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Remote Sensing ƉƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐ for the Urban Environment © 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC Taylor & Francis Series in Remote Sensing Applications Series Editor Qihao Weng Indiana State University Terre Haute, Indiana, U.S.A. Remote Sensing Applications for the Urban Environment,George Z. Xian Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces in Tropical and Subtropical Areas, Hui Lin, Yuanzhi Zhang, and Qihao Weng Global Urban Monitoring and Assessment through Earth Observation, edited by Qihao Weng Remote Sensing of Natural Resources,edited by Guangxing Wang and Qihao Weng Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover: Principles and Applications, Chandra P. Giri Remote Sensing of Protected Lands,edited by Yeqiao Wang Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing: Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications,edited by Qihao Weng Remote Sensing of Coastal Environments,edited by Qihao Weng Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security, edited by Prasad S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral, and Chandashekhar M. Biradar Global Mapping of Human Settlement: Experiences, Data Sets, and Prospects, edited by Paolo Gamba and Martin Herold Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications,Marcus Borengasser, William S.

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Remote Sensing ApplicaIons for the Urban Environment
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Taylor & Francis Series in Remote Sensing Applications
Series Editor Qihao Weng Indiana State University Terre Haute, Indiana, U.S.A.
Remote Sensing Applications for the Urban Environment,George Z. Xian
Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces in Tropical and Subtropical Areas, Hui Lin, Yuanzhi Zhang, and Qihao Weng
Global Urban Monitoring and Assessment through Earth Observation, edited by Qihao Weng
Remote Sensing of Natural Resources,edited by Guangxing Wang and Qihao Weng
Remote Sensing of Land Use and Land Cover: Principles and Applications, Chandra P. Giri
Remote Sensing of Protected Lands,edited by Yeqiao Wang
Advances in Environmental Remote Sensing: Sensors, Algorithms, and Applications,edited by Qihao Weng
Remote Sensing of Coastal Environments,edited by Qihao Weng
Remote Sensing of Global Croplands for Food Security, edited by Prasad S. Thenkabail, John G. Lyon, Hugh Turral, and Chandashekhar M. Biradar
Global Mapping of Human Settlement: Experiences, Data Sets, and Prospects, edited by Paolo Gamba and Martin Herold
Hyperspectral Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications,Marcus Borengasser, William S. Hungate, and Russell Watkins
Remote Sensing of Impervious Surfaces,edited by Qihao Weng
Multispectral Image Analysis Using the ObjectOriented Paradigm,Kumar Navulur
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Remote Sensing ApplicaIons for the Urban Environment
George Z. Xian
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 334872742
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business
No claim to original U.S. Government works Version Date: 20150729
International Standard Book Number13: 9781420089851 (eBook  PDF)
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Contents
Foreword .................................................................................................................îx Preface......................................................................................................................xî Author................................................................................................................... xîîî
 1. Introduction..................................................................................................... 1
 2. Characteristics of Urban Landscape Feature in Local and Regional Scales............................................................................................... 7 2.1 Introductîon ........................................................................................... 7 2.2 Roe of Remote Sensîng for the Urban Landscape ........................... 7 2.3 Appîcatîon of Hîgh-Resoutîon Sateîte Imagery ........................... 9 2.4 Mappîng Urban Land Cover Usîng QuîckBîrd Imagery .............. 12 2.5 Decîsîon Tree Mode for Urban Land Cover Cassîicatîon .......... 14 2.6 Object-Based Image Anaysîs for Urban Land Cover Cassîicatîon........................................................................................ 16 2.7 Summary.............................................................................................. 22
 3. Characterization of Urban Land Cover in a Moderate Resolution..... 23 3.1 Introductîon ......................................................................................... 23 3.2 Characterîstîcs of Urban Landscape ................................................ 23 3.3 Mîxîng Features of Urban Landscapes ............................................ 28 3.4 Characterîzatîon of Urban Landscape ............................................. 29 3.4.1 Spectra Mîxture Anaysîs.................................................... 29 3.4.2 Regressîon Tree Agorîthms................................................. 34 3.5 Another Method for Urban Land Cassîicatîon............................. 46 3.5.1 Artîicîa Neura Network .................................................... 46 3.5.2 Support Vector Machîne ....................................................... 48 3.6 Summary.............................................................................................. 49
 4. Regional and Global Urban Land Cover Characterizations................ 51 4.1 Introductîon ......................................................................................... 51 4.2 Characterîzatîon of Natîona Urban Land Cover ........................... 52 4.2.1 Deveopment of Natîona Urban Land Cover Product în the Unîted States................................................................52 4.2.2 Updated NLCD Impervîous Surface Product ................... 54 4.2.3 Urban Land Cover Changes în the Unîted States between 2001 and 2011 ..........................................................57 4.3 Regîona and Goba Efforts of Mappîng Urban Land .................. 59 4.4 Mappîng Goba Urban Land Cover from Nîghttîme Lîght Imagery................................................................................................. 63
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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4.6
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Map Goba Urban from MODIS Sateîte Data .............................. 65 4.5.1 Urban Extent Deinîtîon ........................................................ 66 4.5.2 Cassîicatîon Too .................................................................. 66 4.5.3 MODIS Data............................................................................ 67 4.5.4 Traînîng Data.......................................................................... 67 4.5.5 Urban Ecoregîon .................................................................... 68 4.5.6 Cassîicatîon of Goba Urban Land Cover ....................... 68 4.5.7 Accuracy Assessment for the Goba-Scae Product ......... 70 New Progresses on Goba Urban Mappîng Effort ........................ 71 4.6.1 Remote Sensîng Data............................................................. 72 4.6.2 Image Cassîicatîon............................................................... 72 4.6.2.1 Landsat Data ........................................................... 72 4.6.2.2 TerraSAR-X Data..................................................... 73 4.6.3 Mutîtempora Change Detectîon........................................ 75 4.6.4 Urban Footprînt and Mutîtempora Change Product ..... 75 Summary.............................................................................................. 75
 5. Assessment of Water Quality in Urban Areas........................................ 77 5.1 Introductîon ......................................................................................... 77 5.2 Parameters of Inand Water Quaîty ................................................ 80 5.3 Sateîtes Measurements and Empîrîca Agorîthms for Dîfferent Water Quaîty Parameters ................................................ 85 5.3.1 Ch-a and Aga ...................................................................... 85 5.3.2 Coored DOM ......................................................................... 88 5.3.3 TSS Concentratîon Estîmate ................................................. 89 5.4 Characterîzatîon of Poutant Loadîng în a Watershed ................. 90 5.5 Sateîte-Derîved Water Quaîty Map............................................... 95 5.5.1 Suspended Sedîments în the Lake Chîcot, Arkansas....... 95 5.5.2 Water Propertîes în Chesapeake Bay .................................. 96 5.5.2.1 Sateîte Ch-a Composîte Images ........................ 98 5.5.2.2 Sateîte Images and Tîme Serîes of MODIS TSS Measurements ................................................. 98 5.5.3 Water Quaîty Assessment for Chîna’s Inand Lake Taîhu ...................................................................................... 100 5.6 Summary............................................................................................ 102
 6. Natural Hazard Assessment for Urban Environments....................... 105 6.1 Introductîon ....................................................................................... 105 6.2 Urban Deveopment and Land Cover Transîtîon în the Guf of Mexîco Regîon............................................................................... 106 6.3 Food Rîsks în Urban Envîronments Usîng Medîum-Resoutîon Remote Sensîng ............................................................. 111 6.4 Landsîde Assessment în Coasta Urban Areas............................ 114 6.4.1 Detectîon of Landsîdes Usîng Remote Sensîng în Hong Kong............................................................................ 115
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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6.4.2 Assessment of Landsîde Envîronment în the Seatte Area........................................................................................ 118 6.4.2.1 Remote Sensîng Data ........................................... 120 6.4.2.2 Impervîous Surface Estîmate.............................. 120 6.4.2.3 Evoutîon of Landsîdes în the Seatte Urban Area ........................................................................ 122 Summary............................................................................................ 127
 7. Air Quality in Urban Areas—Local and Regional Aspects............... 129 7.1 Overvîew ............................................................................................ 129 7.2 Sateîte Retrîevas............................................................................. 132 7.3 Medîum-Resoutîon Sateîte Remote Sensîng.............................. 133 7.3.1 ERS-2...................................................................................... 133 7.3.2 Terra ....................................................................................... 133 7.3.3 Envîsat ................................................................................... 136 7.3.4 Aqua and Aura..................................................................... 136 7.3.5 MetOp.................................................................................... 137 7.3.6 Other Patforms.................................................................... 137 7.4 Specîes Observatîons ........................................................................ 138 7.4.1 Trace Gases ........................................................................... 138 7.4.2 Aeroso Remote Sensîng ..................................................... 140 7.5 Assessments of Aîr Quaîty în Urban Areas................................. 141 7.5.1 Assessment of PM2.5Dîstrîbutîon...................................... 141 7.5.2 Nîtrogen Dîoxîde.................................................................. 143 7.5.3 Ozone..................................................................................... 146 7.6 Urban Land Cover and Aîr Quaîty ............................................... 147 7.7 Summary............................................................................................ 150
 8. Air Quality in Urban Areas—Global Aspects..................................... 153 8.1 Introductîon ....................................................................................... 153 8.2 Sateîte Systems for Goba Aîr Quaîty Assessment.................. 156 8.3 Methods of Estîmatîng the Aeroso Anthropogenîc Component......................................................................................... 157 8.4 Appîcatîons of Remote Sensîng for Goba Aîr Quaîty Assessment......................................................................................... 160 8.4.1 Characterîzatîon of Goba PM2.5Dîstrîbutîon ................ 160 8.4.2 Intercontînenta Transport of Poutant ............................ 163 8.5 Summary............................................................................................ 167
 9. Urban Heat Island and Regional Climatic Effect................................ 169 9.1 Introductîon ....................................................................................... 169 9.2 Cacuatîon of LST from Remote Sensîng...................................... 171 9.2.1 AVHRR Instrument ............................................................. 171 9.2.2 Landsat Imagery .................................................................. 173 9.2.3 MODIS ................................................................................... 174
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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9.4 9.5 9.6
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Quantîicatîon of UHI Usîng Remotey Sensed LST Products ... 174 9.3.1 UHI Effects în a Loca Scae ............................................... 175 9.3.2 Anaysîs of UHI Usîng Grîdded Temperature and Land Cover Datasets ...........................................................178 9.3.3 UHI Effect across the Contînenta Unîted States ............ 182 9.3.4 Regîona UHI Effects în Europe ........................................ 185 Goba Aspect of UHI Effect ............................................................ 187 Cîmate Impacts of UHI ................................................................... 188 Summary............................................................................................ 190
References........................................................................................................... 191 Index..................................................................................................................... 213
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Foreword
Contînued urbanîzatîon, popuatîon growth, economîc actîvîtîes, and goba cîmate change have made assessîng, modeîng, and understandîng urban areas chaengîng. The need for technoogîes, whîch wî enabe monîtorîng of urban assets and managîng exposure to natura and man-made rîsks în cîtîes, îs rapîdy growîng (Weng and Quattrochî, 2006). Urban envîronmen-ta probems have become unprecedentedy compeîng în the twenty-irst century. Thîs îs not ony because cîtîes and towns are the orîgîna producers of many of the envîronmenta probems reated to waste dîsposa and aîr and water poutîon but aso because the împact of goba cîmate change on urban areas îs becomîng a matter of growîng concern (Weng, 2014). Remote sensîng has been an effectîve technoogy to observe, measure, monîtor, and mode many of the components that comprîse urban envîronmenta systems and ecosystems cyces (Weng, 2012). Urban remote sensîng has emerged as a new frontîer în the Earth observatîon technoogy; the voume of îterature has încreased rapîdy sînce 2000 (Weng, 2014). I am peased that Dr. GeorgeZ. Xîan has the vîsîon and energy to wrîte a book on thîs împortant topîc. Dr. Xîan îs an înternatîonay renowned expert în the ied of urban remote sensîng and has been înstrumenta în the success of the Natîona Land Cover Database deveopment. In the context of goba urbanîzatîon and envîronmenta changes and havîng recognîzed the beneits of urban îmagîng and mappîng technîques, Group on Earth Observatîon, an înternatîona organîzatîon for expoîtîng the Earth observatîon technoogîes to support decîsîon makîng, cas for deve-opment of a goba urban observatîon and înformatîon system. Group on Earth Observatîon decîded to estabîsh, în îts 2012–2015 Work Pan, a new project Goba Urban Observatîon and Informatîon. The maîn objectîves of thîs project are to împrove the coordînatîon of urban observatîons, monî-torîng, forecastîng, and assessment înîtîatîves wordwîde; to produce up-to-date înformatîon on the status and deveopment of the urban systems at dîfferent scaes; to i exîstîng gaps în the întegratîon of goba urban and observatîons wîth varîous urban ancîary datasets; and to deveop înnova-tîve concepts and technîques în support of effectîve and sustaînabe urban deveopment (Weng et a. 2014). Sînce the begînnîng of thîs program, Dr. Xîan has been a strong supporter and serves as a coead, workîng wîth me and many coeagues to advance the project and achîeve îts goas. Thîs book marks the thîrteenth voume în theTayor & Francis Group Series in Remote Sensing Appicationsîts înîtîatîon în 2007. It îs aso our ifth sînce book on urban areas. Together, these books contrîbute to recent deveopments în the theorîes, methods, and appîcatîons of urban remote sensîng. As des-îgnated, the serîes aîms to serve as a reference for professîonas, researchers,
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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Foreword
and scîentîsts, as we as textbooks for teachers and students. I hope that the pubîcatîon of thîs book wî promote wîder and better use of remote sensîng data, scîence, and technoogy and wî facîîtate the assessîng, monîtorîng, and managîng of cîtîes, thehabitat for over haf of the word’s popuatîon. I congratuate Dr. Xîan on thîs împortant mîestone în hîs career.
Qihao Weng Hawthorn Woods
References Weng, Q. (2012). Remote sensîng of împervîous surfaces în the urban areas: requîre-ments, methods, and trends.Remote Sensing of Environment, 117(2), 34–49. Weng, Q. (2014). What îs specîa about goba urban remote sensîng? In:Goba Urban Monitoring and Assessment through Earth Observation,Weng, Q. (Ed.). CRC Press/ Tayor and Francîs Group, Boca Raton, FL, Chapter 1, pp. 1–12. Weng, Q., Esch, T., Gamba, P., Quattrochî, D.A., and Xîan, G. (2014). Goba urban observatîon and înformatîon: GEO’s effort to address the împacts of human settements.In:Goba Urban Monitoring and Assessment through Earth Obser-vation,Weng, Q. (Ed.). CRC Press/Tayor and Francîs Group, Boca Raton, FL, Chapter 2, pp. 15–34. Weng, Q. and Quattrochî, D.A. (2006).Urban Remote Sensing. CRC Press/Tayor and Francîs Group, Boca Raton, FL, p. 432.
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Preface
Over the past 50 years, urban deveopment has dramatîcay încreased around the word. Assocîated wîth urban expansîons are încreases în urban popua-tîons and and use. Popuatîon growth wî be partîcuary rapîd în the urban areas of ess deveoped regîons and amost a the growth of the word’s tota popuatîon between 2000 and 2030 îs expected to occur în the urban areas of those regîons. In addîtîon, the proportîon of the popuatîon îvîng în urban areas îs expected to încrease substantîay by 2030 în the most deve-oped regîons. In the Unîted States, economîc growth and popuatîon boom spurred încreased suburbanîzatîon, whîch shîfted resîdentîa areas to the outyîng sectîons of a cîty or to separate munîcîpaîtîes on the frînge of urban areas. The încreasîng concentratîon of urban popuatîons and many of the word’s argest cîtîes beîng outsîde the hîghest încome natîons represents an împortant change. Urban areas are becomîng more and more împortant for current and future human settements. Throughout the word, and use and and cover changes assocîated wîth încreasîng urbanîzatîon have had sîgnîicant împacts on at the oca, regîona, and even goba scaes. Landscape and envîronmenta changes caused by urbanîzatîons are sîgnîicant în amost a urban areas. For exampe, urban and uses permanenty change natura ands to anthropogenîc împervîous surfaces. These changes aso înluence the status of the ecosystem by aterîng many bîophysîca characterîstîcs such as surface temperature, soî moîsture content, and vegetatîon coverage. In addîtîon, human settement not ony changes natura andscapes, but aso transports many chemîca compo-nents to urban water and aîr systems. Severa envîronmenta consequences are assocîated wîth runoff în urbanîzed watersheds, încudîng încreases în runoff voume, oss of nutrîents, and sîgnîicant osses of oî and grease and certaîn heavy metas. Rapîdy buît-up and may become a threat to surface water quaîty when tota runoff încreases, and hydroogîc împaîrment eads to erosîon and sedîmentatîon. The dîrect împacts of urbanîzatîon încude the degradatîon of water resources and water quaîty when surface runoff transports non–poînt source poutants from theîr source areas to receîvîng akes and streams. Poutants eîther dîssoved or suspended în water or asso-cîated wîth sedîment, încudîng nutrîents, heavy metas, and oî and grease, can accumuate and wash away from urban areas. Therefore, împervîous surfaces în urban areas have been consîdered as a key envîronmenta îndîca-tor of the heath of urban watersheds and as an îndîcator of non–poînt source poutîon or pouted runoff. Urban areas as human settement centers may face aîr quaîty îssues when aîr poutîon reaches certaîn eves. Aîr poutîons încudîng partîces and chemîca components emîtted from surfaces can be caused by îndîvîdua sources on the urban scae, as we as on the oca scae.
© 2016 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
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