A short course in elementary meteorology

A short course in elementary meteorology

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QC Af.O. 247. AIR MINISTRY. METEOROLOGICAL LONDON,OFFICE, UC-NRLF INCOURSESHORT METEOROLOGY.ELEMENTARY BY B.Sc.W. H. PICK, lof w Committee. tl;e LONDON: BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.PUBLISHED To be Bookseller or frompurchased through any directly OFFICE at the addresses:H.M. STATIONERY following W.C. and ARINODON S.W.IIMPERIAL HOUSE, KINQSWA.Y, LONDON, 2, 28, STREET, LONDON, ST. ANDREW'S37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER; 1, CHKSCENT, CARDIFF: FORTH STREET.2:, EDINBURGH; r EASOX AND 40 and LOWER SACKVILLE STREET DUBLIN.from SOX, LTD., 41, 1921. Price Is. fid. Net. 247.M.O. :AIR MINISTRY. : i . //, METEOROLOGICAL LONDON.OFFICE, A COURSE INSHORT ELEMENTARY METEOROLOGY. BY W. H. B.Sc.PICK, 0mmitt,of flj* #tet*0r0l0jjtcalfee jfyt gtitfjorttj? LONDON: PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. Bookseller orTo be through any directly frompurchased OFFICE at addresses :H.M. STATIONERY the following 1IMPERIAL LONDON, W.C. and ABINODON STREET, S.W.HOUSE, KINQSWAY, 2, 28, LONDON, ; ANDREW'SPETER l, ST.37, STREET, MANCHESTER; CRESCENT, CARDIFF; FORTH STREET.23, EDINBURGH; STREETor from EASON AND 40 and 41, LOWFR SACKVIILE DUBLIN.SON, LTD., S 1921. Is. Qd. Net.Price \ PREFACE. for itThis little book is a remarkable one,unimposing marks an there are numerous books on elementaryepoch ; written abut this is the first which has been bymeteorology, meteo-British teacher for a class of students who are learning as a for theirrology qualification profession.

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QC
Af.O. 247.
AIR MINISTRY.
METEOROLOGICAL LONDON,OFFICE,
UC-NRLF
INCOURSESHORT
METEOROLOGY.ELEMENTARY
BY
B.Sc.W. H. PICK,
lof w Committee.
tl;e
LONDON:
BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.PUBLISHED
To be Bookseller or frompurchased through any directly
OFFICE at the addresses:H.M. STATIONERY following
W.C. and ARINODON S.W.IIMPERIAL HOUSE, KINQSWA.Y, LONDON, 2, 28, STREET, LONDON,
ST. ANDREW'S37, PETER STREET, MANCHESTER; 1, CHKSCENT, CARDIFF:
FORTH STREET.2:, EDINBURGH;
r EASOX AND 40 and LOWER SACKVILLE STREET DUBLIN.from SOX, LTD., 41,
1921.
Price Is. fid. Net.247.M.O.
:AIR MINISTRY. : i
. //,
METEOROLOGICAL LONDON.OFFICE,
A COURSE INSHORT
ELEMENTARY METEOROLOGY.
BY
W. H. B.Sc.PICK,
0mmitt,of flj* #tet*0r0l0jjtcalfee jfyt gtitfjorttj?
LONDON:
PUBLISHED BY HIS MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.
Bookseller orTo be through any directly frompurchased
OFFICE at addresses :H.M. STATIONERY the following
1IMPERIAL LONDON, W.C. and ABINODON STREET, S.W.HOUSE, KINQSWAY, 2, 28, LONDON, ;
ANDREW'SPETER l, ST.37, STREET, MANCHESTER; CRESCENT, CARDIFF;
FORTH STREET.23, EDINBURGH;
STREETor from EASON AND 40 and 41, LOWFR SACKVIILE DUBLIN.SON, LTD., S
1921.
Is. Qd. Net.Price\PREFACE.
for itThis little book is a remarkable one,unimposing
marks an there are numerous books on elementaryepoch ;
written abut this is the first which has been bymeteorology,
meteo-British teacher for a class of students who are learning
as a for theirrology qualification profession.
world'sThe British has some of theEmpire produced
Blan-foremost meteorologists Halley, Beaufort, Abercromby,
and to mention a few until recently,ford, Eliot, Shaw, only but,
makeno one but a few it worth his while tospecialists thought
a serious of But have now changed,study meteorology. things
for the war us the of inmeteorology practicaltaught importance
inand the has with his active life theaviator arrivedlife,
intoof nature which have lookedweregion onlymeteorologists
from below.
of a few and the life'sfrom theMeteorology, being hobby
"
work of official weathera still smaller number of despised
the aviator buthas come into its and notown,prophets," only
the means to thisis for the studygeneral public asking
branch of science.neglected
that I welcomeIt with theis, therefore, greatest pleasure
this of alittle book and trust that it is the first longonly
as itfor is still in its andseries, developsmeteorology infancy,
worse thantext-books must be rewritten or will becomethey
useless.
forThis book has been written aby practical meteorologist
This is anaviators and a teacher for his students.practical by
Iideal combination and the is notproduct disappointing.
unsolvedto warn the student that there arewish, however, many
in and therefore he should not be satisfiedproblems meteorology,
Hewith or which the book contains.any explanation theory
has been the best which it is togiven explanations possible
in the state of our limited in somegive present knowledge,
cases the need to use considerations Allby elementary only.
this him. a interest in hisshould, however, work,give greater
for it will afford him of to use his ownopportunitiesplenty
to of the of his anbrains, say nothing possibility making
What more could real studentimportant discovery. any
desire ?
G. C. SIMPSON,
Office.Director, Meteorological
1921.August
O Wt 8438 6216 3000 E&S(5)15406 11/21 A 2
519641CONTENTS.
Part I.
GENERAL METEOROLOGY.
I. Introductory.Chap.
II. Winds.
The Trade Winds,III.
Monsoons and Similar Winds.IV.
onV. Some Considerations Temperature.
VI. Water in the Atmosphere.Vapour
VIE. and Mist.Fog
VEIL Clouds.
of Snow and Hail.IX. The Formation Clouds, Bain,
X. Weather.
Part H.
SYNOPTIC METEOROLOGY.
XI. Introductory.Chap.
and its Measurement.XII. Pressure
The of Charts and some Lessons derivedXIII. Making Synoptic
from them.
XIV. of Pressure Distribution.Types
Phenomena.XV. Special
XVI. Forecasting.
XVII. Weather Lore.
Part in.
THE UPPER AIR.
XVIII. The Variation of Wind with Altitude.Chap.
XIX. The andTroposphere Stratosphere.
Air.XX. and in thePressure, UpperDensity, Humidity
FurtherAppendix. Beading.
Index.A Short Course in Elementary Meteorology.
PART I. GENERAL METEOROLOGY.
CHAPTER L
Introductory*
an invisible1. The Man lives at the base ofAtmosphere.
isocean of air termed the This com-atmosphere. atmosphere
in its chemical but in the lower levels nearplex composition,
the earth's surface that remains con-composition practically
stant. Innumerable chemical of from theseanalyses samples
lower levels taken from various of the haveregions globe
failed to reveal differences. But,any very appreciable partly
reason of different to the sun and reasonby exposure partly by
inof the different of the land and sea surfacesproperties
contact with the near the earth's whilst
it, atmosphere surface,
constant in chemical revealssensibly composition,remaining
differences from time to time and from placestriking physical
to differences be at firstThese may regardedplace. physical
as but their results are amazing ;sight comparatively slight,
F. the offor 200 covers atmospheric tempera-example, range
this istures on the and almostearth,experienced negligible
the ofwith the difference betweensay, temperaturecompared,
the electric arc and that of but, nevertheless,liquid hydrogen,
small as arctic atit it causes the cold of theis, great regions
one end of the and the heat of therange sweltering tropical,
at the other.regions
The of conditions and is calledstudy atmospheric changes
and is a branch of the wider science,meteorology, meteorology
The student will find it a if he will con-physics. great help
remember this and will beforetinually kinship, keep always
him allthe fact that the conditions and of thephenomena
are illustrations of the of andatmosphere principles physics,
that the asea of air is vast in which naturephysical laboratory
is some or another on thealways showing experiment grand
scale. It is functionthe of the to note the con-meteorologist
ditions of these and to make an toexperiments attempt explain
the results which become evident the course of them.during
2. The Value It no amountof Meteorology. requires great
of realise that the weather isreflection to an matterimportant
to most no matter what their be. It ismen, occupation may
ever whether in or be takenand must intowar,present, peace
account in most The mariner and theprojects. agriculturist
find it of Thesupreme importance. housing engineer, engaged6;:..,
.,'.'..
**;>'
ain ; /in' must have.ereGting biaildmgg any particular country,
inof-the" blfiaaatic 'extremes to beknowledge likely experienced
is a distinctthat Medical men realise that therecountiy.
and the of certainrelation between the \veather prevalence
diseases. The commander-in-chief military opera-conducting
is face to face with the fact that favourable ortions brought
unfavourable weather is a factor too to begreat disregarded ;
whilst the officers have to institute a close liaison withgunnery
the ones if are to secure ofmeteorological they accuracy range.
from such as those of the classesAnd, apart specialists already
even the citizen in town ormentioned, average dwelling country
is often made to realise unfortunate ofenough by experience
issnow or or floods how the weather thefog dependent upon
him of the ofwhich to the necessariestransport brings supplies
life.
The Value to the Airman. The of3. of Meteorology coming
aviation has added more to the of astrongly importanceyet
of to the a of it is ofstudy meteorology for, airman, knowledge
inasmuch as the air is the medium in thepeculiar importance
which he has his and is the theflying being medium, changes
and of which cause him considerablephenomena may perturba-
tion from time to time. A well-founded forecast of coming
weather and is of the work ofmeteoro-changes prediction part
is to him a to avoid thehim,logy necessity enabling first,
which come to him as a result of those
;danger may changes
and to himself in a to be able to utilisesecond, put position
those to his own if this be But itchanges advantage possible.
cannot too muchbe that theseemphasised changes, important,
and aseven be to cannot be foretoldhim,deadly they may by
even an a casual at theexpert meteorologist by just glance sky
"
and a casual of the weather but that theirtapping glass,"
a weatherprediction requires wide-flung organisation, daily
much careful observation and and continualcharts, study,
both to and toappeals precedent physics.
It must not be that is thesupposed, however, prediction
that can to the airman. Fore-only help meteorology give
is a matter of the vicissitudes of the but forcasting weather,
such matters as the of an or the of afloating airship working
a of the normal conditionspetrol engine knowledge atmospheric
at various is of more than that of the tem-heights importance
with which is concerned.porary divergencies forecasting
Climatic that is data with eitherdata, means,dealing monthly
or of the various elements is asyearly, meteorological just
in its own and its own isfor uses as the forecastimportant way
of to-morrow's weather. Prediction is so attractive a ofpart
the science of that is often a totheremeteorology tendency
consider it the only part.