Women in the European Community

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Population and social conditions
Health policy

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N
THE EUROPEAN
COMMUNITY
eurOStat Statistical Office of the European Communities
^H^^^^^^^^H^^H^^^H^^^B^^^^^^^^^^H^H Women in the
European Community Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication.
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1992
ISBN 92-826-3136-2
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1992
Reproduction is authorized, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged.
Printed in Belgium FOREWORD
This study, commissioned by Directorate-General V - Employment, Industrial Relations and
Social Affairs (Equal Opportunities Unit) and Eurostat (Syntheses of Social Statistics Unit),
was conducted by Marie-Laurence Delacourt and Jacques A. Zighera of the Laédix Labor­
atory (IEAE, URA 1239, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) of the University of
Paris X Nanterre, in close collaboration with the Instituto de la Mujer (Madrid). WOMEN IN THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITY
A STATISTICAL PORTRAIT
The Commission of the European Communities has been concerned with the development
and promotion of equal opportunities for women since the nineteen seventies. A proposal for
a Directive on Equal Pay was drafted as early as 1973 and was adopted by the Council of
Ministers two years later. The First Action Programme for Women was initiated in 1982 and
was launched at the beginning of 1991. This Third Action Programme, together with the five
Directives concerning equal treatment which have already been adopted, provide an appro­
priate framework for action at the Community level.
As we approach the implementation of the Internal Market, the need for accurate information
on the position of women has never been greater. There is an increasing demand for
up-to-date and complex statistics, which can provide a basis for equal opportunity policies.
Moreover, the European Parliament has adopted several resolutions requesting the collec­
tion of up-to-date gender-specific data. Such data can enable specific groups of women to
be targetted and highlight both direct and indirect forms of discrimination.
This publication has drawn together in a single volume a wide range of statistics on the social
situation of women in the European Community which are frequently requested by institutions
and organisations concerned with equal opportunities. Although various aspects of the
employment situation of women are emphasised, demographic data and data relating to the
structure of households, social protection, childcare and education are also included in order
to complete the picture. Special attention is paid to the problems of two groups, the
economically inactive and those living abroad, because their respective social situations
pose particular problems. The second part of the study offers a detailed analysis of the
occupational distribution of women at work within the Community. The picture of occupational
concentration which emerges from this exercise illustrates the importance of implementing
equal opportunities policies whose success can be precisely monitored only by access to
accurate and relevant data.
Henning CHRISTOPHERSEN Vasso PAPANDREOU Contents
Chapter I: Population 9
- Population by sex and age group 10-11
- Age and feminization 12-13
- Female age pyramids 14-15
- Population trends 16-17
- Additional statistics 18-19
- Notes 20
Chapter II: Birth and fertility rates1
- Birth rate 22-23
- Fertility trend by age group 24-25
- Fertility by parity of birth 26-27
- Additional statistics 28-29
- Notes 30
Chapter III: Household composition1
- Women with and without children 32-33
- Dependent children and age of the mother 34-35
- Age of youngest child 36-37
- Proportion of married persons aged 15-35 38-39
- Marriage and divorce 40-41
- Additional statistics 42-43
- Notes 44
Chapter IV: Social protection5
- Expenditure on maternity and family allowances 46-47
- Level of child benefit 48-49
- Notes 50
Chapter V: Child care1
- Day-care and school systems 52-53
- Pre-primary schooling according to age 54-55
- Notes6 Chapter VI: Education and training 57
- Leaving the educational system 58-59
- Higher education 60-61
- Vocational training 62-63
-l training for women by age 64-65
- Notes 66
Chapter VII: Employment status7
- Employment, unemployment, non-activity 68-69
- Working women by age group 70-71
- Trends in female employment and unemployment 72-73
- Numbers of children and activity rates 74-75
- Family composition and economic activity 76-77
- Additional statistics 78-79
- Notes 80
Chapter VIII: Sectors of activity1
- Agriculture, industry, services 82-83
- Feminization of families of sectors 84-85
- The distributive trades, banking and insurance, public administration 86-87
- Feminization profiles by age: three sectors 88-89
- Additional statistics 90-91
- Notes 92
Chapter IX: Hours worked and atypical employment 93
- Length of the working week 94:95
- Part-time work and family structure 96-97
-e work and temporary contracts 98-99
- Female job insecurity by sector 100-101
- Notes 102
Chapter X: Unemployment and job-seeking 103
- Levels and causes of unemployment 104-105
- Unemployment trends 106-107
- Unemployment, age and family status 108-109
- Length of unemployment 110-111
- Unemployment and sectors of activity 112-113