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Attracting, trapping and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes using odor-baited stations - The Ifakara Odor-Baited Stations

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10 pages
To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. Methods We describe a new odor-baited station for trapping, contaminating and killing disease-transmitting mosquitoes. This device, named the 'Ifakara Odor-baited Station' (Ifakara OBS), is a 4 m 3 hut-shaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. Results In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphos-methyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% of Anopheles arabiensis , 78.7% of Culex and 60% of Mansonia mosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito Magnet-X ® , the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P < 0.001). Compared to the Mosquito Magnet-X ® , it was equally efficacious in catching An. arabiensis (P = 0.969), but was less efficacious against Culex (P < 0.001) or Mansonia species (P < 0.001). Conclusion The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against disease-carrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector, An. arabiensis and Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness in the field will require cheap, long-lasting and easy-to-use mosquito lures.
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Okumuet al.Parasites & Vectors2010,3:12 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/3/1/12
R E S E A R C HOpen Access Attracting, trapping and killing disease transmitting mosquitoes using odorbaited stations  The Ifakara OdorBaited Stations 1,2* 11 1,31 Fredros O Okumu, Edith P Madumla , Alex N John , Dickson W Lwetoijera, Robert D Sumaye
Abstract Background:To accelerate efforts towards control and possibly elimination of mosquitoborne diseases such as malaria and lymphatic filariasis, optimally located outdoor interventions could be used to complement existing intradomicilliary vector control methods such as house spraying with insecticides and insecticidal bednets. Methods:We describe a new odorbaited station for trapping, contaminating and killing diseasetransmitting 3 mosquitoes. This device, named theIfakara Odorbaited Station(Ifakara OBS), is a 4 mhutshaped canvas box with seven openings, two of which may be fitted with interception traps to catch exiting mosquitoes. It is baited with synthetic human odors and may be augmented with contaminants including toxic insecticides or biological agents. Results:In field trials where panels of fabric were soaked in 1% pirimiphosmethyl solution and suspended inside the Ifakara OBS, at least 73.6% ofAnopheles arabiensis, 78.7% ofCulexand 60% ofMansoniamosquitoes sampled while exiting the OBS, died within 24 hours. When used simply as a trap and evaluated against two existing outdoor traps, Ifakara Tent trap and Mosquito MagnetX®, the OBS proved more efficacious than the Ifakara Tent trap in catching all mosquito species found (P < 0.001). Compared to the Mosquito MagnetX®, it was equally efficacious in catchingAn. arabiensis(P = 0.969), but was less efficacious againstCulex(P < 0.001) orMansonia species (P < 0.001). Conclusion:The Ifakara OBS is efficacious against diseasecarrying mosquitoes including the malaria vector,An. arabiensisand Culicine vectors of filarial worms and arboviruses. It can be used simultaneously as a trap and as a contamination or killing station, meaning most mosquitoes which escape trapping would leave when already contaminated and die shortly afterwards. This technique has potential to complement current vector control methods, by targeting mosquitoes in places other than human dwellings, but its effectiveness in the field will require cheap, longlasting and easytouse mosquito lures.
Introduction Development and adoption of alternative mosquito con trol tools has been exceptionally slow over the past sev eral years. As such, existing intradomicilliary methods, namely indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) have remained the pri mary interventions against vectors of important patho gens such as those that cause malaria and dengue fever [1,2]. These methods have been considerably effective,
* Correspondence: fredros@ihi.or.tz 1 Biomedical and Environmental Sciences Thematic Group, Ifakara Health Institute, PO Box 53, Ifakara, Tanzania
for example when used alongside appropriate therapeu tic measures, they have contributed to massive declines in malaria related morbidity and mortality in Africa [26]. Considering malaria as an example, the current global action plan focuses on achieving universal protective coverage with ITNs and IRS alongside diagnosis and treatment, but also on country by country elimination of malaria transmission [7]. Since 2007, there have also been calls for concerted efforts towards global malaria eradication [8,9]. Despite these developments, there is growing concern that existing tools may not be adequate
© 2010 Okumu et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.