Remifentanil versus fentanyl for analgesia based sedation to provide patient comfort in the intensive care unit: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial [ISRCTN43755713]
11 pages
English
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Remifentanil versus fentanyl for analgesia based sedation to provide patient comfort in the intensive care unit: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial [ISRCTN43755713]

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En savoir plus
11 pages
English

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This double-blind, randomized, multicentre study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of remifentanil and fentanyl for intensive care unit (ICU) sedation and analgesia. Methods Intubated cardiac, general postsurgical or medical patients (aged ≥ 18 years), who were mechanically ventilated for 12–72 hours, received remifentanil (9 μg/kg per hour; n = 77) or fentanyl (1.5 μg/kg per hour; n = 75). Initial opioid titration was supplemented with propofol (0.5 mg/kg per hour), if required, to achieve optimal sedation (i.e. a Sedation–Agitation Scale score of 4). Results The mean percentages of time in optimal sedation were 88.3% for remifentanil and 89.3% for fentanyl (not significant). Patients with a Sedation–Agitation Scale score of 4 exhibited significantly less between-patient variability in optimal sedation on remifentanil (variance ratio of fentanyl to remifentanil 1.84; P = 0.009). Of patients who received fentanyl 40% required propofol, as compared with 35% of those who received remifentanil (median total doses 683 mg and 378 mg, respectively; P = 0.065). Recovery was rapid (median time to extubation: 1.1 hours for remifentanil and 1.3 hours for fentanyl; not significant). Remifentanil patients who experienced pain did so for significantly longer during extubation (6.5% of the time versus 1.4%; P = 0.013), postextubation (10.2% versus 3.6%; P = 0.001) and post-treatment (13.5% versus 5.1%; P = 0.001), but they exhibited similar haemodynamic stability with no significant differences in adverse event incidence. Conclusion Analgesia based sedation with remifentanil titrated to response provided effective sedation and rapid extubation without the need for propofol in most patients. Fentanyl was similar, probably because the dosing algorithm demanded frequent monitoring and adjustment, thereby preventing over-sedation. Rapid offset of analgesia with remifentanil resulted in a greater incidence of pain, highlighting the need for proactive pain management when transitioning to longer acting analgesics, which is difficult within a double-blind study but would be quite possible under normal circumstances.

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Publié le 01 janvier 2003
Nombre de lectures 15
Langue English

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Available onlinehttp://ccforum.com/content/8/1/R1
Open Access Research Remifentanil versus fentanyl for analgesia based sedation to provide patient comfort in the intensive care unit: a randomized, doubleblind controlled trial [ISRCTN43755713] 1 2 3 4 5 Bernd Muellejans , Angel López , Michael H Cross , César Bonome , Lachlan Morrison 6 and Andrew JT Kirkham
1 Director of Anaesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine, Klinikum Karlsburg, Herzund Diabeteszentrum MecklenburgVorpommern Klinik für Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin, Karlsburg, Germany 2 Consultant Anaesthesiologist, Servicio de Medicina Intensiva, Hospital Universitario Infanta Cristina, Badajoz, Spain 3 Consultant Anaesthetist, Department of Anaesthesia, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK 4 Attending Staff, Department of Anaesthesiology, Hospital Juan Canalejo, Servicio de Anestesiologia y Reanimación, La Coruña, Spain 5 Consultant in Anaesthetics and Intensive Care, Department of Anaesthesia, St. John’s Hospital, Livingston, UK 6 Global Study Manager, GlaxoSmithKline Research and Development, Greenford, UK
Correspondence: Bernd Muellejans, dr.muellejans@drguth.de
Received: 2 October 2003
Accepted: 16 October 2003
Published: 20 November 2003
Critical Care2004,8:R1R11 (DOI 10.1186/cc2398) This article is online at http://ccforum.com/content/8/1/R1 © 2004 Muellejanset al., licensee BioMed Central Ltd (Print ISSN 13648535; Online ISSN 1466609X). This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.
Abstract IntroductionThis doubleblind, randomized, multicentre study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of remifentanil and fentanyl for intensive care unit (ICU) sedation and analgesia. MethodsIntubated cardiac, general postsurgical or medical patients (aged18 years), who were mechanically ventilated for 12–72 hours, received remifentanil (9µg/kg per hour;nor fentanyl= 77) (1.5µg/kg per hour;nmg/kg per= 75). Initial opioid titration was supplemented with propofol (0.5 hour), if required, to achieve optimal sedation (i.e. a Sedation–Agitation Scale score of 4). ResultsThe mean percentages of time in optimal sedation were 88.3% for remifentanil and 89.3% for fentanyl (not significant). Patients with a Sedation–Agitation Scale score of 4 exhibited significantly less betweenpatient variability in optimal sedation on remifentanil (variance ratio of fentanyl to remifentanil 1.84;P= 0.009). Of patients who received fentanyl 40% required propofol, as compared with 35% of those who received remifentanil (median total doses 683 mg and 378 mg, respectively; P= 0.065). Recovery was rapid (median time to extubation: 1.1 hours for remifentanil and 1.3 hours for fentanyl; not significant). Remifentanil patients who experienced pain did so for significantly longer during extubation (6.5% of the time versus 1.4%;Ppostextubation (10.2% versus 3.6%;= 0.013), P= 0.001) and posttreatment (13.5% versus 5.1%;P= 0.001), but they exhibited similar haemodynamic stability with no significant differences in adverse event incidence. ConclusionAnalgesia based sedation with remifentanil titrated to response provided effective sedation and rapid extubation without the need for propofol in most patients. Fentanyl was similar, probably because the dosing algorithm demanded frequent monitoring and adjustment, thereby preventing oversedation. Rapid offset of analgesia with remifentanil resulted in a greater incidence of pain, highlighting the need for proactive pain management when transitioning to longer acting analgesics, which is difficult within a doubleblind study but would be quite possible under normal circumstances.
Keywordsanalgesia, analgesia based sedation, critical care, fentanyl, propofol, remifentanil, renal function, sedation
HR = heart rate; ICU = intensive care unit; MAP = mean arterial pressure; PI = Pain Intensity (scale); SAPS = Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SAS = Sedation–Agitation Scale; SD = standard deviation.
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