Commission of the European Communities
environment and
quality of life
Heavy metals:
Identification of air quality
and environmental problems
in the European Community
Volume 1 Commission of the European Communities
lualii
Heavy metals:
Identification of air quality
and environmental problems
in the European Community
Volume 1
E. Lahmann,1 S. Munari,2 V. Amicarelli,2 P. Abbaticchio2
Coordination: R. Gabellieri2
1 Bundesgesundheitsamt
Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany
2 Istituto Chimica Applicata
Università di Bari
Bari, Italy
Contract No 84­B­6642­11 ­016­11 ­Ν
PA
Directorate­General
lea/· 'Safety. Environment, Consumer Protection and Nuc
ŒUR 10678 EN/I 1986 Published by the
COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES
Directorate-General
Telecommunications, Information Industries and Innovation
Bâtiment Jean Monnet
LUXEMBOURG
LEGAL NOTICE
Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on
behalf of then is responsible for the use which might be made of the
following information
ISBN 92-825-6837-7 (Volume 2)
ISBN 92-825-6838-5 (Volumes 1 + 2)
This document has been reproduced from the best original available
Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication
Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1987
ISBN 92-825-6836-9 Catalogue number: CD-NA-10678-EN-C
© ECSC-EEC-EAEC, Brussels · Luxembourg, 1987
Printed in Belgium Acknowledgements
The authors wish to aknowledge the assistance of Dr. Peter
Stief-Tauch, Chief of the Department of atmosphere pollution,
of Dr. K.H.Zierock and of Mr Bartaire, national experts
detached to the Commission of the European Communities (DG XI),
in respect of helpful discussion and ideas throughout this
study, as well as the assistance of collegues in Member States
of the European Communities, having assisted by providing
reports, publications and other informations on the subject of
this study. Much of this information has been incorporated
direcly or indirectly into this report.
Ill — CONTENTS
Page
Executive summary IX
1. INTRODUCTION - GENERAL ASPECTS 1
2. HEAVY METALS EMISSIONS 3
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Emissions 4
2.2.1. ELectric power plants
2.2.2. Wood furnaces 5
2.2.3. Non ferrous metaLs operations
2.2.4. Iron and steeL making
2.2.5. Cement production 6
2.2.6. Wastes incineration
2.2.7. Production of fertilizers 7
2.3. Heavy metals emission evaluation
2.3.1. Limits of Pacyna's approach 9
2.3.2. Comparison with data provided in literature
and comments 10
References (for § 2.)2
3. HEAVY METALS EMISSIONS - CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES 16
3.1. Types of emission sources
3.1.1. Single point sources6
3.1.2. Diffuse process sources
3.1.3. Open sources 1
— V — 3.2. Dedusting equipments 17
3.2.1. CentrifugaL separators9
3.2.2. Liquid scrubbers 20
3.2.3. CLoth collectors2
3.2.4. Electrical precipitators3
3.2.5. Packed beds5
3.3. Cost of dust collection
3.4. Concluding remarks 26
References (for § 3.)7
4. TRANSPORT OF HEAVY METAL CONTAINING PARTICLES 28
4.1. Vicinity of single sources
4.2. Long range transport9
References (for § 4.) 31
5. AMBIENT AIR POLLUTION4
5.1. Measuring programs in the Member States and their
results
5.1.1. Belgium 3
5.1.2. Denmark5
5.1.3. Federal Republic of Germany
5.1.3.1. Suspended particulates6
5.1.3.2. Deposition8
5.1.4. France 3
5.1.5. Greece9
5.1.6. Ireland
5.1.7. Italy
5.1.8. Luxembourg 40
5.1.9. The Netherlands
— VI — 5.1.10. United Kingdom 41
5.1.11. Internationalprogrammeof deposition
measurements(FAO)45
5.1.12. Remote areas45
5.1.13. Summary 45
5.1.13.1.Concentrations46
5.1.13.2.Deposition49
5.2.TrendinairpoLLution by heavy metals51
5.3.Propertiesofairborne dust containing heavy
metals52
5.3.1. Particle size52
5.3.2. Solubility 53
5.3.3. Volatility54
5.4.Determinationof heavy metal content in the
atmosphere55
5.4.1. Sampling55
5.4.2. Samplepreparation55
5.4.3. Analytical techniques 56
5.4.3.1. Spectrophotometry56
5.4.3.2. Atomic-absorptionspectrometry (AAS) 56
5.4.3.3. Atomic-fluorescencey(AFS)57
5.4.3.4. Inductively coupled plasma atomic-emission
spectrometry (ICP-AES)57
5.4.3.5. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (RFA) 58
5.4.3.6. Neutron-activation analysis (ΝΑΛ)58
5.4.3.7. Comparison of analytical techniques53
References (for § 5.) 66
—VII-6. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND RELATED PROBLEMS 77
6.1. Impact on human health 7
6.1.1. Pathways of air pollutants
6.1.2. Deposition of heavy metals8
6.1.3. Indoor air pollution9
6.1.4. Evaluation by the World Health Organisation 80
6.1.5. Ambient air quality standards for heavy metals1
6.1.6. Intake by water and food 82
6.2. Impact on the environment
References (for § 6.)8
7. CONTROL STRATEGY 90
7.1. Emission inventory
7.2. Clean technology
7.3. Uncontrolled emissions1
7.4. Strategy for group of metals depending on their
toxicity 9
7.5. Emission limits
7.6. Ambient air quality criteria and limit values 92
References (for § 7.)5
8. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 96
VIII —