Form in music with special reference to the Bach fugue and the Beethoven sonata [microform]

Form in music with special reference to the Bach fugue and the Beethoven sonata [microform]

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o 1 FORM IN MUSIC /^^f>^ WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE BACH FUGUE AND THE BEETHOVEN SONATA. BY HUMFREY ANGER,J. Mus. Emc. Oxon., Royal College of O'^ganists. Examiner at Trinitv_t -* ^Lyr^giTY, Professor of Harmony, Etc., at^J> _ [ORONTO Conservatory of MusicO / / "Hi Library, /a, -*¥- TORONTO, CANADA: THE NORDHEIMER CO. s* '5'g' ^ / X. A. B. C. ...I:^%" WMN^M CONTENTS. CiiAi*TEK. Page. Preface 5 I. Introduction 7 II. The Musical Sentence 12 III. Modulation and Key Relationship 31 IV. The Simple Binary and Simple Ternary Forms 34 V. The Ternary Proper Form 40 VI. The Rondo Element in Form 44 VII. Form.The Sonata (Modern Binary) 49 VIII. The Modifications of Sonata Form 58 IX. The Fantasia and the Air with Variations.. 62 X. The Fugue, including the Canon, and Fugal Analysis . , 66 XI. The Cyclic Forms 79 Obsolete 84XII. Ancient Forms More or Lkss 90XIII. Form in Vocal Music Generally APPENDIX. Bketiiovsn's Sonatas—Table Giving the FormA. Kmpu)yed for Each Movement 95 Bach's Fugues—Table Showing the Okdkr orB. 104Leads in Each Exposition General Definitions 1050. Examination Questions 117D. --^.. -..v.w..B^»,^ .^ = I .;-^ •;.» PREFACE, this little work theThs special purpose of is to place before of music the subject of Rhythm, and its evolution intostudent Composition, in as practical, and at the same time, inForm in manner as possible. * 6 .

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o1
FORM IN MUSIC
/^^f>^
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE
TO
THE BACH FUGUE
AND
THE BEETHOVEN SONATA.
BY
HUMFREY ANGER,J.
Mus. Emc. Oxon.,
Royal College of O'^ganists. Examiner at Trinitv_t
-* ^Lyr^giTY, Professor of Harmony, Etc., at^J> _
[ORONTO Conservatory of MusicO
/
/ "Hi
Library, /a,
-*¥-
TORONTO, CANADA:
THE NORDHEIMER CO.s*
'5'g'
^ /
X.
A.
B.
C.
...I:^%"WMN^M
CONTENTS.
CiiAi*TEK. Page.
Preface 5
I. Introduction 7
II. The Musical Sentence 12
III. Modulation and Key Relationship 31
IV. The Simple Binary and Simple Ternary Forms 34
V. The Ternary Proper Form 40
VI. The Rondo Element in Form 44
VII. Form.The Sonata (Modern Binary) 49
VIII. The Modifications of Sonata Form 58
IX. The Fantasia and the Air with Variations.. 62
X. The Fugue, including the Canon, and Fugal
Analysis . , 66
XI. The Cyclic Forms 79
Obsolete 84XII. Ancient Forms More or Lkss
90XIII. Form in Vocal Music Generally
APPENDIX.
Bketiiovsn's Sonatas—Table Giving the FormA.
Kmpu)yed for Each Movement 95
Bach's Fugues—Table Showing the Okdkr orB.
104Leads in Each Exposition
General Definitions 1050.
Examination Questions 117D.--^.. -..v.w..B^»,^ .^ =I
.;-^
•;.»
PREFACE,
this little work theThs special purpose of is to place before
of music the subject of Rhythm, and its evolution intostudent
Composition, in as practical, and at the same time, inForm in
manner as possible. * 6 . yconcise aas
With this object in view I have at the conclusion of each
set a number of graduated exercises, and have confiredchapter
almost entirely to the Forty-eight Preludesmy remarks and
pianoforteof Biich, and to the sonatas of Beethoven.Fugues
a primer of this character it is not possible to enter overIll
details nor have attemptedminutely into ; I to do so, but I
I
to <have devoted at least a chapter each f the arbitrary forms,
lincluding the muisical sentence, which has been treated at some
including also the fugue andllength, and fugal analysis, for a
detailed account of which the hapless student is only too often
**to another work by the same author."Ireferred I have also
ancient forms, more oradded a chapter on less obsolete, and
another upon form in vocal music. As an appendix, I have
table of the form employed by Beethoven[given a in each
the thirty-two Sonatas, and tablemovement of a of the order of
jleadH in the exposition of each of Bach's Forty-eight Fugu-^s.
have also given brief definitions of over 200 terms applying
I
Moreover, for'to form in composition. the sake of those
students who intend taking an examination in this subject, 1
have included some fifty questions, taken from the examination
papers set durir\g the past three or four seasons at the Toronto
Conservatory of Music.
It diffidenceis with a sense ot considerable that I venture to
offer to the musical world yet another work on a subject upon
which treatises have already been written.so many excellent^^^"—^--^
Preface.
these, and especiallyTo the authors of many of to Mr. Ebenezer
l! are due, forProut, I feel that my acknowledgements I can
claim to say nothing new on a subject that, for the most part,
old at the beginning of the present century I can onlywas ;
credit, in taking another picture of this familiar sub-claim the
having, perhaps, slightly changed the focus of the lens.ject, of
about to commence the study of Form in Com-The student,
aposition, should have fair knowledge of Harmony and
Counterpoint, and an acquaintance with the outlines of the
History of Music. He should also have by him a copy of
Bach's Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues (the Wohltemperirtes
Clavier), and ot Beethoven's Pianoforte Sonatas. have con-I
fined my examples exclusively to these two great works, (except
in the treatment of the musical sentence and in dealing with
form in vocal music), not with the intention of limiting the
researches of the student, but the sake of conveniencefor in
the matter of reference, and under the conviction that a sound
w knowledge of the Bach Fugue and the Beethoven Sonata is as
i
necessary to the student of music as a sound knowledge of the
Old and New Testaments is to the student of theology.
J. H. A.
CoTiservatory Music,of
Toronto, 1898.Sept., t
il
f
"';Kbenezer
canIfor
part,iiost CHAPTER I.
onlycan
sub-niliar
lens,
,{ the
INTRODUCTION.Com-inm
andmony
Form may be defiiied as the coustructionglaiL-9f
theofnes
emplo3^ed in musical It is, to use acomposition^ofa copy
simile; the architecture of music.temperirtes
con-haveI Harmony and Counterpoint may be likened to the
(except^rks, whileclay of the potter, Form is the design of the
withiealing
vessel into which it is moulded.
thelimiting
avS inJust time is the systematic grouping of notes
innvenience
ofa measure, so rhythm is the systematic groupingsoundbat a
aRis measures in a sentence, and form is the systematicSonata
I
theofwledge grouping of sentences in a composition.
logy. The period at which form first began to be an
A.J.H. important factor in music appears to have been about
the end of the sixteenth century, being contempor-
aneous with the establishment of the modern diatonic
scales, with the gradual growth of harmony as a
separate science from counterpoint, and with the rise
of the opera and the oratorio, all of which are the
direct results of the Renaissance, the period, there-
fore, in wliich modern music liad its birth. .,
Prior to the Renaissance music was in the hands
of two very ditfeient types of men, viz., the artificial
monastic musicians of the Belgian school, whose
compositions consisted of canons, simple fugues and
contrapuntal treatment of given themes ; and the
'1
: m
1!SBH
Form in Music.8
wandering minstrels, whose melodies,ingenuous
to the regular metre of poetry, orwhether composed
rhythmical figures of the dance, of necessityfor the
that symmetry of construction which haspossessed
been given as a definition of rhythm.already
that principleswill therefore be seen the first ofIt
the influence mediaevalmay be traced to of theform
worthy of when it isand this point is note,bard,
what extent musicremembered to an modern is
throughoutto the foster care of the Churchindebted
dark ages.the
of the seventeenth century theWith the close
"minstrel gradually passes away Thewandering ;
time had called his harmless artof the ironbigots
"* his place there arose a class ofcrime : and ina
their life work to the develop-who devotedmusicians
Purcell inof the art. Of these, (1658-1695)ment
- ;
i CouperinEngland, LuUi (1633-1687) and (1668-1733)
and the elderFrance, with Corelli (1653-1713)in
should be specially(1659-1725) in Italy,Scarlatti
14
the cause of form infor advancingremembered
with others of lesserand, togethercomposition,
way for the two greatfor paving theimportance,
;ij.
and G. F.masters, J. S. Bach (^1685-1750)German
the old contrapuntalin whomHandel (1685-1759),
consummated.composition was finallyschool of
founder of theHaydn (1732-1809), theJoseph
want of a form,orchestra, appreciating themodern
f
ofthan the fugue), in which continuityJ^(other
ll
•** UinHtreV-Scott, -.Lay of the Last
I'%\
Introducticyii. t
should be the characteristicmovement feature, andlelodies,
suggestion from the greatfollowing a Bach family,or)etry,
v;hich, from its frequentthat employment inevolvedlecessity
now generally knownsonata, is as the sonatathehasich
form.
added to the artistic valueof Mozart (1756-1791) ofciples
in Beethoven notform and (1770-1827), onlyuediseval this ;
is but also all form in composition,form, waslen it sonata
perfection.is to its highestmusic brought f^^^
rougboiit century all the greaiestDuring the present masters
music, with perhaps one exception, have employedof
theitury insonata form time and again their works, a further
''Theay ; testunony, if any were needed, to its supreme fitness
artmless as a channel for the expression of musical thought.
ofclassa Mendelssohn (1809-1847) may be especially remem-
develop-[Q finish in thebered for a studied matter of form
in8-1695) generally. Brahmsin his compositions (1833-1897)
1668-1733) Beethoven, hasalone, since the death of intensified
elderthe
i music,the principles of form in by equalizing the
speciallyle compositionconsistency of the througliout.
inform:,f In the works of Richard Wagner (1813-1883), on
lesserof's form alt6getherthe other hand, plays an subservient
greattwo of school whichpart. The prototype a has been
F.O.and) called the music of the future," he devoted*' his life
!ontrapuntal
for part reform of thethe most to the 'opera and;
mated, claiming music was but the handmaidenthat of
theofider to accept or to employpoetry, he refused the set
form,aof forms masters. His treatmentof the older of the
ofmtinuity
is noticeableLeit-Motif (Leading Theme), a feature
of his greater works, and these are justly held in the
1
I