Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants

Qualification, training, licensing and retraining of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants

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Presentation of different procedures in the countries of the European Community, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA
Nuclear energy and safety

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EURto-"*
Commission of the European Communities
nuclear science and technology
Qualification, training, licensing and retraining
of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants
Presentation of different procedures in the countries
of the European Community, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA u e
Commission of the European Communities
nuclear science and technology
Qualification, training, licensing and retraining
of operating shift personnel in nuclear power plants
Presentation of different procedures in the countries
of the European Community, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the USA
W. Pfeffer, A. Kraut
Gesellschaft fur Reaktorsicherheit GmbH, Koln
Glockengasse 2
D-5000 Koln
Contract No ECI-1056-B7221-83-D
Final report
Directorate-General
Science, Research and Development
1985 Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Information Market and Innovation
Batiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of the n is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1985
ISBN 92-825-5747-2 Catalogue number: CD-NE-85-096-EN-C
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels ■ Luxembourg, 1985
Printed in Belgium TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page:
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. SHIFT STAFFING AND STAFFING OF THE CONTROL ROOM
2.0 Preliminary Note 5
2.1 Practice 10
2.2 Summary 27
2.3 Noteworthy Topics 3
3. CRITERIA FOR THE SELECTION OF PERSONNEL
3.0 Preliminary Note3
3.1 Practice
3.2 Summary 47
3.3 Noteworthy Topics9
4. NECESSARY ENTRANCE QUALIFICATION - CONDITIONED BY
EDUCATION, PRACTICAL TRAINING AND PRACTICAL
EXPERIENCE
4.1 Practice 51
4.2 Summary 72
4.3 Noteworthy Topics4
5. TRAINING OF PERSONNEL
5.1 Practice5
5.2 Summary 128
5.3 Noteworthy Topics 132
6. RETRAINING OF PERSONNEL
6.1 Practice7
6.2 Summary 15
6.3 Noteworthy Topics 160 7. TRAINING FACILITIES
7.0 Preliminary Note 163
7.1 Practice
7.2 Summary 206
7.3 Noteworthy Topics9
8. TRAINING-ORGANIZATION, RESPONSIBILITIES, COMPETEN­
CES
8.1 Practice 213
8.2 Summary7
8.3 Noteworthy Topics
9. LICENSING/AUTHORIZATION
9.1 Practice9
9.2 Summary 245
9.3 Noteworthy Topics7
10. RETIREMENT FROM SHIFT WORK
10.0 Premliminary Note9
10.1 Practice
10.2 Summary 251
10.3 Noteworthy Topics
REFERENCES R 1
ANNEXES
- IV INTRODUCTION
One of the major prerequisites for the safe operation of nuclear
power plants is the sufficient qualification of the operation
staff - especially of the responsible shift personnel-the training
of the staff as well as the preservation of the qualification by
appropriate retraining.
The publication of the Commission of the European Communities
(CEC) "Safety principles for light water reactor nuclear power
plants" /CEC 81a/ describes fundamental and general safety prin­
ciples the objectives of which are "to avoid accidents and to
limit the radiological consequences of the operation of the nu­
clear power plant during all operational states and accident con­
ditions" . In its part II, item 11 it postulates as a safety prin­
ciple among others, that "the personnel must be sufficiently
qualified and trained to perform the required tasks".
In principle there are various ways to reach the necessary quali­
fication standard; depending on the plant design (e.g. automation
degree of plant operation), different training objectives may be
necessary, so that in some countries differences concerning the
acquisition and preservation of the qualification standard are to
be expected.
This study aims at evaluating and compiling the proceedings ap­
plied in the countries of the European Communities (EC), Spain,
Sweden, Switzerland, and the USA (as a supplement), in order to
present information on foreign practices and to derive a fundamen­
tal and generally valid basis concerning the staff training and fur-
- 1 ther aspects involved (e.g. shift staffing, number of shifts, techni­
cal means for training). Furthermore, particularities shall be shown
and proposed for possible discussion.
For this task it may be useful to choose a structure which treats
each topic as a unit, e.g. conclusive for all countries concerned
including summary and emphasis on discussion themes.
This proceeding, although rendering it difficult to gain a survey
of the qualification system of the single country, however, im­
proves the comprehension of the particular subjects.
The following subjects are dealt with:
- Shift staffing and staffing of the control room
- Criteria for personnel selection
- Personnel qualification (including education, training, expe­
rience, fitness)
- Training and retraining:
•g programs and procedures (e.g. initial training,
revision training, operational courses)
• Training facilities (e.g. utility, training center,
simulator)
- Licensing/authorization (e.g. validityof license, content of
examination)
- The functions to be performed by duly authorized persons
- Retirement from shift work.
To a certain extent and as far as necessary the training and
education organization will also be considered.
A description of the tasks and work of the shift personnel (duly
authorized persons), which may be useful as an introduction, is
given in section 2.0 to facilitate the comparison of shift per­
sonnel in different countries . The information that can be found
in IAEA Safety Guide SG01, section 2.2.1.3 /IAEA 79/ is added in
table 2.0-0.
The countries of the EC, where power units are run for electri­
city generation, i.e. Belgium (B), Federal Republic of Germany (D),
France (F), Italy (I), the Netherlands (NL), the United Kingdom (UK) and additionally Switzerland (CH), Spain (E), Sweden (S) and the
United States of America (USA) are taken into consideration.
According to the directions of the CEC, this study is based on
the evaluation of EC-documents and on general publications and
reports. The results of this evaluation were discussed and
supplemented by a subgroup of the "Working Group on the Safety
of Light Water Reactors" (WG 1). This subgroup was joined
by specialists from CH, E, S. It should, however, be mentioned
that the information concerning the practice in the USA was not
discussed and bases only on documents and papers.
The authors want to express their appreciation to those who
responded to the survey and to special questions submitted.
Especially they are indebted to the members of the ad hoc
subgroup "Operator Qualification and Training", who supported
this work by fruitful discussions and submission of special
information.