Intelektinio kapitalo valdymas: strateginis aspektas ; Intellectual capital management: strategic aspect
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Intelektinio kapitalo valdymas: strateginis aspektas ; Intellectual capital management: strategic aspect

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KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY Renata Mikul ėnien ė INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT: STRATEGIC ASPECT Summary of Doctoral Dissertation Social sciences, Management and Administration (03 S) Kaunas, 2004 The dissertation was prepared at the Strategic Management Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, Kaunas University of Technology, in 1999 – 2003. Academic supervisor: Prof. Dr. Habil. Robertas JUCEVI ČIUS, (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S). The Council of Defense for Management and Administration Science: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Česlovas CHRISTAUSKAS (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S); Prof. Dr. Habil. Jonas Edmundas KVEDARAVI ČIUS (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S); Prof. Dr. Habil. Borisas MELNIKAS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S); Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alvydas RAIPA (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S); Prof. Dr. Regina VIRVILAIT Ė (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S), - Chairperson. Official oponents: Prof. Dr. Habil. Jonas ČEPINSKIS (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S). Prof. Dr.

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Publié par
Publié le 01 janvier 2005
Nombre de lectures 55

KAUNAS UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY










Renata Mikul ėnien ė





INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT:
STRATEGIC ASPECT









Summary of Doctoral Dissertation

Social sciences, Management and Administration (03 S)













Kaunas, 2004 The dissertation was prepared at the Strategic Management Department, Faculty of
Social Sciences, Kaunas University of Technology, in 1999 – 2003.

Academic supervisor:
Prof. Dr. Habil. Robertas JUCEVI ČIUS, (Kaunas University of Technology, Social
Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S).

The Council of Defense for Management and Administration Science:
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Česlovas CHRISTAUSKAS (Kaunas University of Technology,
Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S);
Prof. Dr. Habil. Jonas Edmundas KVEDARAVI ČIUS (Vytautas Magnus University,
Social Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S);
Prof. Dr. Habil. Borisas MELNIKAS (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Social
Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S);
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Alvydas RAIPA (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences,
Management and Administration, 03S);
Prof. Dr. Regina VIRVILAIT Ė (Kaunas University of Technology, Social Sciences,
Management and Administration, 03S), - Chairperson.

Official oponents:
Prof. Dr. Habil. Jonas ČEPINSKIS (Vytautas Magnus University, Social Sciences,
Management and Administration, 03S).
Prof. Dr. Bronius NEVERAUSKAS (Kaunas University of Technology, Social
Sciences, Management and Administration, 03S);

The official defense of the dissertation will be held at the public session of the Council
of Defense for Management and Administration at the Rectorate Hall of Kaunas
University of Technology (Room 402, K. Donelai čio g. 73, Kaunas) at 10:00 a.m. on
thOctober 19 , 2004.

Address: K. Donelai čio g. 73, LT-44029 Kaunas, Lithuania.
Tel.: (370) 37 30 00 42, fax: (370) 3732 41 44, e-mail: mok.grupe@adm.ktu.lt

thThe Summary of the Dissertation is sent out on September 17 , 2004.
The Dissertation is available at the Library of Kaunas University of Technology.
KAUNO TECHNOLOGIJOS UNIVERSITETAS








Renata Mikul ėnien ė



INTELEKTINIO KAPITALO VALDYMAS:
STRATEGINIS ASPEKTAS






Daktaro disertacijos santrauka

Socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas (03 S)












Kaunas, 2004
Daktaro disertacija parengta 1999-2003 metais Kauno technologijos universiteto
Socialini ų moksl ų fakultete, Strateginio valdymo katedroje.

Mokslinis vadovas:
Prof. habil. dr. Robertas JUCEVI ČIUS (Kauno technologijos universitetas,
socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S).

Vadybos ir administravimo mokslo krypties taryba:
Doc. dr. Česlovas CHRISTAUSKAS (Kauno technologijos universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
Prof. habil. dr. Jonas Edmundas KVEDARAVI ČIUS (Vytauto Didžiojo
universitetas, socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
Prof. habil. dr. Borisas MELNIKAS (Vilniaus Gedimino technikos universitetas,
socialiniai mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
Doc. dr. Alvydas RAIPA (Kauno technologijos universitetas, socialiniai mokslai,
vadyba ir administravimas, 03S);
Prof. dr. Regina VIRVILAIT Ė (Kauno technologijos universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S), - pirminink ė.

Oficialieji oponentai:
Prof. habil. dr. Jonas ČEPINSKIS (Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S).
Prof. dr. Bronius NEVERAUSKAS (Kauno technologijos universitetas, socialiniai
mokslai, vadyba ir administravimas, 03S).

Disertacija ginama 2004 m. spalio 19 d., 10 val. viešame Vadybos ir administravimo
mokslo krypties tarybos pos ėdyje, kuris įvyks Kauno technologijos universitete,
Rektorato sal ėje (K. Donelai čio g. 73-402).

Adresas: K. Donelai čio g.73, LT- 44029, Kaunas.
Tel. 8-37 30 00 42, faksas 8-3732 41 44, el. paštas: mok.grupe@adm.ktu.lt
Disertacijos santrauka išsi ųsta 2004 m. rugs ėjo 17 d.

Su disertacija galima susipažinti Kauno technologijos universiteto bibliotekoje.

INTRODUCTION
Intellectual capital management (further on reffered to as ICM) is a new area
in management science resulting from changing business environment conditions,
where managing knowledge and other intellectual assets has become a core source of
strategic advantage creation. Under the new environmental conditions of „knowledge
era“ (Chatzkel, 2003), „knowledge economy“ (Fitz-enz, 2000, Seetharaman et all, 2002)
or just „new economy“ (Teece, 1998) it is very important to exploit, capitalize available
intellectual resources and be able to attract external intellectual resources and employ
them in the value creation chain.
An important aspect of intellectual capital (further on reffered to as IC),
excluding it from other related management objects is concerned with the exclusive
feature of intellectual capital to act as strategically important value creation factor. Its
potential to generate value differentiates it from other objects treated as strategically
important under new business conditions, i.e. knowledge, innovations, networks,
intellectual assets or intangible assets. On the other hand, IC incorporates that part of the
mentioned “soft” management objects, which has potential to generate value. In fact,
the appearance of IC concept is very much related to the need to consolidate
strategically important intellectual resources, including knowledge, culture, intellectual
capital, innovations and market relations, and manage them integrally.
Current theories and models found in the ICM area address identification of
knowledge and intellectual capital and its classification; analysis and comparison of the
existing models (Hall, 1989, Itami, 1991, Ross, et all, 1998, Stewart, 1998, Brooking,
1996, Edvinsson and Sullivan, 1996), knowledge management processes and needed
preconditions; analysis and development of possible strategies (Winter, 1987, Nonaka
1991, Teece, 1998, Teece, 2000, Spender and Grant, 1996, Stankevi či ūt ė, 2002),
intellectual capital measurement on the company and regional or country level (Sveiby,
1997, Mouritsen, et all, 2001, Bontis, et all, 1999, Danish trade and industry agency,
2000,), management specifics of IC components (Norton, 2001, Josefek and Kaufmann,
1998) or intellectual assets identification, evaluation and securing (Itami, 1991, Klaila
and Hall, 2000, Joia, 2000, Lev, 2001, MERITUM, 2002).
All the aforementioned directions are very important and needed, but they
capture only a part of the new strategic resource management function, and not the
whole. Most of these directions can be treated as operational (e.g. measurement,
knowledge management processes or separate IC components management directions),
because they focus on the operational activities while striving for strategically important
goals. Understanding IC only from one management perspective becomes more and
more limited. ICM cannot be assigned to the one traditional functional management
area. It is a new management area, incorporating many management activities and being
mostly related to the strategic decision making level, because only there potential of
intellectual resources to generate value can best be seen. However, no literature source
was found in the area of IC and knowledge management, which would address

intellectual capital management as a strategic management function and relate it to the
strategic management process. The reason may lie with the fact of non-maturity of the
intellectual capital management area, which is grounded in some researches (Moffett,
McAdam and Parkinson, 2002). On the other hand, the concepts of intellectual capital
strategy and strategic management of intellectual capital may be occasionally found in
some publications (Nickerson, 1998, Ross, et all, 1997).
In order to fill the aforementioned existing gap, it is important to produce a
theoretical model of intellectual capital management, as a part of strategic management
process. The model should reveal the essence of this broad and complex activity and
reflect its structure and management process. While modeling ICM in the strategic level
of the organization, it is important to solve not only IC management question, but also
take into attention broader organization context – the whole organization’s strategic
management process. None of the existing strategic management process models
incorporate the new management object – intellectual capital. However, IC as a
strategically important resource under new business conditions must be evaluated along
with other strategically important resources before making an organization’s strategic
decision on vision, mission and strategies. As one of the leading scientists in the field of
strategic management Grant (1991) states, a company’s IC has to be one of the central
analysis areas while formulating strategies and one of the main constants, according to
which company can create its identity and define its strategy, also one of the main
sources of company’s profitability.

This doctoral dissertation attempts to find the answer to one of questions
existing in this new research space: How ICM can be integrated into the strategic
management process?

The existence of the described scientific problem can be illustrated also by the
newest researches both in the ICM and strategic management areas: „Employees and
other intangible resources (i.e. intellectual capital) generally represent the most critical
resources in the value creation process. Crafting strategy in such contexts is not helped
by conventional models and tools of strategy ” (Rylander, Peppard, 2003, p 316) or „The
field of strategic management is dominated by models and theories that hold little
relevance for practitioners in guiding action in knowledge-intensive companies
competing in turbulent environments… There seems to be no single new theory or
model emerging that covers all the areas under attack” (Rylander, Peppard, 2003, p 317-
318).

The aim of the dissertation is to introduce an intellectual capital management
model, which integrates strategic management and intellectual capital management
processes.




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Objectives of the research are the following:
To make a theoretical analysis of intellectual capital concept and structure;
2. To define the place of ICM in the management system of organization;
3. To reason the methodology for intellectual capital management modeling, while
integrating intellectual capital management and strategic management processes;
4. Based on the strategic management and intellectual capital management
theories, conceptualize theoretical integrated intellectual capital management process
model;
5. To verify the produced model empirically.

Knowledge organization was selected as a research object in this dissertation,
as ICM is more clearly understood and more expressed in such kind of organizations,
compared to the traditional organization. Research subject – intellectual capital
management.

Research methodology. The epistemological and methodological basis of this
dissertation is based on the following theories and paradigms:
Intellectual capital management and measurement theories and models.
Qualitative research methodology based on the hermeneutic paradigm. It was
selected because, the methodology of social research states, that positivistic
paradigm is less efficient when it is needed to research hardly tangible, subjective
objects. Those features are the attributes of intellectual capital, which is primarily
related to the intellectual assets potential to generate value.
Strategic management process model (Jucevi čius, 1998).
Epistemologies dominating in the literature on the organizational theories,
sociology and philosophy (especially social constructivism influenced by
postmodernism), which defined the nature and essence of knowledge, as the main
component of IC.
Knowledge management theory is a basis for evaluation of commonalities and
differences of knowledge management and ICM, also for specifying other aspects
of IC structure and management.
Methodology for increasing organizational knowing (Stankevi či ūt ė, 2002).
Preconditions of knowledge management activities were reasoned in the
methodology. Those precondition were used in the dissertation for reasoning model
verification criteria.

The following research methods were applied:
Analysis of research literature was applied for theoretical analysis of the problem,
while trying to highlight the conceptual and structural differences among various
intellectual capital interpretations, elaborate the structure of main IC components,
point the differences of ICM and knowledge management areas, also define the
place of ICM in the management system of the organization. This research method


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1.
was also applied for theoretical construction and reasoning of an intellectual capital
management model integrating strategic management process and ICM processes.
Finally, this method was used for reasoning the methodology for researching the
possibilities for ICM model application.
Observation, case study and interview methods were applied in the knowledge
organization „X” (1999-2003) and its results used for modeling ICM. However,
those methods were primarily dedicated for the verification of the theoretically
constructed model. Whole empirical research was executed as one case study in
two related organizations. Interview of external experts was selected in addition
striving for higher reliability of empirical data.

Scientific novelty and results of the dissertation are defined by the following:
1. Revision of the concept of IC, defining it as an intellectual asset having the
potential to generate value.
2. The IC structure and the scientific approach toward IC components was specified
and elaborated upon in more detail and from a different perspective after
completing the following actions:
a) revised concept of IC and related value generating potentiality characteristic of
intellectual assets were taken into account when defining IC subcomponents;
b) IC structure was represented as an UML class diagram;
c) the labeling of primary IC parts was critically reviewed and adjusted based on
the findings;
d) the existing structural IC models were compared to each other and with the
models from related areas (McKinsey „7S”, etc.), and based upon the findings
they were reclassified, resulting in the suggested upgrade of IC structure.
3. The integrated function of ICM was theoretically reasoned as the function of
strategic management level in the organization.
4. The strategic management process model has been modified by incorporating ICM
as integrated organization’s business function and modifications theoretically
grounded.
5. An intellectual capital management model that integrates the main aspects of
strategic management process and intellectual capital management processes was
introduced.
6. Unified modeling language (further UML) was applied for modeling ICM for the
first time.

Practical significance of the research:
1. An improved strategic management model allows an organization to consider its
intellectual capital as one of the strategic values generators before making
organization-wide strategic decisions.
2. The developed ICM model to be applied in the organization’s corporate and
business strategies implementation stage of the overall strategic management


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process provides the step-by-step guidelines for management personnel on how to
formulate ICM functional strategy and implement it. ICM strategic alternatives are
suggested.

Approbation of research results:
The presentations on the dissertation topic were presented in 3 conferences, out of
which one was the international 24th McMaster World Congress, held 15-17th
January, 2003, where doctoral consortium was organized for the first time in order
to approbate the scientific problems in the area of ICM, KM and e-business and
provide advice by world-wide recognized experts from the area.
Research results were discussed with the managers from various knowledge
organizations; the managers of the researched organization reviewed case study
results.
Academic review of the research results was going on through several iterations in
the seminars organized by Strategic Management Department at the Kaunas
University of Technology for doctoral students and business executives.



CONTENT OF THE DISSERTATION

INTRODUCTION

1. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF CURRENT STATUS OF ICM

1.1. DESCRIPTION OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL

1.2. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS AND DETALIZATION OF IC STRUCTURE
1.2.1. Theoretical analysis of structural models of intellectual capital
1.2.2. The essence and structure of human capital
1.2.3. The essence and structure of organizational capital
1.2.3.1. Innovational capital
1.2.3.2. Proprietal capital
1.2.3.3. Infrastructural capital
1.2.4. The essence and structure of social capital

1.3. SPECIFICS OF INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
1.3.1. Analysis and definition of ICM concept
1.3.2. The place of ICM in the common management process of organization
1.3.3. Analysis of the relations between ICM and KM
1.3.4. Comparative analysis of current IC management models


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2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND ORGANIZATION

2.1. REASONING OF THE SELECTION OF RESEARCH PARADIGM

2.2. MAIN RESEARCH STAGES AND METHODS
2.2.1. Organization and theoretical basis of construction stage
2.2.2. Reasoning of the design of evaluation stage
2.2.3. Methodological guidelines of the case study protocol

3. ICM MODELLING IN THE STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESS

3.1. THEORETICAL CONSTRUCTION OF ICM IN THE STRATEGIC
MANAGEMENT PROCESS
3.1.1. Description of ICM actors
3.1.2. Complementation of strategic management process with IC
3.1.3. Modeling ICM as the part of strategies implementation stage
3.1.3.1. Environment analysis in the ICM model
3.1.3.2. Formulation of ICM goals and strategies
3.1.3.3. Implementation of ICM strategy
3.1.3.4. Control of ICM strategy implementation

3.2. EMPIRICAL EVALUATION OF SUGGESTED ICM MODEL
3.2.1. Representation of the strategic management in the knowledge organizations
3.2.2. Environment analysis with ICM focus
3.2.3. Formulation of ICM strategies
3.2.4. Implementation of ICM strategy
3.2.5. Strategic control of ICM
3.2.6.Analysis of possibilities for ICM model implementation
3.2.7. Generalization of the ICM model evaluation results and further research
directions

CONCLUSIONS

REFERENCES
AUTHOR’S PUBLICATIONS
APPENDICES


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