dumfries and Galloway, and the Scottish
Borders.
Production of food is the primary driver of agriculture. Global forces such as
population growth, climate change, resource depletion and commodity prices
have a major impact on food security. To address these and other trends,
there is a growing need to move towards more sustainable production and
consumption.
15
Key challenges in Scotland over the longer term are likely to
include responding to climate change impacts alongside growing and changing
demand for food, scope for diversification, limitations arising from the large
share of land with Less Favoured Area status, and the need to balance food
production with growing aspirations for biomass, biofuels and forestry
expansion.
The nutritional value of many foods reduces in line with increases in food miles,
storage length and processing. This is an issue of potential significance, given
the links between a poor quality diet and reduced health and wellbeing within
the Scottish population. Key health concerns, including obesity and Scotlands
biggest causes of death (heart disease, stroke, cancer and diabetes), are



11
Read et al. (2009)
Combating climate change a role for UK forests. An assessment of the potential for the UKs trees and
woodlands to mitigate and adapt to climate change
. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh
12
Scottish Government, (2009)
Climate Change and Scottish Agriculture: Report and Recommendations of the Agriculture and
Climate Change Stakeholder Group
(ACCSG)
13
National Farmers Union (2005
) Agriculture and Climate Change
. Available at:
http://www.nfuonline.com/documents/Policy%20Services/Environment/Climate%20Change/NFU%20Climate%20Change.pdf

(accessed 13/01/10)
14
Scottish Government,
A Forward Strategy for Scottish Agriculture: Next Steps
, Op.cit.
15
Scottish Government (2009)
Food Security: The Role for the Scottish Government in Ensuring Continuity of Food Supply to and
within Scotland and Access to Affordable Food: Report from a Think Tank held on 3-4th March 2009
[Online] Available at:
http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/277261/0083248.pdf
(Accessed 28/01/2010)

7

03/03/2010

2.2.9

2.2.10
2.2.11

closely linked with diet.
16
As well as providing nutrition, the agricultural sector
has a role to play in food education.
Agriculture is more than an economic sector, providing a traditional, culturally
distinctive way of life. Crofting is a key part of this, with existing crofting
counties in Shetland, Orkney, Caithness, Sutherland, Ross-shire, Inverness-
shire and Argyll. There are 17,923 crofts in Scotland with approximately
33,000 people living in crofting households.
17
Following recent consultation on
the expansion of crofting areas
18
, Arran, Bute, Greater and Little Cumbrae, the
remainder of the Highland Council area and Moray are to be designated as
new crofting areas.
Landscape
Agriculture has shaped many of Scotlands landscapes, contributing to their
cultural value and providing aesthetically and visually distinctive areas.
Hill farming characterises much of the upland landscape character, forming
open land and rugged landscapes with few, but distinctive features such as
steadings, sheep folds and stone dykes, and land cover including heather
moorland, grassland, plantation woodland and water bodies. Farm buildings
vary in character in different parts of Scotland and reflect the identity of many
Scottish rural communities. Lowland farming supports a mosaic of policy
woodlands, estates and pasture, whilst the smaller units within northern and
western crofting counties are characterised by a mix of common machair
grazing, distinctive townships, differing grazing and cropping regimes and
strong rectangular field patterns.
19

Agricultural land use, and consequently many landscapes, has changed
considerably during the second half of the 20th century as a result of the
evolution of agricultural equipment and farm intensification. Key changes
include depopulation and consequently increasing signs of abandonment of hill
farms and crofts, and a decline in features including ponds, wetlands, natural
grassland, small woodlands and hedges. More positively, continuing
processes of agricultural diversification are leading to the reinforcement of
distinctive landscape characteristics, as supported by some tailored agricultural
and land management initiatives. When viewed over the long term, agriculture
will have been a catalyst for deforestation in Scotland. However, more
recently, forestry has replaced a considerable amount of agricultural land, with
both positive and negative impacts arising from the selection of species and
planting regimes in different locations.
1

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s. s eAdv: a1il9a/b0l2e/ 2a0t:1 0)
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9
4 /S0N2/H2 (021000) 9 )
Natural Heritage Futures: Farmland
. Available at:
http://www.snh.org.uk/futures/Data/pdfdocs/Farmland.pdf
(accessed

2.2.12

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2.2.13
2.2.14
2.2.15

2.2.16
2.2.17

2.2.18
2.2.19

Cultural Heritage
Scotland has a rich historic environment, Section 7 sets out greater detail on
the nationally important cultural heritage features which are afforded protection
and more generally recognised and valued within Scotland.
Agriculture and changing land management practices can be a key threat to the
historic environment.
20
Plough erosion can impact on archaeological resources
and agricultural change more generally can affect the setting of protected sites.
Many of Scotlands upland areas are rich in archaeology as a result of the low
level of human impact in these more remote areas. There remains evidence of
past farming systems in these areas where agricultural decline has taken place.
Archaeological remains can be preserved under farmland which is more
intensively used, and are often only visible in the form of variations in the colour
of a ploughed field or growing crop.
21
Many current agricultural funding
streams are dependent on cross-cutting measures that aim to ensure that
farmers can fulfil their statutory responsibility to protect archaeological sites.
Biodiversity, Flora and Fauna
Agriculture supports a significant part of Scotlands biodiversity, sustaining
important habitats including unimproved grassland, cultivated fields, walls and
hedges, watercourses, wetlands, moorland and upland grassland.
There has been a substantial decline in the diversity of wildlife on farmland in
line with agricultural change, rationalisation, replacement of mixed farming with
monoculture and loss of key habitats most notably field boundaries.
22
The
turnaround of fields from harvesting to ploughing for new crops has reduced
substantially, leading to long term decline in farmland birds, although some
recovery has taken place in recent years. In Scotland, plant species richness
increased within arable and horticultural habitats between 1997 and 2008, but
declined by around 8% in upland and grassland habitats in the same period.
23

Agricultural drainage and flood defences have also had an impact on the
biological diversity and capacity of water bodies on farmland. Upland farmland
has experienced loss of habitats and species as a result of changes resulting
from reduced cattle grazing alongside overgrazing by sheep.
Application of pesticides is a key threat to agricultural biodiversity. Dealing with
this is a priority within the Scottish Biodiversity Strategys Rural Implementation



20
Historic Scotland (2009
) Scottish Historic Environment Policy
. Available at:
http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/shep-july-2009.pdf

(accessed 21/01/10)
21
The Council for Scottish Archaeology supported by Historic Scotland, (undated),
Archaeology on Farm and Croft
,
http://www.historic-scotland.gov.uk/farm-and-croft.pdf
(accessed 04/02/2010)
22
SNH,
Natural Heritage Futures: Farmland
, op. cit.
23
Countryside Survey Scotland Results 2007. Available at:
http://www.countrysidesurvey.org.uk/pdf/reports2007/scotland2007/CS-
Scotland-Results2007-Chapter03.pdf
(accessed 19/02/2010)

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