REPORT ON THE SOCIAL SITUATION 2001

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English
136 pages
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The social situation in the European Union eurostat European Commission The social situation in the European Union 2001 European Commission eurostat Directorate General for Employment and Social Affairs Table of contents Foreword Introduction Section I : Social trends and social policies 9 1.1 Main social trends 11 1.2 Social cohesion 13 18 1.3 Concluding reflections Section II : Main social developments 19 2.1 Population trends and related issues 21 32 2.2 Living conditions 45 2.3 Income distribution 2.4 Trust and participation in society 55 Section III Areas of social policy concern 63 Annex I : Key social indicators 111 Annex II : Statistical data 113 Annex III : Eurostat Datashops 129 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS DG Employment and Social Affairs and Eurostat would like to thank Professor Géry Coomans of ISMEA, Mr Michiel Ras of the Social and Cultural Planning Office of the Netherlands, Professor Alan Walker of the University of Sheffield and Professor Yannis Yfantopoulos of the University of Athens for their comments and contributions in the preparation of this report. Foreword This is the second annual Report on the Social Situation, which contributes to the monitoring of developments in the social field across Member States.

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The social situation
in the European Union
eurostat European Commission The social situation in the
European Union
2001
European Commission eurostat
Directorate General for Employment
and Social Affairs Table of contents
Foreword
Introduction
Section I : Social trends and social policies 9
1.1 Main social trends 11
1.2 Social cohesion 13
18 1.3 Concluding reflections
Section II : Main social developments 19
2.1 Population trends and related issues 21
32 2.2 Living conditions
45 2.3 Income distribution
2.4 Trust and participation in society 55
Section III Areas of social policy concern 63
Annex I : Key social indicators 111
Annex II : Statistical data 113
Annex III : Eurostat Datashops 129 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
DG Employment and Social Affairs and Eurostat would like to thank Professor Géry Coomans of
ISMEA, Mr Michiel Ras of the Social and Cultural Planning Office of the Netherlands, Professor Alan
Walker of the University of Sheffield and Professor Yannis Yfantopoulos of the University of Athens
for their comments and contributions in the preparation of this report. Foreword
This is the second annual Report on the Social Situation, which contributes to the
monitoring of developments in the social field across Member States. It provides a
holistic view of population and social conditions as a background to social policy
development, and establishes links to annual Commission publications such as
Employment in Europe, Social Protection in Europe, Industrial Relations in Europe
and the Gender Equality report.
The first section of this Report presents an executive summary which looks at the
main social trends in relation to the quality of European citizens' lives and the rela­
ted challenges for social policy.
This is followed in section 2 by a more in-depth look at social developments.
Analysis and research, both quantitative and qualitative, are presented on four key
areas which are closely related to societal development - population, living condi­
tions, income and social participation.
Section 3 presents a set of harmonised social indicators ranging from demographic
issues to employment and income conditions for each Member State. The indicators
provide an initial overview of the social situation. In addition, they serve as a power­
ful tool for the monitoring of social developments over time.
Work on European wide indicators in the social field is still in an early phase and
more, quality indicators are likely to be developed in coming years. Yet, even at this
stage this second Report of the Social Situation in the European Union provides
valuable material for a forward looking social policy agenda which promotes syner­
gies between economic performance, employment and social progress.
Ms. A. Diamantopoulou Mr. P. Solbes Mira
Commissioner for Employment Commissioner for Economic and
and Social Affairs Monetary Affairs, responsible
for Eurostat Introduction
The Lisbon Summit highlighted social policy as a core A better understanding of the different dimensions of
element in Europe's strategy for becoming "the most the social situation and their inter-play ¡s a prerequisite
competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in for a successful implementation of this strategy. By inte­
the world capable of sustainable economic growth with grating the multiple dimensions of the living standards
better jobs and greater social cohesion". With its adop­ of European citizens (economic, social, cultural, politi­
tion of the Social Agenda, the Nice Summit forcefully cal, etc.) this Report contributes to such an improved
confirmed social policy as a fundamental part of the comprehension.
European Union'sy framework to manage structu­
ral change and contain undesirable social consequences: The Report is intended as a reference document on
"the reinforcement and modernisation of the European social trends. It uses available statistical information at
social model, .. is characterised by the indissoluble link EU level to analyse a number of fundamental social
between economic performance and social progress." issues: such as social cohesion, poverty/social exclusion
The Social Agenda as agreed at the Nice summit pro­ and employment.
vides the political basis for the consolidation of a
comprehensive strategy of mutually reinforcing econo­ The first section offers a synthetic discussion of the main
mic, employment and social policies. It pinpoints the relevant trends in the social situation. The second sec­
promotion of quality in all areas of social and employ­ tion reports on the key developments and trends which
ment policy as a driving force behind a thriving characterise the present social situation. The third sec­
economy with more and better jobs and an inclusive tion presents a set of harmonised social indicators
society and as a key way to secure that the European ranging from demographic related issues to employ­
Union achieves the goals it has set itself regarding com­ ment and income conditions for each Member State.
petitiveness, full employment, living standards and These indicators provide an overview of the present
quality of life. The strengthening of the European eco­ social situation and allow us to monitor social develop­
nomy and its social model will result from policies ments over time. Finally, there is an annex to the Report
promoting synergy and positive interaction between with more detailed data on some of the developments
economic growth, employment and social cohesion. which have been discussed.
Social policy
Social quality / Social cohesion
Competitiveness / Dynamism Full employment / Quality of work
Economic policy Employment policy
The policy mixes to be established to create a virtuous circle of economic and social progress should reflect the inter­
dependence of these policies and aim to maximise their mutual positive reinforcement.