Republique du tchad unite   travail – progres
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Republique du tchad unite travail – progres

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124 pages
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REPUBLIC OF CHAD Unity – Work - Progress MINISTRY OF PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT AND COOPERATION PRSP Steering Committee National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper N’Djamena – June 2003 1 PREFACE Poverty is just as much a challenge today as it ever was, as the recent improvement in Africa’s economic situation is still insufficient and the continent remains relegated to the sidelines of the world economy. Most reports produced recently stress the specificities of sub-Saharan Africa where the number of poor in absolute terms continues to increase, whereas progress has been made in other regions of the world. Indeed, it seems that minimum growth rates of 5-8 percent will be needed to have an effective impact on economic and social development. Chad’s main objective is to implement an economic policy that will bring about lasting and sustainable development, particularly in the oil era. This development must involve high growth rates holding steady over a relatively long period. The PRSP has proven to be the instrument of choice in attaining this objective. This exercise is not new; the Government of Chad had already submitted a paper to the Geneva IV Round Table in 1998 outlining the key strategic options for development based on “poverty reduction.” The Government wanted the preparation of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy (NPRS) to be participatory. For this reason, it set up a steering committee in April 2000 comprising some 30 members from the public sector, private sector, civil society associations (NGOs, women’s organizations, youth organizations, the public and private media, etc.) and the National Assembly. For three years, the steering committee worked tirelessly on the paper so that it would better reflect the concerns of the Chadian population. A number of different activities were carried out: • a launching seminar (April 25 –27, 2000); • a study on the perceptions of well being and poverty (April-June 2000); • 10 thematic and sectoral studies (May-July 2000); • a civil society forum (November 2000); • country-wide participatory consultations (December 2000-January 2001), • an assessment of typical intervention through some existing projects (February- March 2001) ; • a national seminar to define strategic areas and priority actions (May 8-12, 2001); • regional seminars to re-establish strategic areas and priority actions and adopt performance indicators and a monitoring/assessment mechanism (March 19-21, 2002). All these components progressively refined the various versions of the PRSP, which was also enhanced with the input of Chad’s development partners, particularly the United Nations System, World Bank, IMF, European Union, France, and GTZ. 2 Having adopted the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), Chad shares the opinion of the rest of the world that the PRSP is, first and foremost, a strategy that reflects the expectations of the general population and the resources that the Government must deploy to enable that population to increase its standard of well-being. It is possible that some data presented in this report may be incomplete or partial, however the strategic issues and priority actions are consistent overall, and the Government and its partners are adhering to them. Subsequent revisions of the document will provide the opportunity to adjust certain quantitative indicators in light of new data from current surveys, in particular ECOSIT (survey of informal sector consumption), EDST (demographic and health survey), and the census. The document that the Government has just adopted will be submitted to the donor community in the coming months for them to sign on. Until then, the steering committee and the sectoral ministries (with the support of partners represented on the ground) will undertake a thorough evaluation of projects and programs by sector of activity. The implementation and follow-up of the PRSP will once again call for a more decentralized and participatory consensus-building approach. In the interest of transparency and good governance, the structures to be created will work in conjunction with regional and local governments to ensure that the expenditure executed within the framework of the PRSP will actually reach the targeted beneficiaries. The Government, for its part, will spare no effort to ensure that this strategy truly reduces poverty by 2015. N’Djamena, June 5, 2003 /s/ Djimrangar Dadnadji Minister of Plan, Development and Cooperation 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction ..........................................................................................................................10 Chapter 1 Background and Process for Preparation of the PRSP..............................11 1.1 The International, Regional and National Background .....................................11 1.1.1 The International and Regional Context ..........................................................11 1.1.2 The National Context .......................................................................................12 1.2 Presentation of the Participatory Process ............................................................15 1.2.1 The Steering Committee in Chare of the Strategy Preparation Process...........15 1.2.2 The Strategy Preparation Process.....................................................................16 Chapter 2 Diagnostic Assessment of Poverty in Chad ..................................................18 2.1 Profile of Poverty in Chad .....................................................................................19 2.1.1 Quantitative Analysis of Poverty......................................................................19 2.1.2 Qualitative Analys........................................................................23 2.1.2.1 Poverty and Well-Being as Perceived by the Population ..........................23 2.1.2.2 Lessons Drawn from Participatory Consultations....................................24 2.1.3 Typification of Poor Households .....................................................................28 2.2 Vulnerable Social Groups......................................................................................32 Chapter 3 Determinants of Poverty and Opportunities in Chad.................................36 3.1 Determinants of Poverty ........................................................................................36 3.1.1. Governance.......................................................................................................36 3.1.2. Modest Economic Growth ...............................................................................38 3.1.2.1 Low Productivity in the Primary Sector...................................................38 3.1.2.2 A Practically Nonexistent Processing Sector ...........................................40 3.1.2.3 A Largely Unproductive Tertiary Sector..................................................41 3.1.3 Highly Deficient Human Resources and Living Conditions............................41 3.1.3.1 Education, Training, and Literacy Classes ...............................................41 3.1.3.2 Inadequate Health Care Coverage and Hypothetical Nutrition ................42 3.1.3.3 HIV/AIDS.................................................................................................44 3.1.3.4 Status of Women in Chad......................................................................... 3.1.3.5 Lack of Social Protection .........................................................................44 3.1.4 Inappropriate and Dilapidated Basic Economic Infrastructure ........................44 3.1.4.1 The Road Network ...................................................................................44 3.1.4.2 Energy.......................................................................................................45 3.1.4.3 Telecommunication.................................................................................. 3.1.4.4. The Banking System and Microfinance ...................................................46 3.1.5. Other Obstacles to Poverty Reduction .............................................................46 3.1.5.1 Debt..........................................................................................................46 3.1.5.2 Demographic Factors...............................................................................47 3.1.5.3 Explosive Remnants of War, Factors Exacerbating Poverty.................... 3.2 Chad’s Strengths ....................................................................................................49 3.2.1 Opportunities49 3.2.2 The Long-Term Outlook for Growth and Development ..................................51 3.2.2.1 The Oil Boom Era ....................................................................................51 3.2.2.2 The Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative............................51 4 Chapter 4 The Overall Outlook for Development Through 2015................................52 4.1 An Integrated Vision of Poverty Reduction Combined with the Preparation of the Post-Oil Boom Era...........................................................52 4.2 Poverty Reduction Targets from 2003 to 2015 ....................................................54 4.2.1 Promote Good Governance ..............................................................................54 4.2.1.1 Consolidation of the Rule of Law ............................................................55 4.2.1.2 Role of the State, the Private Sector, and Civil Society...........................55 4.2.1.3 Efficient and Transparent Management of Public Affairs .......................60 4.2.2 Ensure Strong and Sustained Economic Growth .............................................60 4.2.2.1 Exploitation of the Sources of Growth.....................................................61 4.2.2.2 Promotion of the Private Sector ...............................................................61 4.2.2.3 Development of Basic Infrastructure and Support for Growth ...............62 4.2.2.4 Achieve a Sustainable Increase in Rural Output ......................................64 4.2.3 Improving Human Capital................................................................................66 4.2.3.1 Education, Training, and Literacy Campaigns .........................................66 4.2.3.2 Health.......................................................................................................68 4.2.3.3 HIV/AIDS................................................................................................. 4.2.4 Improving the Living Conditions of Vulnerable Groups .................................68 4.2.4.1 Integrated Urban Development ................................................................68 4.2.4.2 Support for Microenterprises, SME, and Employment............................69 4.2.4.3 Social Protection......................................................................................70 4.2.5 Restoring and Safeguarding Ecosystems.......................................................... 4.2.5.1 Strengthen the Regulatory Framework and Natural Resource Management Capabilities.....................................................................71 4.2.5.2 Improvement of Household Energy Management....................................71 Chapter 5 Macroeconomic Framework..........................................................................72 5.1 Sources of Economic Growth ................................................................................72 5.2 Conditions Necessary to Growth and Poverty Reduction ..................................74 5.2.1 Macroeconomic Stability.................................................................................75 5.2.1.1 Objectives.................................................................................................75 5.2.1.2 Economic Policies....................................................................................77 5.2.1.2.1 Fiscal Policies 5.2.1.2.2 Monetary and Financial Sector Policies............................................84 Chapter 6 Implementation of the PRSP.........................................................................87 6.1 Stages of Implementation ......................................................................................87 6.2 Monitoring ..............................................................................................................88 6.3 Assessment.89 6.3.1 Preparation of the Program for 2006-10...........................................................90 6.3.2 Updating...........................................................................................................90 6.4 Institutional Framework........................................................................................ 6.4.1 The High Interministerial Committee for PRSP Supervision ..........................90 6.4.2 The Government/Donors Committee ...............................................................91 6.4.3 The Steering Committee...................................................................................91 6.4.4 Sectoral Monitoring and Evaluation Units.......................................................91 6.4.5 Regional, Departmental, and Subprefectural Units..........................................92 5 Boxes 1. A Civil Society Keen to Participate Fully in National Life but Without the Required Skills ...............................................................................................38 2. An Incipient Private Sector Facing a Regulatory Offering it Few Incentives ..........38 3. Oil Revenues, 2004-15 Projections..........................................................................78 4. Principal Actions Underway to Strengthen the Monitoring of Expenditure in the Priority Sectors...........................................................................................81 Charts 1. Distribution (in percent) of Households According to Standard of Living and Level of Education of the Head of Household ..............................................29 2. Distribution of Households with Access to Portable Water (tap, public fountain, well) by Household Standard of Living.............................29 3. National Distribution of Households by Standard of Living and Gender of the Head of Household.....................................................................................30 4. Percentage of Children Under 5 years of Age Suffering from Malnutrition (Insufficient Weight) ............................................................................................31 5. Infant and Child Mortality Rates by Households’ Standard of Living.....................31 6. Distribution (in percent)of Childbirths by Place and Households’ Standard of Living ...................................................................................................................32 Tables 1 Food-Related and Overall Poverty Lines in 1995-96 Per Capita and Per Day.........20 2. Incidence and Depth of Poverty in Chad in 1995-96 (ECOSIT I)............................20 3. HDI Estimates, by Region........................................................................................22 4. Summary of the Issues Raised by People, by Zone, According to Priorities ...........24 5. Distribution of the Disabled, by Disability...............................................................34 6. Public Spending by Sectors, 2003-06.......................................................................83 Annexes 1. Matrix of Priority Actions of Phase I of the PRSP...................................................93 2. Partial List of New Projects Identified on a Sector-by-Sector Basis, Financing for Which is to be Sought in the Context of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy................................................................................106 3. Quantitative Poverty Reduction Objectives ...........................................................115 4. Table 1 Detail of Macroeconomic Framework............................................................120 Table 2 Gross Domestic Product by Sector, 2001-15 .................................................121 Table 3 Consolidated Government Operations, 2003-15............................................122 Table 4 Balance of Payments, 2003-15.......................................................................123 Table 5 Monetary Survey, 2003-15.............................................................................124 6 ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACBF African Capacity Building Foundation ADB African Development Bank AFD Agence Française de Développement APE Parents Associations APICED Agency to Support Community Initiatives in Education B.E.T. / BET Borkou Ennedi Tibesti BdL Brasseries du Logone (Breweries of Logone) BEAC Bank of Central African States BGT Boissons et Glacières du Tchad (Chadian Soft Drinks and Coolers Company) BOP Balance of Payments CAEMC Central African Economic and Monetary Community CCIAMA Chamber of Commerce, Industry, Agriculture, Mining and Crafts CCSRP Oil Revenue Control and Surveillance Board CELIAF Women’s Associations Liaison and Information Unit CEMAC Community CEN-SAD Community of Sahel and Saharan States CESRAP Unit to Monitor Reform of Public Administration CFAF CFA Franc (African Financial Community Franc) CNSP Children needing special protection CP Steering Committee CST Compagnie Sucrière du Tchad (Chadian Sugar Company) CTNSC National Technical Monitoring and Control Committee DDENs Departmental delegations in national education DHS Cotontchad’s oil and soap products division DSEED Directorate of Statistics and Economic and Demographic Studies DSIS Health Information System Division ECOSIT Survey on Consumption and the Informal Sector in Chad EDST Demography and Health Survey EHIPC Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries [Initiative] EMT Migration Survey EMT Migration Survey for Chad EPBEP Survey on Perception of Well-Being and Poverty ERW Explosive remnants of war ESAF Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility ETFP technical education and professional training EU European Union FACIL Local Initiatives Concerted Action Fund FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FER Road Maintenance Fund FGF Fund for Future Generations GDP Gross Domestic Product 7 GNDI Gross national disposable income H.I. Handicap International HCI High Interministerial Committee for PRSP Supervision HPI Human Poverty Index ICAO International Civil Aviation O. IDA International Development Association IEC Information and Communication (outreach) ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund INSEED National Institute for Statistics and Economic and Population Research LGRP Law on the management of oil revenues LRVZ Veterinary Research and Zootechnology Laboratory M.I.T. Intermediate Means of Transport MA Ministry of Agriculture MASF of Social Affairs of Chad MAT Ministry of Territorial (Regional) Development MCT Manufacture des Cigarettes du Tchad (Chadian Cigarette Manufacturer) MD Ministry of Decentralization MDG Millennium Development Goals MEE Ministry of Environment and Water MEF of Economy and Finance MEN National Education Ministry MFI Microfinance institution MJ Ministry of Justice MMED of Mining and Energy MPDC Ministry of Planning, Development, and Cooperation MSP of Public Health MTPT Ministry of Public Transport in Chad NEPAD New Partnership for Africa’s Development NGO Nongovernmental organization OHADA Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa OMVSD Office to Develop the Satégui-Déréssia Plain ONDR National Office for Rural Development PFIE Information for the Environment Training Program PNLS National Program to Combat AIDS PNT National Transportation Program PPLS Population and Fight against AIDS project PRGF Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PTA Teachers and Parents Associations REPAFEM Poverty Reduction and Actions for Women SAC Structural Adjustment Credit SAP Structural Adjustment Program SENAREC National Capacity Building Secretariat SME Small and medium-sized enterprise 8 SNBG National Good Governance Strategy STEE Société Tchadienne d’Eau et d’Electricité (Chadian Water and Electricity Company) UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund VRDs Sewer and drainage systems WHO World Health Organization WPDS Women in particularly dire straits 9
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