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European Commission Equality in Law between Men and Women in the European Community Denmark Martinus Nijhoff Publishers Office for Official Publications of the European Communities Equality in Law between Men and Women in tbe European Community Denmark Equality in Law between Men and Women in the European Community Seríes Editors MICHEL VERWILGHEN Professeur ordinaire à la Faculté de Droit Université catholique de Louvain FERDINAND VON PRONDZYNSKI Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School Jean Monnet Professor of European Social Law The University of Hull European Commission Equality in Law between Men and Women in the European Community Denmark by RUTH NIELSEN Professor Law Department Copenhagen Business School MARTINUS NIJHOFF PUBLISHERS THE HAGUE/BOSTON/LONDON OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBUCATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES LUXEMBOURG A C J.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1830-7 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers) 92-826-4458-8 (Office for Official Publications of the EC) This study was commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Unit of Directorate-General V (Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs) of the European Commission. It does not, however, express the Commission's official views. The responsibility for the views expressed lies with the authors.

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European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Denmark
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Office for Official Publications
of the European Communities Equality in Law between Men and Women
in tbe European Community
Denmark Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Seríes Editors
MICHEL VERWILGHEN
Professeur ordinaire à la Faculté de Droit
Université catholique de Louvain
FERDINAND VON PRONDZYNSKI
Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School
Jean Monnet Professor of European Social Law
The University of Hull European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
Denmark
by
RUTH NIELSEN
Professor
Law Department
Copenhagen Business School
MARTINUS NIJHOFF PUBLISHERS
THE HAGUE/BOSTON/LONDON
OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBUCATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
LUXEMBOURG A C J.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1830-7 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers)
92-826-4458-8 (Office for Official Publications of the EC)
This study was commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Unit of Directorate-General V
(Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs) of the European Commission. It
does not, however, express the Commission's official views. The responsibility for the
views expressed lies with the authors.
A French version of this text has been published by the Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities and Les Editions Juridiques Bruylant, Brussels.
Published by
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-2985 Luxembourg
ISBN (this volume) 92-826-4458-8 Catalogue number CE-97-92-002-EN-C
and
Kluwer Law International,
P.O. Box 85889, 2508 CN The Hague, The Netherlands
ISBN (series) 0-7923-1842-0 ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1830-7
Sold and distributed for the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
by the distributors listed on the inside back cover.
Kluwer Law International incorporates the publishing programmes of
Graham & Trotman, Kluwer Law & Taxation and Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
Sold and distributed in the USA and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, U.S.A.
In all other countries sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands
© European Communities 1995
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword ix
Notice to the reader xiii
Abbreviations xv
Table of legislation etc xvi
Table of cases xx
COMMENTARY ON EQUALITY LAW
1. GENERAL 3
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 The national legal system
1.1.2 Economic and social context 8
1.2 Sourcesoflaw 10
1.2.1 International standards 1
1.2.1.1 Humanrights2 Treaties on special questions1
1.2.2 European Community law
1.2.2.1 Direct effect of Community law 12 Retrospective implementation3
1.2.3 Constitutional law and social rights
1.2.4 Legislation
1.2.4.1 Prior legislation
1.2.4.2 Present legislation5
2. BASIC CONCEPTS9
2.1 Equality and discrimination 1
2.2 Direct discrimination : 20
2.2.1 Definition 2
2.2.1.1 Reason2 Detriment
2.2.1.3 Comparator1
2.2.2 Extended definition
2.2.2.1 Marital and family status2 Sexual harassment
2.2.2.3 Physical attributes2
2.3 Indirect discrimination
2.3.1 Definition
2.3.2 Suspect criteria3
2.3.3 Disproportionate impact 30
2.3.4 Objective justification
2.4 Victimization1
3. EQUAL PAY
3.1 Principle 3
3.2 Exceptions4
3.3 Personal scope of principle5
3.3.1 Employees
3.3.2 Independent contractorsTABLE OF CONTENTS
3.3.3 Home workers 36
33.4 Public sector
3.3.5 Domestic employees
3.3.6 Non-employed population
3.4 Activities covered
3.5 Definition of remuneration
35.1 Article 119 of the EEC Treaty 3
3.5.2 Fringe benefits7
35.3 Contributory systems
3.5.4 Pensions 3
3.5.5 Collective agreements8
3.6 Comparator9
3.7 Woman does same work as man 43
3.8 Equal value
3.8.1 Job evaluation
3.8.2b classification4
3.8.3 Higher value and proportionate pay
3.9 Legitimate reason for pay differential
4. EQUAL TREATMENT7
4.1 Principle 4
4.2 Exceptions
4.2.1. Exclusions
4.2.1.1 Size
4.2.1.2 Work done outside the jurisdiction 43 Health and safety
4.2.1.4 Security8 5 Retirement age
4.2.2. Sex as a determining factor
4.2.2.1 Lists2 Genuine occupational qualification 49
4.2.2.3 Authenticity4 Security 4
4.2.2.5 Religion 50 6 Decency and privacy
4.2.2.7 Single-sex establishments
4.3 Territorial scope
4.4 Personal scope
4.5 Activities covered
4.6 Comparator1
4.7 Hiring 5
4.7.1 Recruitment methods
4.7.2 Advertisements
4.7.3 Jobtitle
4.7.4 Job description2
4.7.5 Selection arrangements
4.7.6 Terms on which a job is offered 5
4.7.7 Refusalor deliberate omission to offer a job
4.8 Working conditions3