Disaster risk preparedness [Elektronische Ressource] : the role of risk governance, multi-institutional arrangements and polycentric frameworks for a resilient tsunami early warning system in Indonesia / vorgelegt von Denis Chang Seng

Disaster risk preparedness [Elektronische Ressource] : the role of risk governance, multi-institutional arrangements and polycentric frameworks for a resilient tsunami early warning system in Indonesia / vorgelegt von Denis Chang Seng

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DISASTER RISK PREPAREDNESS The Role of Risk Governance, Multi-Institutional Arrangements and Polycentric Frameworks for a Resilient Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades (Dr. rer. nat.) der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn vorgelegt von Denis Chang Seng aus Seychelles Bonn, June 2010 Angefertigt mit Genehmigung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn 1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans-Georg Bohle 2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Pohl Tag der Promotion: 20.07.2010 Erscheinungsjahr: 2010 Abstract This study examines, discusses and provides insights into tsunami risk resilience through an analysis of systems of governance, their architecture, and actor-agent perspectives, concentrating on the development of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) in Indonesia. The key problem is that so far, little attention has been paid to the cross-cutting issues of governance and institutions involved in such an Early Warning System (EWS). There is also no integrated and comprehensive framework to enquire into and analyse the role of multi-level and cross-scale governance and institutions in the context of EWSs.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2010
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DISASTER RISK PREPAREDNESS

The Role of Risk Governance, Multi-Institutional
Arrangements and Polycentric Frameworks for a Resilient
Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia

Dissertation
zur
Erlangung des Doktorgrades (Dr. rer. nat.)
der
Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät
der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn


vorgelegt von

Denis Chang Seng

aus

Seychelles
Bonn, June 2010





Angefertigt mit Genehmigung der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der
Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn























1. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Hans-Georg Bohle
2. Gutachter: Prof. Dr. Jürgen Pohl

Tag der Promotion: 20.07.2010

Erscheinungsjahr: 2010




Abstract

This study examines, discusses and provides insights into tsunami risk resilience through an
analysis of systems of governance, their architecture, and actor-agent perspectives,
concentrating on the development of a Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) in
Indonesia.

The key problem is that so far, little attention has been paid to the cross-cutting issues of
governance and institutions involved in such an Early Warning System (EWS). There is also
no integrated and comprehensive framework to enquire into and analyse the role of multi-
level and cross-scale governance and institutions in the context of EWSs. Institutional
analyses have focused on investigating the governance of natural resources and
applications in new institutional economics and internal relations. In addition, current efforts
are focused on building tsunami resilience based on either the four phase EWS model or the
disaster management cycle only, and do not pay adequate attention to socio-ecological
resilience attributes such as adapting and fitting systems according to ecological challenges.
The main argument of this study is that an effective and sustainable EWS depends on multi-
level governance, institutional arrangements, and frameworks that draw on attributes of
resilience capacities of managing the uncertain tsunami hazard risk and its interaction with
social-ecological systems.
Therefore, a comprehensive integrated framework is developed and employed to structure
inquiry, and analyse governance and institutions in the context of the TEWS. The study
employs a system-architecture-actor-oriented approach based on institutional analyses. It
is mainly based on qualitative methodologies and data collected in Jakarta, Bali and Padang,
Indonesia during the development of the TEWS in Indonesia.
The key findings of this research highlight the underlying conditions that caused the coping
thcapacity to be severely exceeded in the 26 December 2004 tsunami disaster in Indonesia.
It argues and outlines the hindering and driving factors for institutional change in disaster
risk management and points out the challenges in implementing and sustaining an effective
TEWS based on prevailing systems of governance in Indonesia. On the other hand, it shows
the emerging TEWS-related architecture in terms of the new TEWS design, supporting
multi-institutional arrangements, frameworks and structures.
The actors’ interaction with the TEWS architecture from the national to the local level
underlines the highly debated and negotiated issues and improving good governance
attributes centred on the creation of hazard-risk maps for further evacuation, spatial



planning and development and preparedness versus response financing. The study outlines
the key contrast in rooting TEWS in Padang and Bali based on demographic differences.
ESG (2009) defines agency as the capacity to act in the face of earth system transformation
or to produce effects that ultimately shape natural processes. This study also identifies and
shows how agency for effective governance was exercised beyond the state in relation to
the TEWS in Indonesia. The study explores the issues of TEWS effectiveness to this end and
identifies the main unsatisfactory outcome and proposes multi-level incentive mechanisms
beyond systems of governance and state agency to motivate change at operational and
policy level to sustain an effective TEWS in Indonesia.
The findings suggest that the developing polycentric and multi-layered institutions and
structures synchronized according to the decentralized political-administrative system are
ideal governance architectures for improved performance and for building national resilience
to local and trans-boundary multi-hazard risks and disaster in Indonesia. However, it is
argued that such a polycentric multilayered architecture and top-down technocratic TEWS is
not completely adequate for dealing with local field earthquake generated tsunami risks due
to problems of fit, adaptability, institutional diversity and norms in Indonesia. Tensions
constantly emerge and are contested about the actual primary mode of TEWS governance.
Hence, a theoretical basis of an effective and sustainable TEWS process and framework is
proposed, drawing on the theoretical concepts, observations, experiences and empirical
findings in Indonesia. It is a mixture model of the EWS process consisting of the local
people-centred-adaptive approach and the national technocratic system approach to
address the challenging issues of tsunami resilience in Indonesia. Other specific
recommendations are also put forward to help improve the TEWS in Indonesia.
Key limitations of the research such as deeper analysis of internal institutional capacities,
and institutional performances are also highlighted.
To conclude, the role of risk governance, multi-institutional arrangements and polycentric
frameworks in the context of the TEWS has strengthened the tsunami resilience capacities
of Indonesia; but are strongly affected by institutional path dependencies. The future of
INATEWS should settle on system and people-centred approaches, improved coastal city
planning and governance to build effective and sustained resilience to uncertain tsunami
risks.







Acknowledgment

I would like to express my deep and sincere gratitude to my first supervisor, Professor Dr.
Hans-George Bohle for being an excellent listener, for his encouragement, and most of all
for his wide knowledge and academic guidance and support throughout my entire PhD. I am
also deeply grateful to my second supervisor, Professor Jürgen Pohl who also gave
important advice and academic feedback on my PhD. Very special thanks to Professor
Bogardi for his advice, excellent academic comments and very detailed corrections to some
of the key chapters of my PhD. I also wish to express my warm and sincere thanks to Dr.
Juan Carlos Villagrán for his supervision and assistance, particularly in drafting the first PhD
proposal, followed by Dr Dusan Sakulski as my second supervisor, and finally Dr. Jörn
Birkmann as my third supervisor at the United Nations University-Institute for Environment
and Human Security during the last three years. I also warmly thank my PhD friends
especially Nishara Fenando, who provided important comments and feedback on some of
the chapters.

In Indonesia, I am deeply grateful to the many people who facilitated my work and
provided me with their kind-hearted assistance. Special thanks to Volker Stapke, Nurlina
Damawan and Fenno Brunken. I also extend my thanks to all the actors in Indonesia for
their cooperation and valuable assistance in this PhD research.

I am thankful to the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) project
for funding my PhD research, and the United Nations University-Institute for Environment
and Human Security (UNU-EHS) for the administration and provision of the excellent
working environment at the UN Campus in Bonn. I owe my most sincere gratitude to
Professor Torsten Schlurmann, the first person with whom I discussed the possibility of
doing a PhD at UNU-EHS in Bonn, Germany. Very special thanks go to Evalyne Katabaro
and Dr. Thomas Zschocke for their administrative support and advice throughout this
research.

I also would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Christopher Kennard from Anchor
English in UK for proofreading services.

My deepest sincere thanks are dedicated to my wife, Bharaty, for providing the mental
support, advice and assistance on a daily basis that enabled me to succeed in this very
challenging endeavour. In the Seychelles, I thank my family for supporting me, and my son
Shane for his understanding of the importance of reaching this milestone. Finally, I dedicate
this PhD work to my son, Deevahn.



Contents
1. Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 What is this Study About? ....................................... 1
1.2 The Importance of Early Warning Systems ............................................. 1
1.3 Problem Definition and Research Challenges ......... 2
1.4 Research Aims and Contributions ........................................................................................... 4
1.5 Main Research Question ......................................... 4
1.6 Research Sub-Questions ......................................................................... 4
1.7 Structure of the Research Process .......................... 7
2. Key Research Concepts and Theoretical Frameworks .............................. 9
2.1 Institutions and Institutional Analysis ..................................................................................... 9
2.2 Mainstream and Emerging Views on Institutional Theory ................... 10
2.3 Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework 11
2.4 Institutional Change and Development Process ................................................................... 14
2.4.1 Institutions and Path Dependence ................ 14
2.4.2 Information, Origin and Institutional Change ............................... 14
2.4.3 Power and Institutional Change .................................................................................... 15
2.5 The Extended Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD) Framework ............................ 15
2.6 Suitability of the Extended Institutional Analysis Development Framework ....................... 17
2.7 Governance ........................................................................................................................... 17
2.7.1 The Governance Attributes for Ecosystem Management ............................................ 17
2.7.2 The New Earth System Governance (ESG) Conceptual Framework ............................. 20
2.8 Disasters and Risks, Hazard Early Warning Systems ................................ 21
2.8.1 The increase in Disasters and Risks, and their Underlying Causes ............................... 21
2.8.2 Disaster Risks: Hazard, Vulnerability, Exposure and Coping Capacities ....................... 22
2.8.3 Definition of Resilience ................................................................................................. 24
2.8.4 Disaster Risk Management and Consensus for Disaster Risk Reduction ...................... 24
2.8.5 Natural Hazard Early Warning Systems ........ 25
2.8.6 The Effective Early Warning System Framework .......................................................... 27
2.8.7 The Modified Effective Early Warning System Framework .......................................... 29
2.9 The Ecosystem Resilience Capacities Framework . 29
2.10 Environment and Human Security ........................................................................................ 30
2.10.1 Environment: Global Governance and Sustainable Development ............................... 30
2.10.2 Human Security: State and People-Centred Security ................... 32
2.10.3 Human Security: Freedom from Hazard Impact ........................................................... 33
2.11 Synthesis and Integrated Conceptual Framework and Analytical Steps .............................. 33
2.11.1 The Integrated Framework ................................ 34
2.11.2 The Institutional Analysis Analytical Steps .................................................................... 36
3. Research Methodology ..........................................37
3.1 Selection of Research Country, Area and Sites (Arenas of Action) ....... 37
3.1.1 Geography, Socio-Economic and Demographic Characteristics in Padang and Bali .... 39
3.1.2 Tsunami Risk in Padang and Bali ................................................................................... 44
3.1.3 Pilot Areas of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System Project ........... 49
3.2 Field Research Methods ........................................ 50



3.2.1 Expert In-Depth Interviews on Multiple Levels ............................................................. 51
3.2.2 Key Informant Interviews .............................................................. 54
3.2.3 Focus Group Discussions ............................... 54
3.2.4 Interviews with Some Deliberately Selected Coastal Inhabitants ................................ 55
3.2.5 Electronic Mail Survey for the Tourism-Related Sector ................................................ 55
3.2.6 Secondary Data Collection ............................................................ 56
3.3 Difficulties and Challenges Encountered During the Field Research .................................... 57
3.3.1 Access to the Research Areas ....................................................... 57
3.3.2 Funding Difficulties ....................................................................... 58
3.3.3 Difficulty in Maintaining Good Rapport with the State Actors ..................................... 58
3.4 Data Analysis Techniques and Tools ..................................................................................... 58
3.5 The Role of the Researcher ... 59
4. Tsunami Warning Capacities before 2004, and Governance in Indonesia ...............................60
4.1 Early Warning Capacities Perspective ................................................................................... 60
4.1.1 Risk Knowledge ............................................. 60
4.1.2 Monitoring and Warning of Tsunami Hazards .............................. 61
4.1.3 Dissemination and Communication .............................................................................. 62
4.1.4 Emergency Response Capability ................... 63
4.1.5 Governance and Institutional Arrangements ............................................................... 63
4.2 Capacities from a Socio-Ecological Resilience Perspective ................... 64
4.3 The Hindering and Driving Forces for Institutional Change .................................................. 67
4.3.1 The Hyogo Framework for Action (2005-2015) ............................ 67
4.3.2 An Extreme Shock ......................................................................... 67
4.4 Consequences of Lack of Governance in Disaster Risk Preparedness .................................. 68
4.5 Systems of Governance Perspective in Indonesia. ............................... 68
4.5.1 Political Governance System in Indonesia .................................... 69
4.5.2 Economic Governance System in Indonesia ................................. 77
4.5.3 Social and Technological Governance System in Indonesia ......... 78
4.6 Summary of Chapter 4 .......................................................................... 81
5. Emerging Architectures for the Tsunami Early Warning after 2004 in Indonesia ..................... 83
5.1 The Grand Scenario and the German Concept of the Tsunami Early Warning System ........ 83
5.1.1 The New Monitoring and Warning System ................................................................... 84
5.1.2 National Dissemination and Communication Systems ................. 88
5.1.3 Response Strategies ...................................... 89
5.2 The Institutional Legal System in Indonesia .......................................................................... 90
5.3 Multi-Level Architecture for Disaster Management in Indonesia ........ 91
5.3.1 The National Mechanisms for Multi-Sector Participation ............ 91
5.3.2 Regional Architecture for Tsunami Early Warning System Coordination ..................... 92
5.3.3 The Disaster Management Law and Regulations in Indonesia ..................................... 93
5.3.4 Early Warning and Risk Reduction Institutional Arrangements .... 94
5.3.5 The Hierarchy and Evolution of Institutional Arrangements ........ 94
5.3.6 Institutional Financial Arrangements and Frameworks for Disaster Management ...... 96
5.3.7 Institutional Architectures and Coordination Mechanisms .......................................... 99
5.3.8 Institutionalising the Tsunami Early Warning System within a Larger Architecture .. 105
5.3.9 The Emerging National Institutional Tsunami Early Warning Chain in Indonesia ...... 106
5.3.10 Sector Institutional Interplay and Interactions ........................................................... 110



5.4 Summary of Chapter 5 ........................................................................................................ 111
6. Actors’ Interaction and Perspectives .................................................................................... 113
6.1 Actors’ Participation, Networks, Roles and Responsibilities .............. 113
6.1.1 Actors at the International Level ................ 113
6.1.2 Actors at the National and Sub-National Level ........................................................... 114
6.1.3 Actors’ Participation Dynamics ................................................... 116
6.1.4 Actors’ Participation through Capacity Building ......................... 117
6.1.5 Actors’ Cooperation-Multi Lateral and Bilateral 119
6.1.6 Actors’ Agenda ............................................................................................................ 119
6.1.7 Actors’ Priorities: Institutional Change, Words and Real Budget Allocation .............. 120
6.1.8 Actors’ Conflicts and Coping Strategies ...... 125
6.1.9 Actors’ Transparency, Social Cohesion and Trust ....................................................... 127
6.2 Actors’ Perspectives of the Tsunami Early Warning System Architecture ......................... 128
6.2.1 Challenges in Implementing the Polycentric-Multi-Level Architectures .................... 129
6.2.2 Implications of Embedding the INATEWS System in a Larger Architecture ............... 130
6.2.3 Formal, Informal Institutional Arrangements and Potential Conflicts ........................ 131
6.2.4 Functionality of Institutional Arrangements ............................................................... 133
6.2.5 Monitoring and Enforcement of the Institutional Arrangements .............................. 135
6.3 Actors’ Interactions with the Tsunami Early Warning System Architecture ....................... 139
6.3.1 Emerging National Approach in Risk Knowledge and Communication ...................... 139
6.3.2 The National Tsunami Warning Centre ....................................................................... 141
6.3.3 Dissemination and Communication ............ 144
6.3.4 The Emerging National Approach to Response .......................................................... 144
6.4 Summary of Chapter 6 ........................................................................ 146
7. The Tsunami Early Warning System at the Level of Padang and Bali, Indonesia ................... 150
7.1 The Actors Participation, Cooperation at the Level of Padang and Bali ............................. 150
7.1.1 Government Participation and Cooperation .............................................................. 150
7.1.2 Civil Societies and Private Sector Participation and Cooperation ............................... 151
7.1.3 Community Participation and Cooperation ................................ 152
7.1.4 Transparency and Accountability ................................................................................ 153
7.2 Tsunami Early Warning System-Related Architecture at the Level of Padang and Bali ..... 153
7.2.1 Financial Arrangements .............................................................................................. 153
7.2.2 Local Institutional Arrangements regarding Tsunami Early Warning ......................... 154
7.2.3 Religious and Cultural Norms ...................... 155
7.2.4 Formal Sub-National Institutional Structures ............................. 156
7.2.5 Emerging Institutional Coordination ........................................................................... 159
7.2.6 The Emerging Institutional Tsunami Warning Chain at the Sub National Level ......... 159
7.3 Risk Knowledge at the Level of Padang and Bali . 160
7.3.1 Hazard and Risk Mapping: A Highly Negotiated and Contested Issue ........................ 160
7.3.2 Communities Risk Concern ......................................................................................... 164
7.3.3 Risk Perceptions and Understanding of the Communities ......................................... 165
7.4 Dissemination and Communication at the Level of Padang and Bali . 166
7.4.1 Formal Institutions and Systems for Dissemination and Communication .................. 166
7.4.2 Informal Institutions and Systems for Dissemination and Communication ............... 169
7.4.3 Information Gap and Clarity between Official and Unofficial Notification................. 171



7.5 Response Capabilities at the Level of Padang and Bali ....................................................... 171
7.5.1 Formal Institutions Involved in Response ................................... 171
7.5.2 Evacuation Planning and Preparedness ...................................... 171
7.5.3 Institutional Tsunami Preparedness in the Tourism-Related Establishment in Bali ... 176
7.6 Summary of Chapter 7 ........................................................................ 178
8. Agency, Effectiveness and Sustainability ............................................. 181
8.1 Agents and Agency in Relation to the Tsunami Early Warning System .............................. 181
8.1.1 Agent and Agency: Indonesian Society for Disaster Management ............................. 181
8.1.2 Agents and Agency in Preparedness: Tsunami Alert Community Foundation ........... 183
8.2 Measuring the Effectiveness of the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia ............. 188
8.2.1 Earlier Earthquake-Tsunami Shocks ............................................................................ 189
8.2.2 Recent Earthquake-Tsunami Shocks ........... 194
8.3 Cost Benefit of Investing in Disaster Management in Indonesia ........ 197
8.4 Actors’ Perspective of the Main Problems and the Incentive Change ............................... 199
8.4.1 Multi-Hazard Approach Framework ........................................................................... 199
8.4.2 Strengthening and Seeking New Innovative Partnership and Cooperation ............... 201
8.4.3 Capacity Building for a Knowledge Base and Innovative Society ............................... 202
8.4.4 Sharing and Exchange of Local Experiences ................................................................ 203
8.4.5 Gender Perspectives ................................... 203
8.4.6 Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation .......... 204
8.4.7 Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction into Sustainable Development.................... 205
8.4.8 Coastal City Planning and Governance ....................................................................... 206
8.5 A Theoretical Basis for an Effective and Sustainable Tsunami Early Warning System ....... 207
8.5.1 The Local Tsunami Early Warning Model: Adaptive-People Centred Approach ........ 209
8.5.2 Integration of the Local Approach into the National Early Warning System .............. 212
8.6 Summary of Chapter 8 ........................................................................................................ 216
9. Conclusion ........................................................... 219
9.1.1 Pre –Tsunami Early Warning Capacities, Hindering and Driving Forces for Change .. 219
9.1.2 Governance and the Tsunami Early Warning System in Indonesia ............................ 219
9.1.3 Tsunami Early Warning System-Related Architecture in Indonesia ........................... 220
9.1.4 Actors and the Tsunami Early Warning System Architecture in Indonesia ................ 221
9.1.5 The Tsunami Early Warning System at the Level of Padang and Bali ......................... 223
9.1.6 An Effective and Sustainable Tsunami Early Warning System .................................... 224
10. Recommendations, Limitations and the Way Forward ................................ 227
10.1.1 Risk Knowledge ........................................... 227
10.1.2 Technical Monitoring and Forecasting System ........................... 228
10.1.3 Dissemination and Communication ............................................................................ 228
10.1.4 Response ..................................................... 228
10.1.5 Cross-Cutting Issues .................................... 229
10.2 Key Limitations and Areas for Further Research ................................................................ 229
10.2.1 Evaluation of Internal Institutional Capacities ............................ 229
10.2.2 Analysis of the Monitoring and Enforcement of Institutional Rules ........................... 230
10.2.3 Structural Equation Analysis: System and People-Centred Approach ........................ 230
10.2.4 Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Tsunami Early Warning System ......................... 230
10.2.5 Evaluating the Impacts of the Incentive Change Mechanism Process. ...................... 230



11. References .......................................................................................................................... 231
12. Appendix ............................. 249

List of Figures

Figure 1: Main research areas relevant to the study ............................................................................... 5
Figure 2: Schematic overview of the research process .......................................................................... 8
Figure 3: The causes of the increase in disasters and risks ......................................... 22
Figure 4: The four elements for an effective EWS framework ........................................ 28
Figure 5: Modified model of the effective EWS ........................................................................................ 29
Figure 6: The Integrated Governance-Institutions-EWS-Resilience framework .......................... 35
Figure 7: The institutional analysis analytical steps ............................................................................... 36
Figure 8: Tsunami hazard map of Asia-Pacific. ................................................................. 38
Figure 9: Population exposed to tsunami risk at coastal regions of Asia-Pacific ......................... 38
Figure 10: Study areas in Indonesia ................................................................................................ 39
Figure 11: Map of Padang city, West Sumatra, Indonesia .................................................................. 40
Figure 12: Map of Bali ........................................................................................................................................ 41
Figure 13: Geological setting around Indonesia ...................................................................................... 44
Figure 14: Inter-seismic coupling on the Sunda arc and large seismic ruptures ...................... 45
Figure 15: Tsunami hazard map for Padang ............................................................................................. 46
Figure 16: Tsunami hazard exposure: Daytime population ................................................................ 46
Figure 17: Tsunami hazard map of South Bali, Guta ............................................................................. 48
Figure 18: Exposure map of day time population in south Bali, Guta ............................................. 48
Figure 19: Researchers hotel in Padang city before and after the earthquake disaster .......... 51
Figure 20: Researcher at the National Tsunami Early Warning Centre, Jakarta ......................... 54
Figure 21: Meeting with the local government authorities (right) in Kuta, Bali .......................... 54
Figure 22: Overview of various data collected and their sources ..................................................... 57
Figure 23: Systems of governance between Indonesia, the United States and Japan ............. 81
Figure 24: Concept of the GITEWS component parts ............................................................................ 84
Figure 25: Indonesian seismic network ............................................................................... 84
Figure 26: TEWS Decision Support System (DSS) ................................................................................. 85
Figure 27: The tsunami warning segments in Indonesia ..................................................................... 86
Figure 28: Tsunami meters (left) and regional sea level monitoring networks (right) ............ 87
Figure 29: National network of coastal sirens in Indonesia ................................................................ 89
Figure 30: Global-regional governance of tsunami Source: IOC-UNESCO .................................... 92
Figure 31: The hierarchy order of the DM legal system in Indonesia ............................................. 95
Figure 32: Evolution of institutional changes related to DRR in Indonesia ........................................ 96
Figure 33: Institutional arrangement for DM financing in Indonesia ............................ 97
Figure 34: Framework for DM Planning in Indonesia ............................................................................. 98
Figure 35: INATEWS Organisational Chart ................................................................................................ 99
Figure 36: Revised INATEWS Organisational Chart ...................................................... 100
Figure 37: Draft organisation chart of the BNPB steering committee and executive body ... 102
Figure 38: INATEWS embedded within BNPB ......................................................................................... 106
Figure 39: Emerging national institutional tsunami warning process in Indonesia .................. 109
Figure 40: Key institutional actors’ participation in the TEWS ......................................................... 116
Figure 41: Disaster expenditure in Indonesia ......................................................................................... 121