COST transport

COST transport


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Transport policy
Environmental research



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Transport COST
TCT Chairman:
Mr. Pierre Debeusscher (F)
Conseil Général des Ponts et Chaussées
Fax: +33 1 40 81 23 94
COST Transport Secretariat
European Commission
Fax: +32 2 296 37 65
Actions' description Commission, which allows a permanent interaction
with the Framework Programmes' Transport RTD ac­
When talking about European Union Research activi­ tivities and the Transport Policy Directorates, en­
ties most people think about the European Union abling close collaboration between transport re­
Framework Programmes; it is less known that the Eu­ search activities and serving as a basis for further
ropean Union also plays a key role in the develop­ political action.
ment and co-ordination of the European Co-operation
in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST)COS. T Transport Actions are authorised and super­
vised by the COST Technical Committee on Trans­
COST is a Europe-wide framework, which supports port (TCT) which, in turn, reports to the COST Com­
the co-ordination of national research at European mittee of Senior Officials. Both of these decision
level, by setting up COST Actions in areas of nation­ making bodies comprise representatives of the na­
al and European interest. tional governments of the 32 COST countries. A list
of TCT members is included in this folder.
The transport area lends itself particularly well to the
COST framework, both because it combines aspects This folder contains a set of leaflets, each with a de­
from a number of disciplines, and because of the scription of a COST Action which is completed, on­
need for harmonisation at European level. Liaison going or in advanced preparation. These represent
with the transport ministries and administrations in an overview of activities since the outset of COST
the various countries is a key element of these COST Transport. The links between completed COST Ac­
Actions. With representatives of up to 22 countries tions and ongoing research activities, both in COST
participating in each Action, substantial benefits ac­ and the European Union Framework Programmes,
crue in terms of shared knowledge and reduced du­ are highlighted throughout the leaflets. These have
plication, resulting in a gearing effect on innovation. been clustered on the basis of the structure of the 5th
Framework Programme's key action on Sustainable
The COST Transport Secretariat is located within the Mobility and Intermodality, with which the synergies
Directorate General for Transport of the European are the most evident. By the end of 1999, the COST Transport domain en­ Actions underway
compassed 1 3 ongoing COST Actions with a total es­
timated budget of EURO 42.5 Million. 32 COST Ac­ COST 327 - Motorcycle Safety Helmets
tions have been completed and a further 4 are under COST 332 - Transport and Land-Use Policies
preparation. The complete list of COST Actions is giv­ COST 334 - Effects of Wide Single Tyres and Dual
en below. Tyres
COST 335 - Passengers' Accessibility of Heavy Rail
Completed Actions Systems
COST 336 - Use of Falling Weight Deflectometers
COST 30 - Electronic Traffic Aids on Major Roads in Pavement Evaluation
COST 30 bis - Electronic Traffic Aids on Major Roads: COST 337 - Unbound Granular Materials for Road
Demonstration Project and Further Re­ Pavements
search COST 339 - Small Containers
COST 301 - Shore Based Marine Navigation Systems COST 341 - Habitat Fragmentation due to Trans­
portation Infrastructure COST 302 - Technical and Economic Conditions
for the Use of Electric Road Vehicles COST 342 - Parking Policy Measures and their Ef­
COST 303 -l and Economic Evaluation of fects on Mobility and the Economy.
National Dual-mode Trolleybus Pro­ COST 343 - Reduction in Road Closures by Im­
grammes proved Maintenance Procedures.
COST 304 - Use of Alternative Fuels in Road Vehicles COST 344 - Improvements to Snow and Ice Con­
COST 305 - Data System for the Study of Demand trol on European Roads and Bridges
for Interregional Passenger Transport COST 345 - Procedures Required for Assessing
Highway Structures COST 306 - Automatic Transmission of Data Relat­
ing to Transport COST 346 - Emissions and Fuel Consumption from
COST 307 - Rational Use of Energy in Interregional Heavy Duty Vehicles
COST 308 - Maintenance of Ships Actions in preparation
COST 309 - Road Weather Conditions
COST 310 - Freight Transport Logistics COST 338 - Driver Visual Information Overload
COST 311 - Simulation of Maritime Traffic COST 340 - Towards a European Intermodal Trans­
COST 312 - Evaluation of the Effects of the Chan­ port Network: Lessons from History
nel Tunnel on Traffic Flows COST 347 - Pavement Research with Accelerated
COST 313- Socio-economic Cost of Road Acci­ Loading Testing Facilities
dents COST 348 - Reinforcement of Pavements with Steel
COST 314 - Express Delivery Services Meshes and Geosynthetics
COST 315 - Large Containers
COST 317 - Socio-economic Effects of the Channel
Tunnel The information provided within this folder can also
COST 318- Interactions between High-speed Rail be obtained via the COST Transport web site at the
and Air Passenger Transport following address:
COST 319 - Estimation of Pollutant Emissions from home.html. In addition to this information, which is
Transport updated on a regular basis, the web site also provides
information on the events organised within the COST COST 320 - The Impact of E.D.I, on Transport
Transport domain, on the newly publicised reports, COST 321 - Urban Goods Transport
as well as instructions on how to submit a research COST 322 - Low Floor Buses
project in COST. COST 323 - Weigh-in-Motion of Road Vehicles
COST 324 - Long Term Performance of Road Pave­
ments The publications mentioned in this folder can be ob­
COST 325 - New Pavement Monitoring Equip­ tained via one of the sales office of OPOCE, for which
ment and Methods you will find the addresses on the inside of the fold­
er. All publications are available in English; translation COST 326 - Electronic Charts for Navigation
may be available in other languages (see leaflets for COST 328 - Integrated Strategic Transport Infras­
details). tructure Networks in Europe
COST 329 - Models for Traffic and Safety Develop­
ment and Interventions
COST 330 - Teleinformatics Links between Ports
and their Partners
COST 331 - Requirements for Horizontal Road
COST 333 - Development of New Bituminous
Pavement Design Method Duration: Participation:
5 years, 12 COST countries: A, B,
to September 2004. CH, D, DK, E, FIN, H, I, NL,
COST 346
Dr. Peter Sturm (A)
Technical University Graz
Fax: +43 316 873 80 80
COST Transport Secretariat
European Commission
Fax: + 32 2 296 37 65
Objectives The following steps will be undertaken:
The main objective of the Action is to develop an im­ • Definition of the detailed work programme;
proved methodology for estimating pollutant emis­ • Preparation of measurement;
sions and fuel consumption from commercial road • Measurement programme on emissions;
transport operated with Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV's) • Data definition and collection programme - statis­
in Europe. The methods should make it possible to tics;
estimate the emissions [g/km] from single vehicles as
• Development of models and validation;
well as from vehicle fleets. The activities will be con­
• Final report and dissemination.
centrated on improving the amount and quality of
basic data on emissions and transport activity, as well
as validating and improving existing models.
The greenhouse gas emission reduction targets
Programme/Deliverables agreed at Kyoto represent a first step to reduce emis­
sions in the long term in order to stabilise the Earth's
COST 346 deals with the subject of estimation of air climate. The European Union has made an important
pollutant emissions caused by HDV's. The scientific contribution to the Kyoto agreement and the Euro­
work programme will be structured to today's needs pean Commission intends to develop a strategy to
and a European database of emission related infor­ reach the Union's Kyoto target. This will require ac­
mation for HDV's will be developed. Basic data for tion in all sectors of the economy including the trans­
emission estimates, emission models and activity da­ port sector.
ta will be included. This database can then be used
to estimate the energy consumption and emissions
C02 accounts for about 80% of the total global
of HDV's as functions of vehicle types, traffic condi­
warming potential of all six greenhouse gases cov­
tions and road/street characteristics.
ered by the Kyoto protocol. In the European Union the share of transport C02 emissions in total in­ Related activities
creased from 19% in 1985 to 26% in 1995. Road
traffic is the most important source, and largely de­ COST 319 - Estimation of Pollutant Emissions from
termines the trend in the transport sector; and road Transport
freight accounts for about 35% of transport C02 4th Framework Transport RTD Programme - Strate­
emissions. As well as C02, road freight transport gic sector (MEET project)
causes considerable amounts of other pollutant emis­ Communication from the European Commission
sions. With a share of approximately 75% of particu­ on Transport and C02 - [COM(98)204 final]
late (PM) emissions and about 60% of oxides of ni­
trogen (NOx) emissions, road freight transport is the
most important source of these pollutants within the
total transport sector.
Up to now a huge number of measurements of road
vehicle emissions have been made. But less than 1%
of the available data is related to HDV's. This means
that, although the road freight transport is recog­
nised as a major polluter, the knowledge about the
real emission behaviour of this group of vehicles is
very poor.
The estimated costs for the measurement of HDV
emissions and fuel consumption are of the order of
EURO 50,000 per engine. The co-ordination of the
research work on a European level in order to archive
the best results with the limited amount of scientific
and financial resources is therefore essential for an ef­
fective development in this field.
Benefits to different users
The potential users of the output of COST 346 in­
clude all those dealing with environmental problems
of transport, who may have many roles in society. In
general, they will belong to one of the following
• public authorities like ministries, public depart­
ments, administrative bodies etc.;
• Non-Governmental organisations (NGOs);
• scientific organisations like universities, research in­
stitutes etc.;
• industrial and engineering companies;
• associations that deal with traffic like driving
schools, freight companies etc.;
• interested individuals.
COST countries Signatories
Cover picture Legal Notice
European Commission © BUWAL/Docuphot Neither the European Commission, nor
Directorate-General Transport any person acting on behalf of the
Directorate E - Development of Transport Policy; Research and Commission, is responsible for the use
Development which might be made of the informa­
Research and Development, in Particular Intermodal and Strate tion herewith.
gie Aspects; COST The views expressed in this leaflet do
Rue de la Loi 200 - B-1 049 Brussels not necessarily reflect the views of the
European Commission. Duration: Participation:
3 years; 11 COST Countries: A, B,
to April 2002. CH, CZ, DK, E, PL, RO, S, u
COST 345
Κ- '
Dr. Ken Brady (UK) WM
Transport Research Laboratory
Fax: +44 1 344 77 06 48
E-mail: f" *
„ft .
COST Transport Secretariat
European Commission i
Fax: + 32 2 296 37 65
» E-mail: /f pr
URL: ... . .
cost-transport/home.html -Hf. -ΊΕ*^ f i 9
Objectives Background
The main objective of COST 345 is to identify the Bridges, earth retaining walls, tunnels, culverts and
procedures and documentation required to inspect the like make up a substantial proportion of the fixed
and assess the condition of in-service highway struc­ assets of the land based transportation infrastructure,
tures, for example bridges, earth retaining walls, tun­ such as the Trans-European Network (TERN). The
nels and culverts. The Action will also: stock of such structures has been accumulating in de­
veloped countries over the years: some in-service
structures on the highway network predate the 20th - define the requirements for future research work,
century and a number of masonry arch bridges date - provide information on the stock of highway struc­
back to Roman times. tures - this can be used as input to budgetary plans
for maintenance works and operating cost models
and also for establishing recommendations for con­ Whilst considerable effort has been put into the de­
struction options, and velopment of new standards and codes for the de­
- identify those structures not amenable to simple sign of new structures, comparatively little has been
numerical analysis. done on the development of documents covering
the assessment of existing structures. This Action
aims to address that inbalance. In the absence of ad­Programme/Deliverables
equate documentation for inspection and assessment
there will be a natural tendency to assess stability us­• Development of Highway Structures Database.
ing the rules given in extant documents which cover • Assessment ofys.
the design of new structures. • Determination of Future European Requirements.
• Specification of Procedures.
But such an approach may be inapplicable and in • Development of Budgetary Planning Guidelines.
•t of Construction Guidelines. many cases is likely to underestimate the inherent
• Generation of Final Report. stability of a wide range of structures. In some cases it may lead to the unnecessary replacement or Related activities
strengthening of existing structures with all the at­
tendant costs of traffic delays. On the other hand, a 4th Framework Transport RTD Programme Road
reliable system of inspection, assessment and main­ sector (BRIME Project).
tenance is required to ensure the safety of the public
at large. What is required, therefore, is a system of as­
sessment within which longevity and structural con­
dition are qualitatively or quantitatively balanced
against the factors of safety specified in current de­
sign standards. This Action aims to identify what the
features of such a system should be and what is re­
quired for it to be established.
Benefits to different users
In European terms, the development and application
of reliable inspection, assessment and maintenance
procedures to the highway network in Europe would
ensure the continued high performance of the net­
work and, potentially, could save billions of ECU's in
construction, maintenance and traffic delay costs.
The end-users of the results of this Action include In­
ternational, National and Local Government highway
organisations and agencies, construction companies
and the technical and scientific world. At the Inter­
national and National levels, the data collected as
part of this study could influence matters of policy re­
garding safety and the administration and operation
of highways. It will also be of interest to different
parts of the institutions for decision making in the ar­
eas of transport policy, legislation, and research and
At a regional or local level, engineers charged with
the upkeep of a section of highway infrastructure
would benefit from the availability of information on
methods of inspection, assessment and analysis, and
from improved whole life cost models: together
these would improve the efficiency of operations,
provide more reliable predictions of expenditure, and
assist in the planning and execution of inspection
and maintenance works. Such information would al­
so be of benefit to road operators and contractors
concerned with maintenance works.
Signatories COST countries
Legal Notice
European Commission Neither the European Commission, nor
Directorate-General Transport any person acting on behalf of the
Directorate E - Development of Transport Policy; Research and Commission, is responsible for the use
which might be made of the informa­Development
Research and Development, in Particular Intermodal and Strate tion herewith.
gie Aspects; COST The views expressed in this leaflet do
Rue de la Loi 200 - B-1049 Brussels not necessarily reflect the views c
European Commission. Duration: Participation: COST
3 years ; 13 COST Countries: A, B, ^^
to April 2002. CH, D, DK, E, FIN, H, IRL, ^ΙΙΨ
COST 344
Mrs. Marilyn Burtwell (UK)
Transport Research Laboratory - TRL
Fax: +44 1 344 77 03 56
COST Transport Secretariat
European Commission
Fax: + 32 2 296 37 65
Objectives • Development of objective criteria and benchmarks
at European level.
COST 344 aims to review snow and ice control meth­ • Establishment of terms of reference for the devel­
ods and examine ways of improving them to provide opment of safety and environmental standards at
'best value' in terms of road network management European level.
and maintenance and assessment of the efficiency of
the methods adopted. It also aims to reduce envi­ Background
ronmental impact and harmonise safety and environ­
mental standards. It will thus provide guidance to de­ Effective snow and ice control is a vital service for Eu­
cision makers, aimed at ensuring that improved snow ropean governments to ensure road users can travel
and ice control methods are based on best practice. safely and with minimum disruption in very cold and
severe climatic conditions. It is important that the
service is provided at an affordable price and best val­Programme/Deliverables
ue achieved with minimum environmental impact.
• Assessment of snow and ice control methods.
• Identification of improvements to snow and ice Benefits to Different Users
control methods and management of the process.
• Assessment of the safety and economics of road The scientific users of the results of COST 344 are re­
traffic in winter conditions. searchers in the field of winter maintenance. The Ac­
tion will generate the basis for full-scale European ex­•t of real time information to road users
periment and evaluation of improved winter through telematics.
measures to be carried out under a future Transport • Assessment of de-icer products and their environ­
Programme of the Fifth Framework Programme for mental impact.
Research and Development. •t of developments in Road Weather In­
formation Systems. The Action will promote exploitation of technological Related Activities
advances in application and distribution of snow and
ice control measures leading to significant environ­ - COST 309 - Road Weather Conditions
mental benefits. Millions of ECUs will be saved - SERRP (Strategic European Road Research Pro­
through lower operational costs and a reduction in gramme)
adverse effects on highway infrastructure and the en­ - US SHRP (Strategic Highway Research Programme)
For the road users, more effective management of
winter operations will lead to reduced traffic delays
and accidents.
Signatories COST countries
Legal Notice
European Commission Neither the European Commission, nor
Directorate-General Transport any person acting on behalf of the
Directorate E - Development of Transport Policy; Research and Commission, is responsible for the use
Development which might be made of the informa­
Research and Development, in Particular Intermodal and Strate­ tion herewith.
gic Aspects; COST The views expressed in this leaflet do
Rue de la Loi 200 - B-1049 Brussels not necessarily reflect the views of the
European Commission.