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European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
The Netherlands
■■■^^■■^^H
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Office for Official Publications
of the European Communities Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
The Netherlands Equality in Law between Men and Women
in the European Community
Series Editors
MICHEL VERWILGHEN
Professeur ordinaire à ¡a Faculté de Droit
Université catholique de Louvain
FERDINAND VON PRONDZYNSKI
Professor of Law and Dean of the Law School
Jean Monnet Professor of European Social Law
The University of Hull European Commission
Equality in Law
between Men and Women
in the European Community
The Netherlands
by
IRENE ASSCHER-VONK
Professor of Social Law
Catholic University, Nijmegen
MARTINUS NIJHOFF PUBLISHERS
DORDRECHT/BOSTON/LONDON
OFFICE FOR OFFICIAL PUBLICATIONS OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
LUXEMBOURG A CJ.P. Catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1837-4 (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers)
92-826-4474-X (Office for Official Publications of the EC)
This study was commissioned by the Equal Opportunities Unit of Directorate-General V
(Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs) of the European Commission. It
does not, however, express the Commission's official views. The responsibility for the
views expressed lies with the authors.
A French version of this text has been published by the Office for Official Publications of
the European Communities and Les Editions Juridiques Bruylant, Brussels.
Published by
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, L-298S Luxembourg
ISBN (this volume) 92-826-4474-X Catalogue number CE-97-92-010-EN-C
and
Martinus Nijhoff Publishers,
P.O. Box 163, 3300 AD Dordrecht, The Netherlands
ISBN (series) 0-7923-1842-0 ISBN (this volume) 0-7923-1837-4
Sold and distributed for the Office for Official Publications of the European Communities
by the distributors listed on the inside back cover.
Kluwer Academic Publishers incorporates the publishing programmes of D. Reidel,
Martinus Nijhoff, Dr W. Junk and MTP Press.
Sold and distributed in the USA and Canada
by Kluwer Academic Publishers,
101 Philip Drive, Norwell, MA 02061, U.S.A.
In all other countries sold and distributed
by Kluwer Academic Publishers Group,
P.O. Box 322, 3300 AH Dordrecht, The Netherlands
© European Communities 1995
All Rights Reserved
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any
form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise
without written permission from the copyright owner.
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Foreword xi
Notice to the readerv
Abbreviations xvi
Table of legislation etc xix
Table of cases xx
COMMENTARY ON EQUALITY LAW
1. GENERAL 3
1.1 Introduction
1.1.1 Introduction to national legal system
1.1.2 Economic and social context 4
1.2 Sources 5
1.2.1 International standards
1.2.1.1 Human rights2 Treaties on special questions 7
1.2.2 European Community law
1.2.2.1 Direct effect of Community law2 Retrospective implementation 8
1.2.3 Constitutional law
1.2.4 Legislation 9
1.2.4.1 Prior legislation2 Presentn
2. BASIC CONCEPTS 11
2.1 Equality and discrimination
2.2 Direct discrimination2
2.2.1 Definition
2.2.1.1 Reason2 Detriment3
2.2.1.3 Comparator
2.2.2 Extended definition4
2.2.2.1 Marital status5 2 Familys 1
2.2.2.3 Pregnancy
2.2.2.4 Sexual harassment
2.2.2.5 Physical attributes6 6 Dress codes
2.2.2.7 Military service
2.3 Indirect discrimination7
2.3.1 Definition
2.3.2 Suspect criteria
2.3.3 Disproportionate impact 21
2.3.4 Objective justification2
2.4 VictimizationTABLE OF CONTENTS
3. EQUALPAY 25
3.1 Principle
3.2 Exceptions
3.3 Personal scope
3.3.1 Employees
3.3.2 Independent contractors 26
3.33 Home workers
3.3.4 Publicsector
3.3.5 Domestic employees
33.6 Non-employed population
3.4 Activities covered7
3.5 Definition of remuneration
3.5.1 Article 119 of the EEC Treaty
3.5.2 Fringe benefits 2
3.5.3 Contributions by employer
3.5.4s bye
3-5.5 Post-contribution benefits8
3.5.6 Pensions
3.5.7 Collective agreements
3.6 Comparator
3.6.1 Same establishment
3.6.2 Contemporaneous employment
3.6.3 Hypothetical male9
3.6.4 Different establishment 2
3.6.5 Cross-industry comparisons
3.7 Woman does same work as man
3.8 Equalvalue
3.8.1 Job evaluation
3.8.2b classification
3.8.2.1/2 Factors/Weighting 30
3.83 Highervalue1
3.8.4 Proportionate pay
3.9 Legitimate reason for pay differential
3.9.1 Material difference2
3.9.2 Economic benefits/Market forces
3.9.3 Night-work 33
3.9.4 Part-time work
3.9.5 Redcircles
3.9.6 Otherreasons
4. EQUAL TREATMENT5
4.1 Principle
4.2 Exceptions
4.2.1 Exclusions
4.2.2 Sex as a determining factor 3
4.2.2.1 Lists6 2 Genuine occupational qualification 37
4.2.2.3 Authenticity4 Security
4.2.2.5 Religion8
4.2.2.6 Decency and privacy
4.2.2.7 Single-sex establishments9